Essay Instructions: You are to write a 3-page paper. *Do Not Use Outside Sources*
Directions: You are to discuss the Editorial and write about what you found “Most Surprising and Interesting” from this reading.
The Historical Context of Distance Education
First generation: a brief history of correspondence study
The history of distance education begins with courses of instruction that were delivered by meal. Usually call correspondence study it was also called home study by the early for profit schools and independent study by the universities. Beginning in their late 1880s people who wanted to study at home or at work could for the first time octane instruction from a distance teacher. This was because of the invention of a new technology cheap and reliable postal services resulting largely from the spread of the railway networks. In 1878 Bishop John H. Vincent cofounder of the Chautauqua movement created the Chautauqua literary and scientific circle. This organization offered eight for your correspondence course of reading to supplement the summer school held at Lake Chautauqua. Correspondence through the mail was first used for higher education courses at the Chautauqua correspondence college. Founded in 1881 it was renamed the Chautauqua College of Liberal arts in 1883 and authorized by the State of New York to award the Thomas and decrease by correspondence. About the same time and not far from Chautauqua, in Scranton Pennsylvania a private vocational school called the collier engineer schools of mines began to offer a correspondence course in mine safety. Such was the success of this course that the school so began to offer of the courses and in 1891 it retained its so the international correspondent school. It is now part of the Thomson publishing empire. It should be noted that several experiments in using the mail to deliver teaching occurred in other countries. In Great Britain, Isaac Pitman used the national postal system in the 1840s to teach his shorthand system. In Europe in the mid-18 50s Charles Toussaint a Frenchman and Gustav Langenscheidt a German began to exchange language instruction leading to the establishment of the correspondence language school. Similar initiatives were taken around the world as one country after another developed their postal systems. Courses were usually in vocational subjects or as we say today for noncredit courses. In England a group of professors at the Italy University of Cambridge went so far as to try to establish an academic degree but correspondence as a way of opening up access to higher education for working people. The idea was firmly rejected by the administration with the beneficial effect for the United States that one of its leading advocates a Methodist minister called Richard Moulton immigrated there. He became acquainted with another theologian William Rainey Harper and jumped on the opportunity to work with Harper and setting up exactly the kind of university courses they had a Cambridge had rejected. William Rainey Harper had acquired an interest in teaching my correspondence as a professor at the Baptist Union theological seminary and Morgan Park police where he used the method to teach courses in Hebrew. In the summer he was a volunteer at the Chautauqua Institute and it was he who introduced the method of correspondents there extending the institute’s educational programs across the country and throughout the year. In 1892 Harper was appointed to be the first president of the new University of Chicago. Inspired by his experiences at Chautauqua by Richard Moulton egalitarian vision of using the technology of the mail system to open opportunities for learning to the adult population he began his tenure as president by setting up a correspondence study programs thus initiating the world’s first formal program of University distance education a notable leader was an Elliott who as early as 1873 established one of the first home study schools the society to encourage studies at home. The purpose of the school was to help women who were denied for the most part access to formal education institutions with the opportunity to study through materials delivered to their homes.
Other examples of the use of correspondence for the education of women are found in the histories of the land grant universities. For example in 1900 Cornell University appointed Martha Rensselaer to its faculty to develop a program for women in rule upstate New York within three years there were three credit courses offered by correspondence. In five years a program and enrolled more than 20,000 women. Correspondence injunction at the land-grant universities was developed on the policy foundation of the 1862 morill act. The morill act democratic ideals directed that education opportunity would be open for people from all backgrounds. The universities were also meant to play a greater part in the daily life of their communities and in the university had ever before. Moving away from old world values they introduced ensure options and the practical parts of agriculture, engineering, business, and home economics. These new ideas more a calculated by the Wisconsin idea which claimed that boundaries of the university campus would be the boundaries of the state. In fulfilling this mission corresponds injunctions was a problem: which explains why the land grant universities led the world in developing the correspondence method. According to one of the first two streets of correspondence teaching by the year 1930 American universities offer correspondence teaching quoting Dorothy Canfield Fisher: “about 2 million students enrolled every year in correspondence schools… four times the number of all the students enrolled in all the colleges, universities and professional schools in the United States.” There was rapid growth for the for-profit sector also though here the sale practices of some of the private schools brought the method into some dispute. As a consequence the for-profit schools organize the national home study Council in 1926 to regulate school and promote ethical practice and professionalism. In 1994 the national home school council changed its name to distance education and training Council. Two years before the formation of national home school study Council the University correspondence educators also formally codified their standards of practice under the umbrella of the national University at extension Association. In 1960 81 of the most thorough studies of correspondence education was sponsored by both the national home study Council and the NUEA . Call the correspondence education research project it reported that approximately 3 million Americans will study you through this method nationwide. Of those nearly 10% were in college programs more than 20% in private school and about 9% in other categories more than 50% were studying in the armed services. In 1969 in an attempt to distinguish themselves from a home study schools University correspondents educators decided to call their method independent study. Previously known as the correspondence study division, they became the independent study division of the national University extension Association later at the national University continuing education Association and since 1996 the University continuing education Association. The independent study division was abolished along with the UCEA division in 1998. In 1992 new organization the American Association of collegiate independent study was formed to advance the interests of independent study professionals especially in providing professional continuing education.
