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Essay Instructions: Please write a three chapter Research paper a Professional Contribution. Chapter 1 will be the introduction of the topic. Chapter 2 will be a literature review of the research. chapter 3 will be the methodology how or what your doing to put it into play. This is a professional contribution to a university. I have included power points on each chapter of how to write it and what needs to be in it. You will be researching and writing about networking in student affairs. So chapter 2 needs to have 20 articles related to students affairs networking and how professionals are socialized in the field of student affairs.This is the baulk of the paper! this part should be atleast 14 pages!! You then take the 20 articles and write a literature review on them. As for Chapter 3 it needs to state that making a manual for all the local university's and colleges in north east pa that will feature local student affairs professionals at the university and it will have a guide to how to get into or what to be prepared for when going into a masters degree for Higher education administration. I also held a social at a local banquet hall where again local university and colleges student affairs group were able to get together and meet one another. As for chapter 1 its an introduction to what I am trying to do so what the liturater is about and how it will come into play. It needs to have at least three paragraphs of introduction explaining the purpose of the literature review, which bodies of literature they looked at to address the topic and a summary argument. Make sure in this chapter you include information regarding how literature was searched.

make sure you have the paper organized! headers
make sure to include a summary in the end of the chapter 2 the lit review that the lit on this topicis limited and this is why im going to explore this topic.
Also I need all the copies of articles you use!!
Please fallow what this says and the power points i have up loaded and if you have any questions call me I really need help and what this to be correct.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Leadership management critique paper

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1719 Bibliography: 2 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: I work in a rehab that is supposedly in a budget crisis, but arent they all? During the summer, I took 9 days vacation and when I got back to work I found out I only received 30 hours vacation pay, yes I work 10 hour shifts three days but usually work 18 hours on Saturdays making it 38 hours a week. Well, that was only 8 hours difference but it is the principle of it that bothered me. Two weeks earlier we had a nurse who hurt her back and a couple call in sick so I picked up extra time and worked about 74 hours that week. The following week which was also in the same pay period I was sick and missed a 10 hour shift. I put it in the exception book and was told that I had worked more than full time hours and they don’t give you sick time on top of that!!! We use PTO and I have 190 hours of accrued time, but my nurse manager has decided that I was paid "enough."
And when my fellow coworkers heard of the situation they were outrageous.
1. Describe this nurse manager in her professional role?
2. Based on the previous scenario describe the situation.
3. Define her leadership style in application to the situation.
4. Describe the type of power she utilizes in the situation.
5. Describe the receptiveness of staff/group to manager=s leadership style in the situation.
6. Give your personal critique of how the situation was accepted/rejected by the group. What strategies style would you employed to improve the change/outcome.

5 pages
APA format
Use the journal article that was faxed or refer to the one follow.
Thank you

1st Article:
143 NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3
the pervasive phenomenon
in the practice
of nursing that is widely
known as “nurses eating their
young.” The literature reports that
a staggering number of registered
nurses are leaving professional
nursing practice due to feelings of
stress, inadequacy, anxiety, oppression,
and disempowerment, often a
result of horizontal violence
(Baltimore, 2006; Boswell, Lowry,
& Wilhoit, 2004; Duchscher, 2001).
This theme in nursing is characterized
by such dysfunctional behaviors
as “gossiping, criticism, innuendo,
scapegoating, undermining,
intimidation, passive aggression,
withholding information, insubordination,
bullying, and verbal and
physical aggression” (Baltimore,
2006, p. 30). Other trends in today’s
acute care hospital settings such as
low morale, a general apathy regarding
professional collegial support,
heavier workloads, reduced
resources, and higher patient acuity
can contribute to job dissatisfaction,
poor work performance, and
may be putting positive patient
health outcomes at risk.
It is imperative that these
issues be resolved in order to retain
nursing staff, and to reinstate effective
health care in today’s acute
care environments. Short-term initiatives
such as those that focus on
recruitment and retention issues
The Role of Nursing Leadership
In Creating a Mentoring Culture
In Acute Care Environments
College of Nursing, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
NOTE: The author reported no actual or
potential conflict of interest in relation to
this continuing nursing education article.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The author thanks
Dr. J. Gajadharsingh and C. Peternelj-Taylor
for their support.
Executive Summary
 High rates of retirement among
older nurses and horizontal
violence among younger
nurses heighten the importance
of mentoring in the context
of overall organizational
stability and performance.
 Viewing the essentials of mentoring
in the context of organizational
culture and leadership
as a long-term commitment
and solution rather than a
short-term task will lead to
improved staff retention, satisfaction,
and, ultimately, patient
 Using Bass’s four leadership
initiatives, a culture for mentoring
can be achieved through
inspirational motivation, individualized
consideration, idealized
influence, and intellectual
 Alignment of organizational
and mentoring goals is essential
to a successful approach
given that the qualities associated
with leadership and
mentorship are closely aligned.
