UNDOCUMENTED STUDENTS EQUITY TO IN-STATE TUITION:
REDUCING THE BARRIERS
EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 5101
RESEARCH DESIGN IN EDUCATION
SUMMER 1, 2011
York Williams, title
Immigrant undocumented students
challenges for residency for tuition
purposes and permanency in the
Lori Daniels June 14, 2011
Table of Contents
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………..
Chapter 1 Introduction
Purpose of the Study………………………………………………..
Importance of the Study & Research Problem …………………..
Research Questions (number them) ………………………………
Chapter 3 Methodology & Procedures
Study and Design
Trustworthiness, Validity, Reliability
In today’s universal society it is more important than ever to receive a quality education and to go to college. However, many undocumented immigrant high school students face many issues surrounding illegal immigration. The lack of legal residency and any supporting paperwork, green card, social security number, government issued identification, basically portrays undocumented students as nonexistent to the American federal and state governments. This occurrence has controlled the lack of undocumented students who are eligible to attend postsecondary educational institutions.
These constraints include opposed rights to admission, immigrant-specific obstacles to financial aid and disputes regarding in-state tuition privileges. Immigrant families with low-income, particularly Spanish immigrants, who are attending inner city high schools, are at a greater risk of having unfulfilled dreams of attending a university. Undocumented students are greatly concentrated in urban areas such as Texas, California and New York; however, these individuals are established across the states. Additionally, undocumented students are more likely to begin their postsecondary careers at community colleges rather than four-year institutions because access and lower cost.
Often time minority students from low socioeconomic status might have difficulty identifying their self?worth, and may develop inferior beliefs, and experience academic
failures. It is essential that students of every racial background express their own ethnic identity and improve how they see themselves. Discrimination generally cuts across all underrepresented groups, African Americans, Asian American, and Latino/a. “African American students consistently reported significantly more racial?ethnic conflict on campus; pressure to conform to stereotypes; and less equitable treatment by faculty, staff.” (Ancis, Sedlacek and Mohr 2000)
Because of these instances the United States is currently evaluating an immigration law reform act.
The Dream Act was established in 2006 by Senator Dick Durbin democrat of Illinois and he presented the DREAM Act (S.729) in the Senate and Representative Howard Berman a democrat from California who introduced the American Dream Act (H.R.1751) in the House. (Palacios pg. 2) The In-state resident tuition legislation act that will benefit undocumented students is a significant policy to provide access to immigrant college students to four year institutions, the military and eventually the right to citizenship.
The Dream Act has established standards for the promotion of success for all undocumented students to attend a university of choice being a four year or community college. However, with the present new legislation that makes it a crime to be in Arizona without legal status and requires police to check for immigration papers many immigrants who have lived here illegally for many years and lead productive lives will be subjective to racial profiling. Besides Arizona, there are other states that are contemplating initiating this policy. I think that this will have a negative impact on the public school systems as well as universities and colleges in enrolling undocumented students because they already face many, cultural, social, and economical challenges. These stigmatisms could create difficulties in undocumented students identifying their self-worth, and may develop inferior beliefs.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to identify specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as review key elements of showing the correlation of ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education. hat would help eliminate student’s frustration. And to illustrate there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student’s postsecondary education divide significant structure. In most states undocumented students whose family are long time residents
of the area and pay state and local taxes are considered a resident of that particular state. The realization for many first-generation, undocumented students is that they cannot attend a college/university of their choice because they are not documented. Moreover, after graduation they will have even more difficult than their peers finding a job because they don’t have the proper documentation. Undocumented, underrepresented students are at a disadvantage to receive learning opportunities and achievements than their peers. Moreover, immigrant families need greater access to accurate information about college in a consistent manner.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY AND RESEARCH PROBLEM
The need for change is evident, reforms for better immigration laws for public education to create opportunities, access, and respect for undocumented students is imperative. Undocumented high school students need to have the accessibility to secondary learning and know that laws were created to employ citizenship and in-state tuition eligibility for residents who contribute to our society and social order.
Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career?
Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive life and contributing to benefit our society?