Correspondence education in the Armed Forces
Founded in 1941 the United States Army Institute was transformed in 1943 into the United States Armed Forces Institute headed by William Young was director of correspondence education at the Pennsylvania State University and located in Madison, Wisconsin. By 1966 United States Armed Forces Institute offered over 200 correspondence courses in elementary, high school, college, technical and vocational subjects, catering for some half-million students. More than 7,000,000 members of the Armed Forces took high school courses at approximately 260 1222 enrolled in college courses before United States Armed Forces Institute close to 9074 United States Armed Forces Institute Pioneer computerized marketing of assignments a 24-hour phone and counseling service and the use of tutorial groups linked to the correspondence curriculum. These and other ideas was taken up by the direct of correspondence instruction at the University of Wisconsin an ex-naval officer Charles Wedemeyer. He had taken a strong interest in correspondence as a means of training the naval personnel during his wartime service and this interest continued as a result of his association with United States Armed Forces Institute on behalf of the university. In 1974 the US Department of Defense replaced United States Armed Forces Institute with a program called the defense activity for nontraditional education support, a program of correspondence education that in effect outsource to the delivery of correspondence courses the university and private schools. In this organization defense activity for nontraditional education support cooperated with the independent study division of the national University continuing education Association in promoting and delivering independent study programs of courses.
Second-generation: the history of broadcasting
When radio appeared as a new technology in the early part of the 20th century many educators and University extension of our midst reacted with optimism and enthusiasm. Diverse educational radio license was issued by the federal government to the latter-day Saints University of Salt Lake City, 90.1. In February Daytona five the State University of Ottawa offered its first five for credit radio courses. Of 80 students enrolled at first semester 64 would go to finish their coursework at the University. Radio as the delivery of technology for education however did not live up to expectations. The lukewarm interest shown by the university faculty and administrators and the amateurism of t hose few professors who were interested proved a poor match for the fierce commitment to the broadcast medium exhibited by commercial broadcasters wanted it as a medium for advertising.
Educational television was in development as early as 1934. In that year the state University of Iowa presented television broadcasts and such subjects as oral hygiene and astronomy, by 1939 the university station had broadcast almost 400 education programs. In that same year a high school in Los Angeles experimented with television and classroom. After World War II when television frequencies were allocated 242 of the 2053 channels were given to noncommercial use. In addition the program broadcast on the channel some of the best educational television was pioneered by commercial stations. The ABC aired Johns Hopkins University Continental classroom which some higher education institutes used fo r credit instruction, and CBS broadcast their sunrise semester. Although commercial broadcasters gave up on the public service offerings education television fared better than educational radio because of the contributions of the ford foundation. From 1950 onward ford gave many hundreds of millions of dollars in grants for education broadcasting. In 1962 the federal education television facilities act under the construction of educational television’s stations. In 1965 the Carnegie commission of educational television issued a report that led to Congress passing the public broadcasting act of 1967 setting up the Corporation for public broadcasting. In 1956 the public schools of Washington County Maryland were linked in a closed-circuit television service about the same time the Chicago Television College pioneered the involvement of community colleges and teaching by television. In 1961 the Midwest program on airborne television injunction involved six states in designing and producing programs broadcast from transmitters transported on DC-6 airplanes. According to Unwin and McAleese 1988 this project, which lasted six years help break down the state very, is to exchange of educational programming as well as set the way for future educational broadcasting by satellite.
