Essay Instructions: topic : • Osteoporosis in young and old women
a) You must review, analyze the topic you choose from at least three journals related to the same topic
a typed 3-page double-spaced) document, not including your name, course No. and title of your paper.
c) The 2-3 journal articles of the same topic you choose to review must come from peer-reviewed scientific journals such as the International Journal of Sports Medicine, Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise (MSSE), American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Physician and Sports Medicine, etc.
includes properly cited references, (i.e., the authors, title of the article, journal published, the volume, pages and year published).
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: 1. Paper needs to be in MLA format.
2. 8 pages.
3. A suasive paper with 2 of the 6 virtues of a narrative argument (Herrick style).
3a. Must show originality.
4. Paper must be in a narrative argument form.
5. No abstract, DO NOT WRITE AS A TRADITIONAL RESEARCH PAPER. THIS PAPER MUST BE ARGUMENTATIVE AND SUASIVE TO THE READER.
6. The topic I have chosen is on STRENGTH TRAINING AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
7. I wrote the paper I will attach to this below for you to use as a reference. It was returned to me and I was told this was too much like a research paper. I need to be more personal and show argument on the topic.
8. The paper should have titles such as : Warm Up, Stretching, Working out, Running, Stretching again for a total fitness program.
9. Personal Experiences must be used: On the information below, I have put in a personal interview with Mike Barwis. Mike is my personal trainer. His training program can be used as "my personal experiences".
10. Works Cited page is required.
11. I am assuming the paper should open up discussing the topic and show some argument, moving into strength training for better athletic performance and show argument that in order to develop an elite athlete, one must condition with weightlifting, running, and strength.
12. Assessment of the paper will be based on the overall success in using a suasive of persuasiveness and the ability to balance personal and academic research. Need to include experience, reflection and appeal to the audience. Delivery of a narrative suasive (argumentive) form throughout the paper with a conclusion.
Below is the first writing I had on the topic -- ended up telling me to start over and that everything was here that I needed to do, just in a different suasive format.
HOPE YOU CAN HELP!
Previously written document:
Strength Training and Athletic Performance
The research focuses on determining the degree to which football coaches and trainers employ personalized strength and weight training regimens to assist their athletes in gaining strength, endurance, and overall improvements in conditioning, leading to enhanced performance. A review of literature was employed to answer the two research questions that were asked: 1) to what degree do coaches use strength and weight training programs; and 2) what specific types of programs are employed and what are the benefits of these programs. It was anticipated that strength/weight training programs would be utilized as facilitating sports development and enhanced athletic performance.
In recent years weight training or resistance training has become increasingly popular with athletes who are involved in a wide range of sports. Today, many recreational athletes and fitness-oriented individuals have begun to recognize the performance-enhancing, body-shaping and even medicinal value of incorporating weight training into their lives.
Weight training, a term often used synonymously with strength training, is a type of resistance training using barbells, dumbbells, or machines to increase strength (Weight training, 1998). An important principle of weight training is that if all the emphasis is placed upon gaining only muscular strength, the muscle will actually lose power. How can this be, you ask? If a muscle becomes stronger, doesn?t it automatically have more power? The answer is no. Muscle strength refers to the ability of the muscle to lift a given weight a given distance, with no regard to the time it takes to move the weight a given distance. In other words, the more weight you can lift when performing a bench press, the stronger you are. As a rule, when you are lifting really heavy weights to increase your strength, the speed of contraction is very slow due to the heaviness of the weight. However, training with lighter weights won?t make you a strong and muscular as training with heavier weights, it does increase strength and muscle development, but to a lesser degree. At the same time, this type of training increases power which is a vital component of most sports. Trading off a little strength for a gain in power is a smart strategy for recreational and elite athletes.
Athletic coaches are always searching for an edge that will put their teams in an advantageous competitive position; many coaches whose area of expertise is football regard strength training and weight lifting as excellent sources of development for honing the skills and abilities of their athletic teams (Bauer, 1996). Though strength training is only one of several ways to increase an athlete?s proficiency, speed, endurance, and ability to execute plays against an opponent, it has become in recent years a major source of sports team development.
This research will examine the literature on strength training and weight lifting as a means of enhancing athletes? performance. An interview with a strength and conditioning coach will also be considered. The questions will be advanced based on this review. Finally, a brief discussion and conclusion will complete the research.
Major Research Questions
Two research questions were posed. The first question is: to what degree do football coaches employ strength or weight training regimens to help condition football players for performance? The second research question is: what types of strength or weight training regimens do football coaches employ and what specific exercises are used based on the position that the athlete plays?
