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The most fruitful type of creative organizations, according to the authors, are designed along the lines of what they call ambidextrous organizations, "where the breakthrough efforts were organized as structurally independent units, each having its own processes, structures, and cultures but integrated into the existing senior management hierarchy" (Reilly & Tushman 2004: 2). One example of this is the U.S.A. Today organization, which shelters a wide array of newspapers and other news sources under its umbrella. On one hand, all member newspapers are somewhat distinct, serving a regional or specialty audience or having a unique 'brand.' But by sharing information between the newspapers, a high level of quality is maintained that is mutually beneficial for all of the participants in the network.
Companies that thrive must also know what type of change is required by the market environment. While sometimes small, sustained changes can be beneficial, at other times companies must take radical efforts to outpace competitors, like the upstart contact lens company CIBA Vision, when it strove to challenge pharmaceutical behemoth Johnson & Johnson. It launched "six formal development projects, each focused on a revolutionary change. Four entailed new products, including daily disposables and extended-wear lenses, and two involved new manufacturing processes. In a controversial but necessary move, he [the CEO] canceled dozens of small R&D initiatives for conventional lenses to free up cash for the breakthrough efforts" Reilly & Tushman 2004: 4). The CEO, even while he allowed R&D a great deal of leeway, also strove to integrate the management of the multinational company, to ensure a coherence of mission in an 'ambidextrous' fashion.
Being ambidextrous means able to be a mold-breaker, yet also staying true to the company spirit, purpose, mission, and sense of fellowship. Through incremental, architectural, and discontinuous innovation the company must ensure that a thirst for future innovation is built into its corporate culture, even while it strives to meet the demands of the moment. An existing company must hold onto its existing business and customers, even while it fights the forces of complacency and inertia that can hamper its future. The task is challenging, but the examples cited by O'Reilly and Tushman underline the fact that it is essential for a company to do so, if it wishes to remain a lasting success.
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