Instructional television fixed services
Instructional television fixed service is came on the same in 1961 when the SEC issued an experimental license to the planedge school system on Long Island New York. Instructional television fixed service is a low-cost low-power over the air distribution system that delivers up to four channels of television pictures in any geographical area but only to a radius of about 25 miles. Schools and other educational institutions could receive transmission using a special antenna costs about $500. Public school districts used instructional television fixed service is for sharing specialist teacher and providing teachers continuing education courses. A pioneering effort and this was the Stanford instructional television network, which in 1969 began broadcasting 120 engineering courses to 900 engineers at 16 member companies. Beginning in 1984 California State University Chico used instructional television fixed service this to deliver computer science courses to Hewlett-Packard employees to all their locations in five states.
Cable-television and telecourses
The first cable television began operation in 1952. In 1972 the federal communication commission required all cable operators to provide an educational channel. Education programs delivered by broadcast or cable television was referred to as a telecourses. Among the early leaders of this provision war at the Appalachian community service network based at the University of Kentucky, he Pennsylvania State University network, the privately funded mind extension University, the electronic University network, and the international University consortium. By the mid-19 80s there wore us around 200 college-level telecourses produced by universities, community colleges, private producers and public and commercial broadcasting stations distributed by the by the producers themselves or or by the Corporation of public broadcasting. More than 1000 is a too simple secondary education sign on each year for courses distributed by the adult learning services of the CPB enrolling more than 600,000 adult students. Starting in 1981 the Annenberg foundation supported the CPB on a project that provided funds typically $3 million for University level telecourses. The courses integrated television programs with textbooks, study guides, faculty, and administrator guides. They were marketed to colleges and universities throughout the whole offering advice University correspondence programs.
Third-generation: a system approach; AIM; and the OU
In the late 1960s and early 1970s a time of critical change in distance education resulting from several experiments with new ways of program organizing technology and human resources leading to the new instructional techniques and educational theorizing. The two most important experiments were at the University of Wisconsin AIM and Great Britain’s open University. The purpose of the articulated ensure national media Project funded by the Carnegie Corp. from 1964 to 1968 and directed by Wedemeyer at the University of Wisconsin Madison was to test the idea of joining various communication technologies with the aim of delivering high quality and low costs teaching to off-campus students. The technologies included printed study guides and correspondents tutoring, programs broadcasting by radio and television, recorded audiotapes, telephone conferences, kits for home experiments, and local library resources. Also articulated in the program was to support and counseling, discussion and local study groups, and the use of university laboratories to a vacation periods. Wedemeyer idea regarding students was that using a variety of media meant that not only could content be better presented through it me one medium along but also meant that people will differing lifestyles could choose the particular combination that was mostly for their needs. To bring together the expertise needed to produce such integrated multimedia programs articulated structure media invented the idea of the course design team, formed of instructional designers, technology specialists, and content experts. Articulated instructional media represented a historical milestone and turning point in the history of distance education. This was the first test of the idea of distance education as a total system. Articulated instructional media the viability of the theory that the functions of the teacher could be divided and teaching could be improved Windows functions were assembled by a team of specialists and delivered through various media. It tested the idea of the learner could benefit from both the presentation strengths of the broadcast media as well as the interaction that correspondents and telephone made possible. It expected learners to be self-directed as they work through the mediated instructional materials but provide human helpers to facilitate interaction and to help given them when needed.