Football is a sport of power, strength, speed, endurance and finesse. Of all the sports, the need for resistance training in football is probably the most obvious. Conditioning programs and exercises for football must be sport specific (Football strategies, 2000). At whatever level a football player competes, the athlete who adds weight training and strength training to their regiment almost always demonstrates greater aptitude for the game. The weight rooms of high schools, colleges, and professional arenas are filled with football players year round. Coaches and trainers recommend that players use both an off-season strength/weight training program and an in-season Program, with the former structured to be the hardest and most intense, allowing the athlete to gain solid weigh and strength (Football strategies, 2000).
Mannie (1997) asserted that the physical development of football players is a multifaceted endeavor involving several key factors. Inherited attributes are essential, as there is no substitute for genetic potential. However, a year-round training regiment that includes weight/strength training will determine the degree to which a ?naturally talented? player increases his speed, strength, conditioning, and position-specific skills. Mannie (1997) recommends high-tension strength movements that progressively activate the ?fast-twitch? muscle fibers as the athlete approaches the point of momentary muscle fatigue. The rationale for this approach is that the more difficult the repetitions in a set of lifts or presses become, the more force that must be generated to complete the last, very intense repetitions.
In a strength or weight training program, the variables that must be monitored for quality control while training anaerobically in interval fashion include frequency, sets, repetitions, distance, intensity, relief interval, and duration (Mannie, 1997). Mannie (1997, as well as Bauer (1996) and Schoenfeld (1994) contend that football players participating in such training should have their programs designed by skilled trainers who then monitor performance and progress. Strength and weight training for specific body parts, including arms, legs, and trunk, must be included in an effective and comprehensive program (Schoenfeld, 1994).
Development training in football should include: 1) strength training; 2) resisted training; 3) overspeed (assisted) training; 4) pylometric exercises; 5) form running; and 6) interval training (Ebben & Blackard, 1998). Strength training not only builds vital muscle mass; it can also be invaluable in lengthening the athlete?s stride. Ebben and Blackard (1998) reported that all of the National Football League strength and conditioning coaches report the use of speed training, employing strength/power development exercises such as Olympic style lifts, squat, step up, leg press, lunge, and the dead lift for speed enhancement, stride lengthening, and increased muscle mass.
Bouche (1996) recommended that trainers should use a High Intensity Training (HIT) program in weight rooms. Such a program not only minimizes the time spent in training, but also maximizes the use of technologically advanced equipment such as Nautilus and Hammer machines along with free weights. The HIT program, properly implemented, reduces the time spent by players to 50 minutes through the application of forced repetitions and negative repetitions. Moreover, says Bouche (1996), the HIT method is safe because it focuses on the full range of motions and multiple repetitions, as opposed to multiple sets. Typically, an athlete using this approach will do 20 to 25 reps, then decrease the weight by 10 to 20 percent and continue for another 10 to 20 reps. The weightlifter may need help (forced reps) with the final few repetitions. To ensure maximum increases, lifters are required to completely fatigue the muscles.
Bouche (1996) described a typical HIT program as employing Bench, Squat (Oxbo bar), incline press, and dead lift regiments on Monday. On Wednesday, athletes participate in decline press, hang clean, lunges and push press exercises. On Friday, the athlete employs the bench, squat (Oxbo bar), and push press. The reps and percentage of weight used are changed from week to week. For core lifts, a change to multiple sets with high reps at different times of the year to avoid plateauing is recommended.
Bouche (1996) cautions that each athlete must be treated differently, based on his strength. This comment is echoed by Bauer (1996), who believes that individualized strength training and weight training programs must be developed for every football player participating in such programs. Every player, however, can benefit from an overall, full body conditioning program (Football strategies, 2000). This type of program prepares and maintains the muscles for the short, 100 percent intensity required to play the game.
However, it must be recognized that weight and strength training can lead to injuries if not properly programmed and supervised. Reeves, Laskowski, and Smith (1998) noted that over the past twenty years, weight training injuries have accounted for an estimated 43,400 emergency department visits out of a total of 5.6 million visits for all sports. Clearly, weight and strength training methods have the potential to harm as well as improve an athlete?s overall condition. Reeves, et al (1998) support strength gains and training programs, but recommend careful oversight to avoid poor technique and further recommend that younger players should not participate in this kind of training because of skeletal immaturity.