Because of the current economic hardship in the U.S., is it fair to allocate money for college to immigrants or only to American students?
I first plan to visit
Senator of Arizona, who has created a hindrance on immigrants who exist in that state. Moreover, federal law still prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens residential rights for postsecondary education for in-state tuition. bigotry and prejudices against someone who is different still thrives even today. and state laws to the contrary are preempted by federal law
Helms theory of racial identity most influential three concepts: Racial Identity ego status 1. Conformity, negative stereo type of group, commitment to white standards, Adaptation assimilation accepted into white culture, 2.ego status Dissonance much confusion discriminated against will always be viewed as an minority repress anxiety, People of Color Racial Identity, and White racial identity self-actualization. ethnic statuses mature, being able to perceive and cope with the realities of racism and other oppressive forces 3. Immersion/Emersion immerse into own cultural group reject white culture self blame for ignorance emersion educated about your culture true understanding strengths and weaknesses
Higher Education and Children in Immigrant Families ??" Sandy Baum and Stella M. Flores
The article describes how new immigrants emerge in the U.S. every day, and how one’s country origin, socioeconomic status can determine the educational goal attainment of immigrant students. The author talks about Asian immigrant parents who are primarily in the engineering and medical fields, whereas Latino and Caribbean immigrant parents are labor workers. The effect of having educated or non-educated parents plays a vital role on the success of immigrant students in attaining a post-secondary degree. The younger an immigrant enters the U.S. preferably before the age of thirteen the more likely they will succeed in secondary education because the language skills should be well-built.
The authors mention some of the barriers for immigrants attending higher education as language, not proficient in English, applying for college, financial aid, and lack of academic
preparedness. Students with low income are able to enroll in college; however, they have a greater difficulty of completing college. Mexican parents do not want their children to leave home to attend college, discouraging to Mexican students.
Most immigrants who have permission from their native country to attend a university in the U.S. have been selected because of their intelligence and skills. The authors found this true except for Mexican immigrants who most likely have a higher social economical status. The article illustrates that more the half of illegal immigrants 53% has graduated from high school, and has attended postsecondary education. The research is contradictory in show a high postsecondary outcome of immigrants overcoming financial and legal barriers. This pertains to the students who arrive before age thirteen.
Outrage by Dick Morris & Eileen 2007 (Harper Collins Publishers)
Chapter 1- Immigration: The Wide Open Door
This chapter first discusses the extensive measures that the United States conducts on a daily basis to keep unwanted illegal immigrants from crossing our U.S Mexican borders. The chapter describes this as only half of the problem, the other half of this issue is illegal immigrants living in the U.S. with expired visa and the fact that our government does not kick them out. These immigrants come here legally as visitor’s tourist, workers or students; however, 50% of these immigrants never leave. The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the governmental agency responsible for protecting our borders and illegal visitors form residing in the U.S.
There are about 11.5 million illegal immigrants living in the U.S. Roughly about four to five million of them are here on expired visas. Sixty percent of these immigrants apply for permanent residency and many are granted regardless if they are legally or illegal living in the U.S. In 2001 there were 7,588,775 issued visas and 32,824,000 numbers of admissions into the U.S. The chapter talks about the fraud on the part of the immigrants, identity fraud, document fraud, counterfeiting, and corrupt employees, widespread lying and misrepresentation on the part of the applicants. Over $1billion dollars a year is spent on the imprisonment of about 300,000 illegal immigrants in the U.S. The consular officer is an ICE employee rarely who evaluates the application of the applicant; rarely does he turn an applicant away because of fraud. The consular does not want to complete the lengthy document that must be completed to justify the denial. One area where the consular is enforcing the law is on student visas.
Since the 911 attacks the government is doing better at identifying who enters the U.S. by having the home country fingerprint and photograph the immigrant before leaving, and the U.S. fingerprints the immigrant once they arrive to validate the accuracy of the entry is the same person. However, even with these provisions in practice not all U.S. airports and seaports fingerprint the immigrant when they leave. Without efficient exit check points there is no way to check immigrants whose visas have expired. Most of these immigrants live in poor minority cities.
