Writer request: Amber111
Using your own thoughts and analysis, write a short cause and effect essay about the topic you have selected in this unit's DB. IMPORTANT: Please follow the guidelines outlined for the cause and effect pattern of development in the chapter of your textbook on writing this type of essay. Use the information in the chapter to outline your essay and include this outline with your essay submission. Please submit your paper in APA format.
Following the cause and effect pattern of development outlined in your textbook your paper should contain:
an introduction paragraph (place your thesis statement at the end of this paragraph).
body paragraphs (each body paragraph should present and discuss a point that supports your thesis statement).
Format your project in APA manuscript style in the following order:
Write the essay using the cause and effect pattern of development:
Write the essay using a formal tone and style, which avoids the use of personal pronouns (you, I, me, or we).
To support your thesis statement and supporting points, cite evidence (facts, statistics, examples, and expert viewpoints) from a minimum of two (2) sources from the AIU Library databases in the text of your essay with in-text citations and corresponding reference entries in your reference list. This is not optional; you must use sources to support your thesis statement.
Presentation: Writing a Research Paper
This presentation will introduce you to writing a research paper. Specifically, this presentation focuses on choosing a subject, collecting information, and evaluating sources. In addition, you will be introduced to ways of finding and documenting sources, as well as structuring a research paper.
You have already studied basic organization and development, the centrality of a thesis statement, the relationship between purpose and paragraph development, and rhetorical modes.
This unit focuses on using all these elements in a specific deliverable?the research report. The authors of Writing from the Ground Up contend that "as a student and as a professional, the research report is your opportunity to accumulate in-depth knowledge about a specific topic and to hone the writing skills necessary for competence in higher education and responsible careers" (Leesther, Bailey, Rauls, Sawh, & Williams, 1998). The primary elements of the research report include the research process and methods of evidentiary documentation.
The Research Process
The research process is usually defined in terms of linear stages, but the process itself is far more flexible than the traditional model infers. You as a writer have a responsibility for all of the elements of effective research, but the ways in which you complete them are a matter of individual preference. Generally, the research process involves defining both the topic and its scope; collecting a valid and reliable body of evidence; outlining your approach; selecting sources; writing a draft copy of your deliverable; adhering to the ethics and standards of source documentation; and producing the final draft of your research report.
Appropriate documentation of sources fulfills two useful elements of effective report writing. "Any time you, as the writer, use specific sources you have an ethical obligation to let your audience know who deserves the credit for the information, idea, opinion, or explanation" (Leesther et al., 1998). Representing someone else's work without appropriate documentation is an act of plagiarism. In academics, a student found guilty of plagiarism is likely to face disciplinary consequences. In corporate work, plagiarism places the organization at legal risk. Thus, careful documentation of resources protects the writer him or herself.
Documentation of resources, however, provides another useful service. The authors of Writing from the Ground Up state, "full citations tell readers precisely where the information can be located. Readers may want to trace the facts on which you base a conclusion or to verify that block quotations were reproduced accurately" (Leesther et al., 1998). If, for example, a reader wanted to use your report as a foundation for his or her work, then the ability to check the accuracy of your information becomes increasingly significant.
Leesther, T., Bailey, S. D., Rauls, M., Sawh, R., & Williams, W. T. (1998). Writing from the ground up (2nd ed.). Boston: Simon Schuster.
Presentation: The Cause-and-Effect Essay
A cause brings about an event or incident. The term effect means the results of the event or incident. Writing a cause-and-effect essay requires more than just knowing the cause and the effect. The writer of this type of essay wants to present information in a chronological manner so that his or her intended audience has a clear understanding of the causes and effects that could have ramification over a period of time. For instance, global warming has been in the media and news for a period of years, however, with each decade, new information is presented to support many varied claims concerning the causes and effects and environmental influences on global warming. When asking about something like the effects the environment has on global warming, Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006) suggest that you would use the division and analysis essay to separate the flow of events into causes.
According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), you are on your way to analyzing causes of an event by answering the questions "Why?" "What if?" or "What results?" When selecting your topic, you must consider your available time and resources to not overburden yourself. Do not choose a topic that will involve extensive research when you only have a short time to write the essay. After you select your topic, clearly define your purpose. Are you trying to inform your readers or persuade them? Your purpose will dictate the angle you take in your writing; therefore, you must define it from the beginning.
Examining the causes of an event can prove to be a cumbersome task. Most often, the causes are not clearly defined; therefore, extensive research is required on your part. According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), all causes occur in a chronological order and therefore should be presented in that order. You should also place levels of importance for each cause to determine how much emphasis is needed. Present your information truthfully so you do not mislead your audience. Additionally, keep your time period as remote and relevant to your topic as possible. Finally, be cautious of post hoc fallacy and oversimplifying the causes to not include all the possible causes of an event. Post hoc fallacy takes place when an assumption is made that if Y took place after X, then X must have caused Y. According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), Kenneth Burke (a literary critic) states five elements that must be identified in the search of causes. They are as follows: the act you are trying to explain, the actor, the scene or location where the act took place, the instruments or means the actor used, and the reason the actor committed the act.