An interview was conducted with Mike Barwis, Director of Strength and Conditioning at West Virginia University. According to Barwis, the core region of the body has the most significant impact on athletic development and performance. The core (abdominals and low back) is the link between the upper and lower extremities of the body. All actions in athletics require a power transfer and effective stabilization from the core to create movement. They not only allow the transfer of power between the upper and lower body, but also control the body?s balance, stability, and center of gravity. In turn, it has a significant impact on speed, explosion, strength, power, agility, balance, and injury prevention.
Furthermore, Barwis reported that the body is forced to adapt to regularly changing stimuli and environments in multiple planes and at varying intensities during athletics. The ever changing pressures of the environment force the core to adapt and overcome stressors at a high rate of speed. In order to simulate this environment we must train the core utilizing instable apparatus and in multiple planes. The instability of the apparatus promotes sporadic irregular firing of the core in a stabilizing action. These activations occur while stimulating a specified contraction to accomplish a given movement. This directly correlates to actions that take place in the core region during athletics.
The abdominals are postural muscles that require high repetitions and frequent training in order to develop effectively. Exercises for this region should be conducted on instable apparatus and approximately 3-4 times per week. Although the abdominals can sustain greater repetitions and frequency of training, they must also have adequate recovery. 24-hours of recovery between training periods is ample time for full restoration of abdominal function. 6-8 sets of approximately 25-50 repetitions of varying exercises is sufficient for core development. Barwis emphasized that we must always remember that training the abdominals with- out placing an equal emphasis on the back muscle groups will promote muscular imbalance. At WVU, core training is conducted on all lifting days. Typically this ranges from 3-4 days per week. The program varies depending upon the lifting cycle it is coordinated with, as well as the mode of training at the time. Approximately 300 varying core balance and functional movements are conducted to stimulate the necessary results for elite athletes. For the elite athlete or the weekend warrior the core region has the greatest impact on athletic performance.
Discussion and Conclusions
A key component to success in many sports is the ability to repeatedly attain maximum speed and sustain it for an optimal length of time. This is especially vital in sports that have a large playing surface such as football. We?ve all seen the picture of a ball carrier in football slowing down within 10 or 15 years of scoring a touchdown after a 70-80 yard break-away run. After dodging his way and sprinting through the entire team, the ball carrier begins to fatigue and a better conditioned defending player catches up to the ball carrier and makes the tackle, saving a touchdown. Therefore, training your body to do repeated bouts of speed endurance training punctuated by a short recovery period between speed intervals will build the adaptations necessary to enable you to maintain your speed endurance ability well into the latter stages of the game.
It is anticipated that as the size of a football program increases, coaches will report greater use of strength and weight training programs to condition their players. It is further anticipated that all coaches, regardless of the size and scope of their programs and/or facilities, will indicate a positive attitude toward the benefits of HIT and other strength/weight training programs. Finally, it is anticipated that coaches and/or trainers will emphasize the necessity of creating individualized, carefully supervised programs for their athletes.
The report moves from an introduction of the topic ? the efficacy of strength or weight training in conditioning football players for performance ? to a review of relevant literature that identifies the HIT (high-intensity training) approach as most appropriate for performance and conditioning enhancement. An interview as conducted with a Division I College Director of Strength and Conditioning to review core training being essential to athletes. Two research questions are presented that speak to the questions of how coaches in football programs employ, value, and implement strength/weight training.
Barwis, Mike, Director of Strength and Conditioning, West Virginia University,
Personal Interview, 15, June, 2005.
Bauer, G. (1996). B.F.S. isn?t (a) H.I.T. Coach and Athletic Director, 65(8), 70-73.
Bouche, J. (1996). Making a H.I.T. in your weight room. Coach and Athletic Director,
Ebben, W. P., & Blackard, D. O. (1998). Speed developmental strategies of NFL
strength & conditioning coaches. Coach and Athletic Director, 68(1), 30-34.
Football Strategies. (2001). Be Fit Net Alliance Football Conditioning. Available at
Mannie, K. (1997). Five major facts on player development. Coach and Athletic
Director, 66(6), 6-12.
Mosby?s Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary. (1998). Mosby Year Book, Inc.,
Reeves, R. K., Laskowski, E. R., & Smith, J. (1998). Weight training injuries: Part 1:
Diagnosing and managing acute conditions. The Physician and Sports Medicine,
26(2). Available at www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1998/02feb/laskow.htm.
Schoenfeld, B. (1994). Steel wheels. Men?s Health, 9(9), 100-102.