In Ortiz and Santos’ results suggest that like Asians, Latino/as identify as a distinct group. They are characterize
d as Puerto Rican, Chicana, Mexican, Dominican, Latino/a, 7 of 9 however, most prefer Mexican American (given that the study was done in California. Within this group some of the sub?groups have a negative association attached, “Ferdman & Gallegos’s (2001) model of Latino Racial Identity Orientation,” (Ortiz & Santos p.133). Mexican American racial classifications do not fit neatly into the binary classification used by the United States, which leads to mistaken in ethnic identity.
The authors also discussed the Latino/a culture and traditions, describing how family members, music, food, language, religious beliefs, and cultural events contribute an important role in ethnic identity. Senior family members describe the traditions, cultural experiences and value of their history. For many students they lost their cultural awareness during high school. However, college became a time for students to return to their cultural background and understand the importance of family in their ethnic identity development.
In Ortiz and Santos critically examined immigrant Asian American family structure and its generational effects on ethnicity. Asian racial groups have sub?groups that self identify as Chinese, Cambodian, Japanese, Taiwanese, Filipino and Korean. Additionally, within these sub?groups are varied religious beliefs, Christian, Catholic or Buddhist which also contribute to ethnicity. This is the only group that had a significant interaction with mainstream America during high school. In the Asian culture the extended family often lives in one 5 of 9 household, children, parents, grandparents, and they speak their native language. They believe in strong family ties, and that children must be respectful of their elders. Asian parents tend to be strict and have high expectations for educational achievement and preserving and protecting Asian culture.
Asian students felt that their cultural values were transforming, just from living in the United States and that Asian assimilation to mainstream American had occurred. An Asian female participant in the study discussed the strict cultural background and how she concealed her interracial dating from her parents. The author states that once ethnic identity is weakened when a group adopts the host society, group members sometimes lose all traces of their identity. However, Asian acculturation with the mainstream culture is strong and bicultural according to Berry’s Model of Identity. Students value their language and traditions as well as positively interrelate with society as a whole. Asian college students had positive interactions with mainstream America, which made them begin to examine their own culture. However, some Asians feel that if you acculturate fully you have “sold out” your race to mainstream America.
The Dream Act
The immigration law reform act is one of the changes President Barack Obama has promised the American people. He is genuinely taking into consideration the Dream Act, along with other strategies to improve immigrant existence in the U.S. The initiative of the DREAM Act would allow states the right to determine eligibility for in-state tuition. The DREAM Act would successfully revoke a condition, “Section 505 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA), which has discourage states from offering in-state tuition to undocumented students unless they offer the same benefit to all out-of-state students.” (Palacios pg. 2).
Some of the common barriers to college for undocumented students are the same as their peers such as and the insufficiencies in the academic preparation
of the high schools years and financial difficulty. Under the Dream Act undocumented students who are enrolled in institutions of higher education and meet all of the requirements for conditional permanent residency status would be eligible for federal student loan and federal work-study programs. However, with the current financial downturn in the United States economy, many federal and state programs will be negatively affected. This will have an impact on low-income students as well as undocumented students who want to participate in college grant programs, financial aid, tuition cost and the university/college student scholarships and loans. Because of the current economic hardship in the U.S., is it fair to allocate money for college to immigrants or only to American students? If immigrants are serving in the U.S. military and contributing to the economical structure than I would think that most would say that it is fair.
• The Dream Act is a policy which states that, “ undocumented students willing to attend college or serve in the armed forces have the full ability to contribute to our society by creating a clear path to citizenship and allowing states to determine eligibility requirements for in-state tuition.”
• The DREAM Act, would allow illegal immigrants who were brought here at a young age by their parents a pathway to conditional legal status if they arrived in the United States before age 16, have been in the country for five continuous years, and have graduated from high school or obtained a GED or serve in the military.
To be eligible to apply for the Dream Act permanent residency the individual must live in the U.S. before the age of 16 and have continuous residency for five years. The individual must be able to speak English. The individual must enroll in some form of higher education, a trade school, community college, a four year institution or the military. Within a two year period and if the student has followed the aforementioned criteria the undocumented youth can petition for conditional residency. While in the conditional status a student cannot apply for Pell grants, but can utilize personal scholarships and loans. If the criteria are not met after six years the undocumented individual conditional status will lapse and they could be deported back to their homeland.