 Mentoring cultures also depend
upon elements of a stable
infrastructure such as
managerial and executive
support, scheduling flexibility,
incentives, and recognition.
 Transformational leadership
practices are key to achieving
the sustainable effects of
mentoring programs that are
rooted deeply in organizational
may not be sufficient tools if utilized
on their own. Long-term, evidence-
based solutions such as
those strategies aimed at fostering
collegial relationships, enhancing
nurses’ sense of self, promoting
professional development, and encouraging
feelings of professional
worth are required. The Canadian
Nurses Association (CNA, 2004)
states that “mentoring programs are
exciting avenues for stimulating
professional growth, career development,
staff morale, and quality
within nursing workplaces” (p. 53).
To address these issues, mentoring
can be utilized as an effective strategy
and can be implemented
through positive nursing leadership.
Leadership must be seen as a
collective venture, and a professional
responsibility. It is one that
is shared by nursing administration,
and by RNs working together
and on their own. Indeed, all RNs,
regardless of their position, are
leaders, and they have the ability to
remedy this current and challeng-
Jill M. G. Bally
CNE Objectives and Evaluation Form appear on page 149.
NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3 144
ing trend in health care. However,
to establish an appropriate environment
in which effective mentoring
can be achieved, RNs must
acquaint themselves with an organizational
culture that fosters mentoring
within the acute care environment,
and understand how to
promote mentoring through transformational
The information presented in
this article will demonstrate the
importance of the interrelationships
among the concepts of mentoring,
organizational culture, and
nursing leadership. In addition,
RNs in acute care settings can utilize
this knowledge to implement
Bass’s (1994) four leadership initiatives:
inspirational motivation,
individualized consideration, idealized
influence, and intellectual
stimulation in developing a culture
within this setting. These initiatives
can enhance mentoring,
and as a result, improve professional
nurses’ level of confidence
as well as their feelings of selfworth,
and ultimately promote
professional nursing practice.
Successful Mentoring: The
Essential Dimensions
Mentoring. Nursing administration
within the acute care hospital
environment must support fundamental
solutions that are geared
toward the current and increasingly
worsening decline in nursing
staff collegiality, morale, and support.
The resulting detrimental
effects are seen in poor staff performance,
and in unsatisfactory patient
care outcomes. In addition,
the changing demographics within
the acute care hospital setting, and
the rapidly changing health care
environment, demand that efforts
be made to support and encourage
new and senior nurses in order to
retain competent nursing staff.
Recent literature addressing this
area of nursing supports the idea
that mentoring is one important
strategy that can be utilized in this
endeavor (Carroll, 2004; Hurst &
Koplin-Baucum, 2003; Verdejo,
be transitioning to a new area
(Marquis & Huston, 2006). The
relationship between the mentor
and the mentee seems to be one of
the determining factors of the success
of mentoring, and it is dependent
on the effective fulfillment of
the roles and responsibilities
within the relationship. Snelson et
al. (2002) and Hurst and Koplin-
Baucum (2003) maintain that
essential mentoring responsibilities
include teaching, counseling,
confirmation, accepting, friendship,
protection, coaching, and
sponsorship. The relationship that
is developed based on these characteristics
is one that is intended
to achieve safe and competent
nursing practice through influencing
the form, quality, and outcome
of the career path of both the
mentee and the mentor (Greene &
Puetzer, 2002).
In addressing the mentoring
relationship between the mentor
and the mentee, and by understanding
the roles that the mentor
must fulfill within this relationship,
it seems that leadership and
mentorship are not mutually exclusive.
The mentoring responsibilities
outlined previously are
clearly consistent with leadership
behaviors. It is, therefore, essential
that staff nurses and nursing management
support mentoring within
the professional practice of
nursing. To support mentoring,
staff nurses must assist in creating
and maintaining a culture that
will both promote and sustain
Organizational Culture
Organizational culture includes
the norms, values, and rituals that
characterize an organization, and
“serves as a social control mechanism
that sets expectations about
appropriate attitudes and behaviours
of group members, thus guiding
and constraining their behaviours”
(Sleutal, 2000, p. 55).
Factors that are influential to a
healthy organizational culture
include (a) providing opportunities
for autonomous clinical practice
Defining mentoring has been
difficult, and it is further compounded
by the use of interchanging
terms such as coach, preceptor,
and teacher (Butterworth,
Faugier, & Burnard, 1998; Milton,
2004). Some writers maintain that
mentorship is a research-based
intervention that addresses the
improvement of nurses’ confidence,
promotes professional development,
and encourages lifelong
learning (Jakubik et al.,
2004). The CNA (2004) states,
“Mentoring involves a voluntary,
mutually beneficial and usually
long-term professional relationship.