Focus on Clarity and Conciseness
When writing your essay, do not present your material in a roundabout way. According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), your writing will have a bigger impact on your readers if you provide concise sentences and use appropriate subjects and verbs. Also, as previously stated, present your causes in chronological order placing more emphasis on the major causes and less emphasis on the minor causes.
Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. E., & Aaron, J. E. (2006). The Bedford reader (9th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Article: The Comparison-Contrast Essay
The Comparison-Contrast Essay
The act of juxtaposing the attributes of two or more things assists in the evaluation of both. In a comparison-contrast essay, this juxtaposition is done through a thorough, structured narrative. According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), when comparing attributes, the similarities are evaluated; when contrasting attributes, the differences are examined. The purpose of a comparison-contrast essay is either to determine the preferred choice between the options available or to clarify the details of each subject.
Kennedy et al. (2006) note that a comparison-contrast essay written for the purpose of clarification examines minute and subtle details of two or more subjects. When writing for the purpose of clarification, no preference is asserted at the end of the work. If the purpose of a work is to select the one option, however, the narrative is directed toward discerning the one that best meets the predefined criteria. In both modes, the audience is provided with enough information to form an opinion of the topic.
The options discussed in the comparison-contrast essay should be dissimilar enough that the existence of a clear difference is readily apparent. Kennedy et al. (2006) point out that when the options have been selected, the writer must constrain the scope of the essay by defining all possible points of comparison and selecting the most important ones to feature in the work. The writer will then craft a thesis based on an analysis of the comparison and contrast based on those defined points. Both the thesis and main points of comparison may be altered in the prewriting stage if problems become apparent, especially if a balance between the choices is not achieved in its current form. However, a rigid parallel structure is not productive either, and the writer should not attempt to match each concept in pairs until the conclusion.
Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Aaron, J. E. (2006). The bedford reader. (9th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Presentation: The Critical Essay
The Critical Essay
According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron's The Bedford Reader (2006), a critical essay is one in which a writer separates the component parts of a concept and analyzes each one in detail. The division and analysis of these details allows the audience to understand the nature and structure of the subject.
Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006) state that a writer must perform the same general type of process for any variety of the critical essay: the topic is defined, divided into components, and dissected. The process can be more strenuous depending on the availability of information and complexity of the concept. One of the major aspects of the process is defining the components to be divided; in many situations, such divisions are arbitrary and based upon the judgment of the writer. When the concept has been divided, clarified, and defined, the concept is reintegrated by the author as a rediscovered whole.
As explained in Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), four phases are required from the beginning of a critical essay, all of which should be organized in an outline prior to the creation of first full draft. First, the writer must compartmentalize the whole, separating each major element. Next, inferences must be drawn from a close examination of each element. After the separate elements have been analyzed, connections must be discerned between them. Finally, the whole must be reinterpreted in light of the writer's close analysis. The work that results from this process will allow the reader to develop a framework through which he or she may respond to the analysis. The writer's conclusions will form the basis for the work's thesis, which may be an explicit statement of the work's main idea or implicit in the body of the work, depending on the format being used for the piece.
The thesis of the work, as Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006) point out, must be supported through evidence that is provided by the writer. To maintain the work's credibility, this evidence must be of a type that can be independently verified by the audience. The author should select an appropriate amount of evidence to present as well because too little or too much evidence can be detrimental. At all times, support of the thesis should be the explicit focus of the analysis of all evidence.
Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Aaron, J. E. (2006). The Bedford reader (9th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Presentation: Critical Essay Intro & Grammar
The critical essay is one of the most complicated essay forms; however, when well written, the critical essay provides the reader with a wealth of information about the work being examined, as well as insight into what the writer thinks about the work itself. When writing a critical essay, it is essential that the writer first understand what the work is about and second
, understand what has been written about the work.
Each critical essay should include the following (Critical Essay, n.d.):
A summary of the author's point of view
a brief statement of the author's main idea (i.e., thesis or theme)
an outline of the important facts and lines of reasoning the author used to support the main idea
a summary of the author's explicit or implied values
a presentation of the author's conclusion or suggestions for action
An evaluation of the author's work
an assessment of the facts presented on the basis of correctness, relevance, and whether or not pertinent facts were omitted
an evaluation or judgment of the logical consistency of the author's argument
an appraisal of the author's values in terms of how you feel or by an accepted standard
Once writers have evaluated these things, they may move into a discussion of the ways in which the work either conforms to, or deviates from, a particular claim. For example, when evaluating a literary work such as Lorraine Hansberry's play A Raisin in the Sun, the writer may choose to explore the ways in which the work emphasizes the theme of masculinity or manhood. The key to writing a solid critical essay is not to discuss the ways in which the writer likes or dislikes the work but instead to critique the ways in which the work itself illustrates the theme the writer has chosen.
In the arts and design fields, a writer may be called on to critique a design or a concept. Frequently, one will be asked to evaluate the ways in which a particular style or form either conforms to or deviates from accepted design standards. Writers should not include such statements as "I like the way in which the designer incorporated the elements in their design," but instead should evaluate the design according to what the writer knows about the style: "This designer adheres to design standards in the following ways?"