The Dream Act is still awaiting approval while many immigrants have spent more years illegally in the United States than in their home countries. The Dream Act gives hope to many immigrant American families for authorized work, education, and permanent residency. Hopefully the Dream Act immigration law reform will be passed this year along with many other initiatives the President is implementing to improve access to institutions of higher education.
Creating Pathways to College for Migrant Students: Assessing a Migrant Outreach Program
The article on Higher Educational Access for Undocumented Students suggested that:
Students should be encouraged to take student success courses during their first semester to learn early on about the transfer process, and/or major requirements to avoid taking unnecessary or inappropriate courses since cost is a major concern. These courses can also help students establish connections with undocumented student support clubs. Getting involved with undocumented student support clubs is particularly valuable because they provide students with peer role models and allow students to share information. The clubs also provide students with a sense of empowerment and official institutional (Perez pg. 35)
Most undocumented students situation correspond with the first-generation student as well as the low-income student. Poor students with no financial means and social capital are questionable to make it to college. The RAND study showed that economically disadvantaged families have been hit even harder by the recession, increasing the amount of financial aid and while the increase in Pell Grants to $5350 in 2009 and $5,550 in 2010 is encouraging, the cost of college education is significantly more. Additionally, undocumented students are not privy to state and federal grants.
Policy-makers and educationalists must effectively target services needed by undocumented students to improve the impact of accessing a secondary education on student’s security as a citizen. The Dream Act is an example of legislation that would provide a path to citizenship for undocumented students who were brought to the US as minors. Although efforts are being made to reform immigration laws, the legal status of undocumented students remains uncertain. As of now, prior to the Dream Act being standard, we should continued to try and improved involvement with parents, community leaders, counselors and teachers so that undocumented children will achieve their innate potential. A degree gives the student the potential for more career opportunities, earning power and recognition. To empower students this freedom the government would have to remove the barriers that persist in undocumented children from achieving goals.
A program could be designed to implement the effectiveness of undocumented students’ access and equity in institutions of higher education.
• Identify older undocumented students to serve as role models.
• Counselors (needs assessment) should be knowledgeable about government and college
• Identify private sponsors who can provide financial support to undocumented students
• Involve Community partnership in internships and permanent positions after graduation
• Survey undocumented student (for changes they would like to see)
• Colleges/universities should support the Dream Act
The United States cannot maintain its global position if they do not utilize all the talent that is available, which includes undocumented students. I do think that the rules should apply to all U.S. citizens given the fact that taxes local and federal are paid by the people. So why would an immigrant who has only been paying taxes for a few years have an advantage of lower tuition cost than a person who has paid all their life.
On a daily basis I help undocumented students understand the legality of gaining residency for tuition purposes. There are many students who interpret the rules to favor their circumstances, however, I must examine each case individually and make an accurate assessment. Many of the students have attended PA public school system their entire lives. Additionally, many of their family members own businesses and work in prominent companies but are not considered residents for permanency or tuition purposes.
After all the _____ bigotry and prejudices against someone who is different still thrives even today. With all the talk about diversity and valued beliefs one would think that Americans would conquer their bias opinions of another culture integrating with the American society. America is made up of a melting pot of all races, colors, cultures, and economic status. However, there are more people who are accepting of immigrants, but you still have individuals, like the Senator of Arizona, who has created a hindrance on immigrants who exist in that state. Moreover, federal law still prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens residential rights for postsecondary education for in-state tuition.
the text book is Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 3/e John W. Creswell
Not sure if the theory I selected is workable for the paper
*My instructor uses a digital drop box where we put our papers that checks authenticity*
I am african american, work for a major university, grew up in an urban metropolitan city, I work as the certifying official at my univeristy were I determine residency for all students. etc.
Must show triangulation - Kreswell
No math - analysis of the data SPSS, ANOVA - must match review
this is a qualitative research study
There are faxes for this order.
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