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Essay Instructions: i need my paper to be proofread and revised. it needs to be a 500 word essay. with the subject matter being:
What have you learned from life experience, and how will that knowledge benefit your career with the FAA?
At nineteen years old, living away from home for the first time in San Diego. I decided to attend college and live in an apartment without any aid from my parents. Since i wasn''t a California resident i had to bare the expenses of paying out of state tuition. I subsequently needed to get a job to cover half of the tuition and my living expenses. As well as attend college full time, and play football that gave me a fifty percent scholarship.
Due to the regimented time schedule for school and football, which is already a fulltime job in itself. I needed to work between thirty and thirty five hours per week, to make ends meet. i thus took a job at Federal Express, as a package handler on the graveyard shift.
The summer going into my sophomore year of college, i injured myself. I tore some tissue and had a partial ligament tear in my left shoulder. This occured two weeks prior to football camp in August. Due to the severity of the injury and not having medical insurance. I was unable to get a doctor''s note or get professional rehab. Which resulted in me loosing my scholarship, my job, and then my apartment.
I thus had to withdrawal from school because California state colleges don''t issue financial aid or loans until the halfway point of the semester. Without the use of my left arm, i was forced to quit my job and move into my car. Then, i did research at the library on physical therapy and sports medicine.
That began three months of intensive rehab in the swimming pool and lifting soup cans for weights. At the end of three months i was able to partially move my arm and i got a job at a restaurant. Although i begun working i still rehabilitated my shoulder for eight more months.
During this time of rehab and unemployment, i resided in the comfort of my 1966 VW Bug. I lived off my savings, ate canned goods, and showered at the pool after two workouts a day. Living out of my VW Bug for eleven weeks and two days is an experience that will shape my life forever. It has taught me the importance of resilence, humbleness, diligence, and the power of optimism.
Life will hand one many obstacles that are often unexpected or unwanted. It is not always important what is dealt to us, but rather how we deal with each and every situation. I believe what i learned from that experience will greatly benefit my career in the FAA. It has taught me how to handle many obstacles at once, whilie performing them all to the best of my ability. To be able to handle and appreciate adversity at different times and sometimes all at once. While having the vision to maintain and pursue daily responsibilities and future goals.
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Essay Instructions: Practicum 2, October 26/28
BBH119, Fall 2004
Select a recent (within the past two years) original research article (on a health-related topic) from one of the journals listed below. The article you choose should include an abstract and the following sections:
Introduction and/or Background
Methods or Research Methods
Discussion and/or Conclusion
If the article has additional sections, that is fine. Print out or photocopy the complete text so that you can hand it in with your assignment.
Write your own "popular press" article explaining and summarizing the research. Your target audience is freshmen and sophomores in high school -- write your article so that someone in that age group would be able to understand it. (If you have a younger sibling, or if one of your friends does, you might think about what that person would understand.) Be sure to include:
The general background information that someone would need in order to understand the significance of the research.
The purpose of the research -- what were the authors trying to find out? and why?
The methods used -- how many subjects were in the study, what data did the researchers collect from them (e.g., information from interviews, from measurements made during the study, from analyses of body fluid samples, etc.) and how did they get those data (phone interview, questionnaire, etc.)?
How did they analyze the data? (You don't need to be too specific on the statistics here, given the audience you're writing for; something along the lines of "they compared two groups to see if there was any difference in ...." should be adequate.)
What did their results show? Why is it significant (refer back to the context)? What significance might it have for a real live person?
The names of the researchers and the names of the institutions with which they are affiliated.
Take your time in selecting an article; make sure it's one that you can understand well, so that you can then explain it.
You'll need to turn in:
1. The complete text of the research article (you will not receive credit for this assignment unless you turn in the whole article). Do not turn in just the abstract!
2. Your article, which should be two to four double-spaced pages.
Select your article from one of these journals:
American journal of clinical nutrition
American journal of epidemiology
American journal of health behavior
American journal of human biology
American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation
American journal of public health
(The) American journal of sports medicine
(The) American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Annals of human biology
Annals of behavioral medicine
Annals of internal medicine
British journal of sports medicine
British medical journal
Canadian journal of public health
Canadian medical association journal
Fertility and sterility
International journal of epidemiology
International journal of sports medicine
Journal of adolescent health
Journal of the american medical association
Journal of behavioral medicine
Journal of clinical epidemiology
Journal of emergency medicine
Journal of epidemiology and community health
Journal of internal medicine
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine
Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness
New England journal of medicine
Occupational and environmental medicine
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