In this relationship, one person
is an experienced and knowledgeable
leader (mentor) who
supports the maturation of a lessexperienced
person with leadership
potential (mentee)” (p. 24). In
addition, mentoring can be
viewed as an informal or formal
process. Informal mentoring is
characterized by a shared agreement
between the mentor and the
mentee to establish a relationship
in an unstructured manner, and is
based on the realization of career
goals for the mentee. Formal mentoring,
however, involves structure,
both in terms of defining
purposes and in the longevity of
the relationship (Tourigny &
Pulich, 2005).
If one were to include organizational
culture as an integral
aspect of mentoring, the mentor,
then, can be defined as an experienced
individual who guides a
novice member’s transition to a
new culture and the expectations
of a new role (Snelson et al.,
2002). Greene and Puetzer (2002)
state that the mentor may introduce
the new staff nurse to the
philosophies, goals, policies, procedures,
and professional developmental
challenges within a new
work environment. Conversely,
the mentee is one who has unique
developmental and socialization
needs such as new nurses, international
nurses, student nurses,
and nurses who are undergoing
role status changes, and who may
The Role of Nursing Leadership in Creating a Mentoring Culture in Acute Care Environments
145 NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3
and participative decision making;
(b) being valued as a practicing professional
registered nurse throughout
the organization; (c) continued
learning; and (d) supportive relationships
with their peers, physicians,
and management. These factors
are seen as influential to job
satisfaction, and if they are present
within an organization, a healthy
organizational culture may exist
(Apker, Ford, & Fox, 2003;
Neuhauser, 2002; Newhouse &
Mills, 2002; Wooten & Crane,
2003). Angelini (1995) found that
expectations, rewards, value conflicts,
recognition opportunities,
and support within the acute care
hospital setting were all factors that
enhanced or hindered mentoring
interactions. Although there is very
little evidence in the literature that
specifically addresses the impact
that organizational culture may
have on mentoring, it is possible
that mentoring can be influenced
by the organizational culture within
which it exists.
Nursing leadership. Formal
nursing management must understand
the connections between
mentoring and organizational culture,
and emphasize the importance
of mentoring in their work
environments. Mentoring can then
be established, and RNs, as frontline
workers, will be in an excellent
position to embrace and foster
positive leadership to support a
culture that will enhance mentoring.
Through collective leadership
such as this, the oppression of
nurses by other nurses through
criticism, gossip, devaluing one
another, intimidation, etc., can be
eradicated. Staff nurses can initiate
this change by utilizing mentoring
to strengthen nurse-tonurse
relationships, empower one
another, and develop support systems
for those who are vulnerable.
To create a culture which is supportive
of mentoring, staff nurses
need to adopt a visionary leadership
style that will engender
inspiration, motivation, trust,
empowerment, and collaboration.
The qualities and practices adaptmore
probable that intervention
will take hold and have significant
impact on the organization” (p.
26). In addition, RNs can assist
with incorporating mentoring into
various aspects of organizational
life. For example, developing a
mission statement for the work
environment that will incorporate
and guide mentoring activities
should make mentoring language
commonplace. Learning and evaluation
committees, which focus on
and are highly committed to mentoring,
must be established.
Meetings should take place regularly,
and should include all parties
who are involved in mentorship.
Once this perspective is
understood and implemented, professional
nurses can utilize Bass’s
(1994) four leadership initiatives
to enhance mentoring in the organizational
culture within which it
exists. The four dimensions of
transformational leadership proposed
by Bass (1994) are inspirational
motivation, individualized
consideration, idealized influence,
and intellectual stimulation.
Inspirational Motivation
This initiative places strong
emphasis on inspiring all nurses in
the work environment to understand
and utilize mentoring. By
using this initiative, nurse managers
together with staff nurses,
will articulate and communicate an
understanding of the values and
goals that are associated with mentoring,
and share these with colleagues.
Providing a clearly articulated
vision of what mentoring can
achieve will not only provide guidance,
but may inspire other nurses,
encourage a sense of purpose, and
foster the attachment of that purpose
to their work. However, vision
development is not a solitary leadership
effort. As Callahan and
Ruchlin (2003) state, “The broader
the ‘buy-in,’ the greater the chances
for success. Successful alignment
requires effective communication
that encompasses ongoing rather
than one-time efforts” (p. 296).
Communication for this purpose
ed from transformational leadership
provide an appropriate framework
for implementing a culture
that positively supports mentorship.
Bass’s (1994) approach is
particularly relevant as it focuses
on aligning internal structures to
reinforce values, morals, and
ethics specific to the organization’s
Leadership Initiatives for
Developing a Mentoring Culture
To implement Bass’s (1994)
leadership style effectively, the
nursing leadership must first
understand the “whole picture” by
recognizing the close interrelationships
among leadership, mentorship,
and organizational culture. It
is important to consider the
premise that the organizational
culture in the acute care hospital
environment is the center of the
organization. Sleutel (2000) states
“organizational cultures can be
conceptualized as a normative
glue, preserving and strengthening
the group, adhesing its component
parts, and maintaining its equilibrium”
(p. 55). Although, organizational
cultures may differ within
each hospital setting, they do
explain how people relate to one
another in a particular setting, and
assist in understanding what the
group’s values are, and how the
members aspire to achieve goals.