Vocabulary, Pronouns, and Clauses
Vocabulary is an essential part of every piece of writing. If words are misused or misspelled, the reader will be distracted from the overall message or meaning of the writing. Writers must learn the differences between words such as effect and affect or accept and except. Writers must also properly spell the words they use (spell-check capabilities on computers have helped improve this, but writers should not rely on spell check to correct all errors).
The use of pronouns can also be confusing at times. Standard pronouns such as he, she and it seem rather straightforward and obvious. The tricky part about pronouns is knowing which pronoun to use in issues of agreement. A frequently asked question is as follows: if there is more than one gendered subject in a sentence, how do you know which pronoun to use after referring to them all? This question, and other issues related to references and point-of-view, can be solved by learning rules related to pronouns.
A clause is a group of words that have a subject and a verb. A relative clause is defined as an adjective clause, one that further defines the subject in the sentence. In every sentence the clause can be defined as either restrictive, meaning it is essential to the sentence (and is not marked by commas) or nonrestrictive, meaning it is not essential to the meaning of the sentence (and is marked by commas on either side of the clause).
Critical essay. (n.d.). Retrieved August 25, 2009, from Essay Info Web site: http://essayinfo.com/essays/critical_essay.php
Article: Process Analysis Essay
Process Analysis Essay
Process analysis is a form of exposition or explaining. According to Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron (2006), process analysis essays typically fall into one of two main types?a directive process analysis, which gives directions telling the reader how to do something, or an informative process analysis, which analyzes how something works or how something happened.
Analyzing a process typically means examining something that occurs in its natural state. You can analyze and describe how an e-mail gets from a sender to a receiver, for example. Doing this type of analysis takes careful observation or research. Descriptions that you find in research will vary, so you will want to compare several versions and synthesize them.
Procedures are similar to processes. A procedure is a standardized series of steps based on experience or input from experts about the best way to do something. For example, you can find recommended procedures for finding a job online.
When writing a description of a process or procedure, be sure to check your steps for both accuracy and completeness. It is all too common for writers to leave out important steps or to combine steps when they should be separated.
Effective Ways to Analyze a Process
It is said that the true expert has forgotten what it is like to learn something for the first time and therefore may leave out important steps in describing a process. Writers who are students may be better able to capture the steps and substeps involved in a process or procedure.
Kennedy et al. (2006) explain that the first step in analyzing and writing about a procedure is to clearly understand the process. What is the cue that tells you to start the sequence of steps that follow? Asking ?How do I know I need to begin this process?? helps you find the appropriate starting point. After you think your process through, you should consider your thesis. What is the purpose of your analysis? What do you want your readers to gain? Simply state your subject and an outline of the steps in your thesis statement. Make your thesis statement lively, clear, and to the point.
Next, Kennedy et al. (2006) state that the researcher and writer must identify the required steps. As indicated previously, you must take care not to miss steps or to combine steps unintentionally. For example, printing a document may involve a quick check to ensure paper is in the printer or the correct settings are used. These steps could be overlooked and are therefore missed in writing. You should list the steps in order if possible. What if the steps of a process occur at the same time? At this point, you may want to consider using a classification essay to write your process analysis. There will be times when you will have to combine rhetorical modes to communicate your points to your reader.
According to Kennedy et al. (2006), after you write your steps, make sure you have included all of the steps and included all of the information required for that step. Define all terms that may seem ambiguous, or go into extra detail for steps that may cause complications. Having more details is better than not having enough because you can always go back and revise the document to make it succinct. Transitional phrases or time markers are a great way to keep your reader aware of the flow of the process.
The final step is to revise your work. One of the best ways to test your process is to read it to someone and have him or her perform the process, noting when there are missing or unclear descriptions. Additionally, ask your friend to pinpoint areas that may be too wordy. In the revision process, you want to ensure that you have maintained consistency in the point of view, the voice, and the subject and verb forms. In summary, a process analysis should include a well-defined thesis statement, chronologically ordered steps, all details required to understand and perform the steps, explanations of terms that may be ambiguous to your reader, and time markers or transitions to guide the reader in the process, and they should be consistent (Kennedy, Kennedy, & Aaron, 2006).
Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Aaron, J. E. (2006). The bedford reader. (9th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
A Brief Guide to Writing a Comparison Contrast Essay
Writing a comparison/contrast paper involves comparing and contrasting two subjects. A comparison shows how two things are alike. A contrast shows how two things are different. There are also writing strategies available for this type of essay. Site is from The Online Writing Lab of Roane State Community College.
APA Flash Tutorial
APA Flash Tutorial
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This site explains the cause and effect essay along with tips on how to organize this type of text from the University of Glasglow.
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This is a brief guide on writing the compare and contrast essay from St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN.
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A brief description of modes is available at this site from Cuyahoga Community College.
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This is a brief guide for writing a process essay.
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Provides useful and interesting guidelines for writing the argument essay. Writer request: Amber111
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