Birth of the Open University
In 1967 the British government set up a committee to plan a revolutionary new educational institution. At the first ID and was simply to use television and radio to open access to higher education for the adult population. In November 1967 officials from the planning committee visited Wisconsin to study the methods and achievements of the AIM project. Soon after, Wedemeyer was invited to meet with them and London. Two years later, as the Open University began to take shape he moved to the site of its new headquarters to spend several months in the home of Walter Perry, the first vice chancellor the head of the University assisting in developing the new institution. What emerged was the premiere national distance educat ion University. It would enjoy economies of scale by having more students than any other university application Truong level of funding, and employing the fullest range of medication technologies to teach a full university curriculum to any adult who wanted such education. As Wedemeyer was able to claim later call in almost the entire educational geographer he of an open education system was identified in the AIM experiment. In particular, with AIM three fatal flaws in mind British policymakers stood firm against the objections and pressures from the higher education establishment that they could receive funding to undertake distance education as setting up the units inside conventional universities. Instead policymakers may be courageous decision to establish a fully odd anonymous institution in Howard to give its own degrees with control of its own funds and its own faculty. The Alban University has justified the decision the merging as a world-class university by any criterion as well as a model of total system approach to distance education. Domestically and internationally with an annual enrollment of more than 200,000 adult students and around 20,000 graduates each year the open University damage trees not only the potential of distance education to provide opportunity regardless of geographic location but even with an open first come first-served bases in enrollment policy it demonstrates that distance is no barriers on to the delivery of education that is a very high quality. In the official evaluations Open University is ranked near the top object you Quay universities in both research and teaching and it achieves these results with a superior cost-effectiveness, with a full-time equivalent being 40% of average cost in the traditional universities. It enrolls more than a third of all part-time students in the UK and graduates about one in 12 of all University graduates and this is all distance education!
Global spread of the system approach
In part due to those achievements the Open University has widely emulated in other countries. Because the large-scale needed to octane both quality and cost effectiveness many of these open universities are large or as described by a previous Vice Chancellor of the Open University, they are mega-universities; that is to say, distance teaching institutions having more than 100,000.
The American response
Among the few countries that did not set up a national Open University the most notable is the United States, the nation that gave birth to almost all the main madness on which the success of the open University depend numerous explanations for this have been given. One is that there did not exist in the United States the same political motive that is the removal of barriers to higher education that brought the British policymakers to invest in a very big way in distance education. United States already had an open educational system and the state universities had plenty of distance education. Furthermore where open universities more successfully established the scale of provision was merely always national. This requi red national political commitment and leadership particularly in facing up to the higher education lobbies. The distribution political control of higher education in the United States which each state having to deal with its own higher education establishment made it impossible to obtain a national policy or set up a national delivery system. However some institutions were set up in the United States and the late 1960s and 1970s that those smaller borrows some ideas from the open universities. Among the first of these was little for University of Advanced Technology, a nonprofit institution in not rated 1964. It offered degree programs both in the classroom and at a distance through regional centers in the state of Florida. 10 years later it changed its name to Nova University and in 1994 merged with the southeastern university Nova Southeastern University 2003. In 1971 the Empire State College was created within the State University of New York to deliver a bachelor and Associates program exclusively at a distance. This is a campus-less institution with no permanent faculty. Its enrollment reaches 6000 per year. Goddard College and Syracuse University started special adult degree programs and Regents College started external degree program in 1970; time as Addison college of New Jersey did the same in 1972. One of the first consortia forms of organized distance education was the University of Mid-America. The University of Mid-America was established by nine Midwestern universities based at the University of Nebraska with Dr. McNeil a friend of Wedemeyer and enthusiastic follower of the open University developments as first president. The idea was that some of the advantages of the open University could be achieved as each of the universities produce courses that will be available to students throughout the consortium. The University of Mid-America was discontinued in 1982 due to low enrollments, high video production costs, and loss of funding support; this and term was a reflection of insufficient political support in the member states. The open University emphasis on learner support in its regional tutorial and counseling services also lead to an increase attention to this in the United States and to an increased sophistication is the services unit. The 1980s also saw improvement in the quality of courses study guides resulting not only from the open University’s example but also helped by the introduction of computerized desktop publishing systems. Although this discussion has focused on higher education issued be noted that neither today nor in the past has the majority of American distance learning been in higher-education.by 1984 and there were approximately 400 single mode private homes study schools they offer courses in about 600 areas of study primarily continuing education courses aimed at the profession and vocations. Although colleges and universities listed in the national University continuing education Association accounted for 300,000 students schools associated with the national home study Council and enrolled 4,000,000 students, with the armed services accounting or 700,000. Electronics, business , and computing had become the most popular field of study.