The effectiveness of implementing
a leadership practice will not work
if there is no understanding of the
organizational culture specific to
each hospital, or unit setting, and if
it does not fit with the organizational
culture within which it is to
be implemented and maintained.
As leaders in the acute care setting,
professional nurses should
ensure that mentoring is embedded
in the culture within which it
is to exist, such that mentoring
goals and values are aligned with
the organizational values. As stated
by Schneider (2000), “the more
an intervention or practice adapts
to the epistemology, or central way
of knowing and understanding,
appropriate to the core culture, the
The Role of Nursing Leadership in Creating a Mentoring Culture in Acute Care Environments
NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3 146
entails informing and enlisting
interested, motivated, and valuedriven
individuals whose cooperation
is essential in achieving the
vision. It involves building collaborative
partnerships that are necessary
to implement the vision.
Motivation and inspiration are the
aids for overcoming barriers to successful
implementation of mentoring,
and for gaining employee
commitment (Geijsel, Sleegers,
Leithwood, & Jantzi, 2003).
The dissemination of research,
based on positive outcomes of
mentoring, mentoring activities,
characteristics of mentoring, and
informing staff about ways to get
involved, will assist in making
mentoring visible and will create
excitement about mentoring. Focusing
on positive staff outcomes
of mentoring, such as individual
growth, collaboration, staff retention,
and satisfaction, and ultimately
enhanced patient care, are
surely goals with which all RNs
can identify and strive to attain.
Values and goals can be reinforced
through training and socialization.
Wooten and Crane (2003) believe
that “the most critical stage of
socialization is the first year of
employment. The first year is the
staff nurse’s best opportunity to
mold the newcomer into a team
player and help that individual
adapt to the organization’s culture”
(p. 277). The organization’s
goals and values, such as patient
safety and valuing nursing staff,
can be related to newcomers
through the telling of stories,
nurse-of-the-month awards, coffee
parties that highlight staff achievements,
and staff meetings that
reinforce important values and
communicate cultural assumptions.
It is essential that seasoned
nurses be brought into this practice
as they are the ones who have
the wisdom, the knowledge, and
the experience that can be shared
with other nurses. By communicating
and passing on cultural values
and goals, new and current
nursing staff will appreciate the
means and methods for achieving
needs, abilities, and variables that
are conducive to staff satisfaction”
(Kerfoot, 1997, p. 644). This information
will be helpful in formulating
methods for implementing successful
mentoring objectives within
the hospital setting. Consequently,
this information will aid
in developing a structured information
system for assisting potential
mentees and mentors with appropriate
matches between the mentor
and the mentee, and will therefore
enhance the mentoring relationship
and its success. Nurses can
then develop methods for simply
relating information regarding
potential matches to qualified mentors
and potential mentees, as voluntary
participation can contribute
to mentoring success.
Taking the time to identify
each nurse as important and integral
to the process of mentoring
gives the nurse manager the
opportunity to demonstrate that
individual staff members are vital
and important to the health care
setting in which they are employed.
Talking to each member of
the mentoring community on an
ongoing basis is a function of the
successful creation of an organizational
culture that respects and
cares about the staff. It provides an
opportunity to share learning experiences,
honor achievement,
reinforce the cultural values of the
organization, and expand knowledge
about mentoring. This can
also be achieved through the display
of banners and posters, a
mentoring showcase, or via email.
Another strategy that can be
utilized is verbalizing thankfulness
and gratitude for individual contributions,
suggestions, and input.
Feedback and reward systems are
key components of a successful
motivational program (Newhouse
& Mills, 2002). Celebrating big and
small milestones and recognizing
achievements can foster feelings
of acceptance, value, and pride.
Utilizing this leadership initiative
allows nursing management, as
well as RNs, to develop a sense of
belonging and involvement among
those goals. This will serve as a
foundation for mentoring, and in
the future, the memories and stories
of success will provide for a
historical and meaningful support
system for mentoring.
Lastly, a transformational organizational
culture is one that visualizes
all group members as being
responsible for its success (Wooten
& Crane, 2003). Therefore, as a
collective obligation, nurse managers
and RNs must ensure that all
nurses are empowered by utilizing
participative decision-making
processes. Owens (2004) states
that in “participative decision
making, all organizational members
have a right to be heard, to
have their views considered, to
express feelings, and to offer
knowledge and information” (p.
309). When nursing staff are
empowered by taking part in decision-
making processes, they do so
by enhancing their knowledge
base, and therefore, they experience
growth in both personal and
professional dimensions. Feelings
of empowerment, and of inclusion
in decision-making processes,
result in staff members who are
energized and committed to put
forth their best efforts and skills.
Moreover, empowerment generates
support for organizational
goals and momentum for change,
initiatives for autonomy, and for
the encouragement of staff member
involvement in ways that promote
learning and professional
development. The end results are
staff nurses who are more knowledgeable,
and who are committed
to mentoring.
Individualized Consideration
The nurse leader should also
utilize techniques that can be
adapted from Bass’s (1994) concept
of individualized consideration. It
is essential that each RN in a real or
prospective mentor dyad be treated
in a unique manner to determine
her/his issues, needs, and interests.
“By establishing a program of
cultural listening, the leader can
obtain a good perspective about the
The Role of Nursing Leadership in Creating a Mentoring Culture in Acute Care Environments
147 NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3
all registered nurses. The consideration
of each individual ensures
that everyone has a voice, and this
creates feelings of trust and caring.
The individuals who are involved
will feel that their contributions are
acknowledged and valued. Ultimately,
it is hoped that this will
maximize staff participation, contribution,
and interest in mentoring.
Idealized Influence
Wooten and Crane (2003) state
“a leader exemplifies the vision and
values of the organization since
they are role models for the other
members” (p. 277). To enable the
nursing staff to achieve the organization’s
goals regarding mentoring,
all RNs should commit to role modeling
these goals and values in all
endeavors so that they can share
experiences, best practices, and
encourage mentoring excellence.
However, for role modelling to be
effective, registered nurses must
establish credibility within the
work setting, and develop trust
among staff members. Studies of
culture within successful organizations
indicate that an environment
where staff are helpful and supportive
of one another, trust each other,
and have friendly, open relationships,
emphasize credibility and
attentiveness. Being authentic and
treating people with respect and
dignity are all characteristics that
nurses can demonstrate to achieve a
sense of trust (Dixon, 1999;
Newhouse & Mills, 2002). Trust
relates to open communication
channels, which in turn enhances
feedback at all levels. Requesting,
receiving, and providing feedback
are integral to the success of mentoring,
and essential for providing
adequate support and a challenging
environment, and for maintaining
the organization’s vision.
This initiative promotes the
utilization of interpersonal communication
skills and active listening.
By utilizing these leadership
skills, RNs can create an organizational
culture that is seen as safe;
one that will enhance the feedback
cycle and the evaluation of the
tiality and to foster positive analysis.
Of particular importance is the
understanding that to be effective,
mentoring training and education
must be available in different
forms, in different venues, and on
an ongoing basis. Making recent
literature about mentoring available
on the nursing unit, organizing
mentoring workshops, scheduling
meetings or information sessions
at convenient times suitable
for the nursing staff, and presenting
mentorship successes at staff
meetings, are all activities that can
be utilized in this endeavor.
Intellectual stimulation also
provides an initiative for professional
nurses to promote a better
understanding of mentoring, such
as the roles of the mentor and
mentee, the relationships that
need to be formed, the matching
strategies, and the processes involved
in mentoring. Hopefully,
this will enhance interest, commitment,
and participation, and it
will increase personal and professional
growth and development.
Thus, it seems possible that by
utilizing the practices and qualities
adopted from the transformational
leadership approach, nurse
managers together with staff nurses
can enhance the organizational
culture within the acute care hospital
setting to create and maintain
mentorship practices. However,
without the support from middle
management and organizational
administration, it is very difficult
to implement or sustain such a
venture. The literature indicates
that administrative support is
demonstrated through financial
incentives, staffing and scheduling
flexibility, and title and leadership
recognition (Greene & Peutzer,
2002). Therefore, an organizational
infrastructure that supports
mentoring must be in place.
Although this is not necessarily a
responsibility of the staff nurse,
identifying whether or not such a
structure is present, and recommending
and assisting with creating
such an investment, is certainly
achievable. The CNA (2004)
mentoring relationship and
process; and one that will create a
collaborative environment which
will sustain mentoring, staff satisfaction,
and retention (Neuhauser,
2002; Newhouse & Mills, 2002;
Wooten & Crane, 2003).
Intellectual Stimulation
Intellectual stimulation requires
collective leadership between formal
nursing management and staff
nurses to support the professional
growth and development of each
member in the organization. To
achieve this goal, continuous mentoring
education and training
opportunities should be integrated
into the work environment to
increase the general awareness of
mentorship in that setting. This collective
leadership can provide
valid, relevant, and up-to-date
mentoring information for staff
nurses that is in tune with the values
and goals of the organization.
The organizational culture should
be resilient and emphasize creativity
and goal achievement. “Specific
educational strategies could focus
on exploring the role of relationship-
building; reviewing positive
and negative experiences of staff
nurses relative to the environment;
and upgrading the awareness level
of career transitioning and the facilitation
of the career process for staff
nurses” (Angelini, 1995, p. 95).
Registered nurses can also
assist in creating and maintaining
support groups and mentoring
task forces which provide skills
training, foster the exchange of
best practices, and promote peer
learning. This can also provide a
forum for feedback, evaluation,
and problem solving in order to
foster creative input and generate
new ideas. In addition, it is also an
opportunity to reflect on what has
been tried and tested, and what is,
and is not true. Continual learning
and development gained from
identifying mistakes is essential to
implementing new and improved
initiatives and ideas. During meetings
such as these, it is important
to maintain appropriate confiden-
The Role of Nursing Leadership in Creating a Mentoring Culture in Acute Care Environments
NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3 148
suggests that “the sponsoring organization
shall provide an administrative
structure and the resources
for effective development” (p. 32).
Tasks such as recruitment and
retention programs that value
mentoring and provide appropriate
learning resources including
funding are essential. Together,
these can assist in building the
organizational scaffolding that
will support mentoring ventures.
An essential task for nursing
leaders today is to create a sustainable
nursing workforce in a health
care system that is currently undergoing
significant changes including
the loss of experienced nurses to
retirement, and new graduates to
horizontal violence. Mentoring is
one method that can enhance staff
satisfaction, and therefore, can
reduce the feeling among nurses that
they are being devalued, discriminated
against, and disempowered by
their own peers. In utilizing mentoring
to enhance staff development, to
assist nurses to adapt to new and different
roles, and to increase staff satisfaction,
nursing leadership must
understand that mentoring is influenced
by the organizational culture
within which it exists. That is, staff
nurses and nurse managers alike
must recognize and understand the
interrelationships among mentoring,
organizational culture, and leadership
for the optimal development of
effective mentoring. As a means of
achieving success in this endeavor,
professional nurses must align the
organizational culture with appropriate
leadership and mentoring
strategies. By utilizing principles
and qualities adapted from transformational
leadership, specifically
Bass’s (1994) four leadership initiatives,
registered nurses can assist in
creating an empowering, innovative,
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The Role of Nursing Leadership in Creating a Mentoring Culture in Acute Care Environments
149 NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2007/Vol. 25/No. 3
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2nd article
Making a Difference with Combined Community Assessment
and Change Projects
Roberta Mansfield, MSN, ARNP; and Cleda L. Meyer, PhD, RN
Nursing students value projects
that enable them to make a difference
in the lives of others. Two major group
projects, assessment of an identified
community and completion of a leadership
change project, required during
their last semester were combined
to provide a meaningful experience
for students. In addition to discussing
ways to combine these projects, this
article shares methods to build team
Today’s nursing students value
the ability to make a difference,
particularly in their communities.
Involvement in volunteer
activities during high school stimulates
increased interest in service activities
during higher education (Des
Marais, Yang, & Farzanehkia, 2000;
Engle, 2004). Baccalaureate students
at Baker University School of Nursing
concurrently take courses in community
health and in leadership and
management during their final semester.
To meet outcomes for community
health, students complete a comprehensive
community assessment
to identify health needs of a selected
population. Students work in teams
to collect data, analyze community
capacities, and derive community-level
nursing diagnoses, but no means
existed for student teams to make a
difference by actually addressing the
problems identified.
As a requirement for the leadership
and management course,
student teams complete a focused
assessment of a community or organization
to conduct a change project.
The emphasis of this assignment is
application of continuous quality improvement
(CQI) to guide the planning,
implementation, and evaluation
of change. With two major projects in
separate courses involving a considerable
amount of group work, students
felt overwhelmed. They had difficulty
recognizing the role of nursing process
in addressing community and organizational
concerns. Combining the
assignments to create a single population-
focused change project now allows
students to conduct an intervention
based on needs identified during
the community assessment and to
render a service to the community.
The purpose of this article is to share
information with others interested in
trying a similar approach.
Nurses as Part of the
Desired outcomes for baccalaureate
nursing graduates include the
ability to practice professional nursing,
incorporating the roles of care
provider, manager, and member of a
profession in acute and community
settings (American Association of Colleges
of Nursing, 1998). To increase
awareness of the nurse’s role in the
community, students participate
in various local community-based
clinical opportunities. For example,
students help with blood pressure
screening clinics, nurse-run centers
providing basic care to individuals of
lower socioeconomic status, adolescent
pregnancy programs, and health
fairs. During the senior semester, students
also provide case management
services to an individual or family
in the community. Although student
feedback demonstrates their understanding
of the community health
nurse’s role in providing care to specific
individuals and families outside
of the hospital setting, students fail
to grasp that a single nursing unit
or a child care center is a community
with possible needs for change. As a
result, students often fail to recognize
opportunities to improve the health of
populations and provide service to the
community at large.
Nurses as change Agents
The purpose of requiring students
to complete a change project is to
demonstrate the ability of nurses to
make a difference in various settings
and to experience the leadership role
in this process. Although individual
students put leadership and management
into practice by delegating and
coordinating clinical care, they often
have limited effects on health care
practices and procedures that could
be changed or improved. The change
project allows students to incorporate
CQI principles in developing worthwhile
projects while improving their
Received: December 10, 2004
Accepted: August 29, 2005
Ms. Mansfield is Assistant Professor and
Dr. Meyer is Associate Professor, Baker University
School of Nursing, Topeka, Kansas.
Address correspondence to Roberta Mansfield,
MSN, ARNP, Assistant Professor, Baker
University School of Nursing, Stormont-Vail
Healthcare, Pozez Education Center, 1500
SW 10th Street, Topeka, KS 66604; e-mail:
E D U C A T I o N A l I N N o v A T I o N
132 Journal of Nursing Education
effectiveness as team members. Continuous
quality improvement requires
careful collection and assessment of
data to identify the underlying process
of an actual or potential problem
(Briscoe & Arthur, 1998; Schroeder,
1994). A review of the literature or
benchmarking with other institutions
guides team members in developing
a plan to address the identified problem.
once implemented, the plan is
evaluated and modified, if necessary,
to achieve a long-term solution to the
Guidelines for combining the
Although both the community assessment
and change projects are
considered important in preparing
nurses to become leaders in their
communities, faculty became aware of
potential overlap in the assignments.
Both assignments require assessment
and identification of community-level
problems of concern to nurses. Consequently,
faculty made modifications
to combine the projects, giving
students the opportunity to apply the
nursing process by serving as population-
based change agents.
To combine these projects, students
were directed to select one population
with which to work for both courses.
Students used the definition of a population
as a group of people occupying
an area or sharing one or more
characteristics (Allender & Spradley,
2005). Recognizing that populations
become communities when meaningful
interactions occur, students were
advised to carefully define the population
or community they selected.
This allowed students to choose from
a variety of settings affecting health,
including hospitals, outpatient or
surgical settings, community clinics,
schools, child care centers, retirement
communities, and other organizations.
They could also choose a geographical
community to assess, such
as a rural community.
The combined project begins with
a comprehensive assessment of the
selected population or community,
using a modified tool (Hitchcock,
Schubert, & Thomas, 2002) to generate
and organize data related to the
people, place, health care systems,
and other social systems. Students
work in teams of four to six members
throughout the project and make at
least one site visit during the assessment.
Student teams access existing
information about the population or
community and often conduct surveys
or interviews to gather primary data.
Assessment data are analyzed to identify
the strengths, areas of concern,
and health problems of the population
or community. Each team formulates
five community-level nursing diagnoses
and selects a priority diagnosis
that forms the basis for the change
project. They meet with key leaders
and members of the selected community
throughout the assessment,
planning, and implementation of the
change. This allows those affected by
the change to become involved in the
change process.
As students clarify the priority
problem, they are challenged to use
CQI principles to view the problem
from a multidisciplinary perspective.
A review of the literature enables
them to select evidence-based interventions
to accomplish the change.
Working with people both within and
outside of the nursing profession,
students learn to apply leadership
principles as partners in improving
the health of the community (Cox &
Miranda, 2003). Emphasis on developing
the vision of transformational
leaders helps students motivate those
affected by the change (Johns, 2004).
Traditional CQI projects may take
12 to 18 months to complete, so some
student projects serve primarily as pilot
projects in an organization. As the
value of the project is demonstrated,
unit directors or other key community
members are empowered to develop a
final project based on the students’
strategies for success
one of the first strategies that
help students succeed is providing
clear expectations and outcomes for
the combined project. This includes
guidelines for how to systematically
collect data and arrive at nursing diagnoses
for the selected community.
For the change project, the focus is on
choosing a problem from the community
assessment that can be undertaken
during the semester. Students
are given examples of tools, such as
problem-solving charts from The
Team Handbook (Scholtes, 1996), to
further identify the underlying problem.
Given the challenges inherent in
team or group work, several strategies
help students build successful teams.
Classroom discussion and scenarios
address effective and ineffective team
roles and provide conflict resolution
methods. Students are asked to select
a team logo, name, and mission statement.
For example, a team working
to address safety concerns at the
Boys and Girls Club chose the name
Nurses 911 and developed the following
mission statement: “To improve
the safety of all individuals within
the Boys and Girls Club, focusing on
fire, tornado, and first aid preventive
measures.” Their team rules included
“Be open and communicate with each
other,” “Have individual assignments
done on time,” and “Have fun,” to promote
Students share responsibility for
team work by dividing tasks based
on each member’s expertise. Developing
a timeline and keeping minutes
of team meetings enable students to
track their progress. Some members
of the Nurses 911 team wrote letters,
sent e-mails, and made telephone
calls to obtain donations of smoke
alarms and first-aid supplies from
area merchants. other team members
contacted the fire department to
present information about fire safety
and arranged for a meteorologist to
discuss tornado tracking. Throughout
the project, the Nurses 911 team
worked closely with the director of the
sharing success
At the end of the semester, students
share their results with their
fellow students through a formal
presentation that highlights the community
assessment findings and the
needs identified. They invite academic
and health care colleagues to
March 2007, Vol. 46, No. 3 133
attend a poster presentation that describes
the change project and how it
relates to the community assessment.
Some student teams incorporate creative
techniques, such as skits, songs,
or videos, to add interest to their presentation.
Students also share their
notebook containing team minutes,
team rules, data from the community
assessment, articles supporting the
change project, and strategies used
for stress relief. As a requirement
for the leadership and management
course, each team submits a written
paper summarizing key components
of the community assessment and selected
change project.
Some team members express reluctance
to engage in team projects due
to difficulties in managing conflicting
schedules and obligations, as well as
concerns that work may not be completed
equally by members. Methods
for overcoming team problems include
giving individual members the
opportunity to rate the performance
of their own team members and requiring
students to write a brief individual
paper evaluating the potential
effects of group process on their future
nursing careers. Faculty review team
meeting minutes and other evidence
of team participation to support individual
team ratings.
Outcomes: successful change
During the five semesters since implementation
of the combined project
format, student teams have completed
several worthwhile projects. Student
accomplishments include setting
up a pharmacy assistance program
for clients at a clinic for underserved
individuals, increasing nursing clinic
hours at a center for homeless individuals,
and translating assessment
questions into Spanish for staff admitting
families to a hospital birthing
center. The Nurses 911 team was able
to mobilize community partners to
provide safety programs for the local
Boys and Girls Club. They arranged
for the fire department to bring their
mobile classroom to simulate fire hazards
and evacuation procedures, and
as part of the educational segment
conducted by the meteorologist, the
student team conducted a tornado
drill. Through these combined community-
level change projects, nursing
students were given an opportunity
to provide real service to a population
at risk for health problems related
to safety. The students established a
helping relationship with the organization
and the larger community
to meet the needs of a specific population.
Although some projects may
serve only as pilot projects, many lay
the foundation for ongoing change.
For example, the director of the Boys
and Girls Club is eager to have students
return to further implement
programs enhancing the health and
safety of youth. The student team has
many ideas for how other students can
provide service to this population.
The combined assessment and
change projects have increased student
awareness of problems at the
organizational and community levels
for which they can make a difference.
Students assessing a Native American
child care facility found that 99%
of the children’s parents were above
the recommended body mass index.
The team recognized the importance
of family nutrition to the child care
center population and the need to address
the problem at the community
level. With this awareness, students
participated in a tribal health fair to
educate the families about nutrition,
using reduced-fat traditional recipes.
Students were excited to be an important
part of a community-level intervention
and to make a difference in
the larger population. Because of the
positive response from the families
attending the community event, students
were invited to participate in
future tribal health fairs.
The appreciation expressed by
the community confirms the value of
these learning experiences. Students
complete their final semester and enter
the nursing profession with confi-
dence that they can assume leadership
roles and promote positive change in
the health of not only individuals but
also populations, organizations, and
entire communities.
Allender, J.A., & Spradley, B.W. (2005).
Community health nursing: Promoting
and protecting the public’s health.
Philadelphia: lippincott, Williams &
American Association of Colleges of Nursing.
(1998). The essentials of baccalaureate
education for professional nursing
practice. Washington, DC: Author.
Briscoe, G., & Arthur, G. (1998). CQI
teamwork: Reevaluate, restructure,
renew. Nursing Management, 29(10),
73-78, 80.
Cox, l.S., & Miranda, D. (2003). Enhancing
student leadership development in
community settings. Nurse Educator,
28, 127-131.
Des Marais, J., Yang, Y., & Farzanehkia,
F. (2000). Service-learning leadership
development for youths. Phi Delta Kappan,
81, 678-680.
Engle, S. (2004). Political interest on the
rebound among the nation’s freshmen,
UCLA survey reveals. Retrieved May
26, 2004, from the Graduate School of
Education and Information Studies,
UClA, Web site: http://www.gseis.ucla.
Hitchcock, J.E., Schubert, P.E., & Thomas,
S.A. (2002). Community health nursing:
Caring in action (2nd ed.). Albany,
NY: Delmar.
Johns, C. (2004). Becoming a transformational
leader through reflection. Reflections
on Nursing Leadership, 30(2),
24-26, 38.
Scholtes, P.R. (1996). The team handbook
(2nd ed.). Madison, WI: Joiner Associates,
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quality and performance: Concepts,
programs, and techniques. St. louis:
Mosby-Year Book.
134 Journal of Nursing Education

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