Distance education that emerged in the United States in the 1980s was based on the technologies of teleconferencing and therefore was normally design for group use. This appeal to a wider number of educators and policymakers been a closer fit to the traditional view of education is something that occurs in classes unlike the correspondence or the open University models which were directed at individuals learning along usually in-home study. The first technology to be use in teleconferencing on a fairly wide scale during the 1970s and into the 1980s was audio conferencing. Unlike previous forms of distance education which were primarily one to one exchanges between a learner and the teacher by correspondence or more receiving only transmissions are broadcast lessons by radio or television, audio conferencing allowed a student to answer back and for teachers to interact with students in real-time and in different locations. An audio teleconference could be conducted with individual students at their home or office using radical a handsets but normally it meant using special equipment consisting of a speaker and microphone’s and one or more different groups of learners. Also any number of sites could be joined together either by an operator or by means of a bridge a device that automatically links a large number of callers simultaneously. The first major educational audio conference system was at the University of Wisconsin and was a direct outcome of the articulated instructional media project. Known as the educational telephone network it was set up in 1965 by Dr. Parker one of Wedemeyer students with the immediate purpose of providing continuing education for physicians. Starting with 18 locations and a single weekly program the system expanded to 200 locations and university campuses, country courthouses, libraries, hospitals, and schools with over 35,000 users at more than 100 programs every week. Approximately 95% of the network time was used for continuing and noncredit education with considerable emphasis on the professionals, mainly doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, nurses, engineers, ministers of religion, librarians, and social workers.
Satellites and interactive videoconferencing
The age of satellite communication began on April 6, 1965 with the launching of the early Bird satellite. It deliver 240 telephone circuits or one channel of television over the North Atlantic and was consider a technological miracle. By the end of 1967 for an international telecommunications satellite Organization satellites were in orbit. Very early in the evolution of this technology American universities began to experiment with transmitting education programs. Was of the first of these was the University of Alaska which offered continuing education courses for teacher’s. A love of was the University of Hawaii’s Pan-Pacific education and communication experiments by satellite was created in 1971 to provide satellite programs over some 20 Pacific Islands. These early satellite services operated at low power and the equipment required to transmit and receive signals was expensive. Programs were usually transmitted to receive stations and then distributed locally by ITFS or cable networks. Your technology for direct broadcast satellite that developed in the 1990s allowed individuals to receive programs directly in their homes or for individual schools to receive directly at their school. Although it was the open University at that to an explosion of interest in distance teaching in the rest of the world which caused a similar interests in the United States was the availability of satellite technology. The American organizational device for using this new technology weather f or broadcasting educational television or for interactive teleconferencing was the consortium a voluntary association of independent institutions that share the costs, the work, and the results of designing, delivering, and teaching educational courses. One of the first such consortiums the national University teleconferencing network was conceived at a NUCEA meeting in Washington, DC in February 1982, Grantham director of university extension at Oklahoma State University took the lead in convening a planning conference the following months in Kansas City. Of the 70 member’s Institute of NUCEA 40 participated in a green to work together to plan and deliver education programs by satellite. The network was established with 66 universities and the Smithsonian Institute as members and with its base at Oklahoma State University. Over the next 10 months the network grew to more than 250 organizations either providing or receiving a range of over 100 programs and such areas as: aging, agriculture, child abuse, tax planning, reading instruction, engineering, interpersonal relationships, international affairs, marketing, medicine, and social and political affairs. NUTN provided programs to as many as 6000 people at a time located at some 200 receive sites. It moved its headquarters to Old Dominion University in 1994. The national technological University based in Fort Collins Colorado was established in 1984. It is an accredited university offering graduate and continuing education courses in engineering, and awards its own degrees. National technological University is a virtual university with no faculty or campus of its own it delivers courses taught by professors at major universities around the country. Initially courses were provided from a pool of 24 universities and this group to some 50 participating institutions. Courses are uplink to NTU by satellite from the originating University and then redistribute it by satellite by NTU. Downlinks are located in some 500 locations including universities, private sector companies and government agencies. Interaction in such systems is nearly always buy audio, such as by telephone. Both NUTN and NTU illustrate some of the key elements of teleconferencing Consortia and a new form of market-driven distance education that emerged in the 1980s. Because they represent a pool of larger universities they could offer a broader selection of courses to prospective clients either individual or organizations that any single member. Secondly, members of the consortium could compete against each other to offer the best quality and most timely courses introducing a competitive element at all levels including individual and professor at the courses they teach that had been largely absent from the US educational system as a result the needs of the customers students, employees, and companies began to dictate which courses more marketable, and thus worked teaching not be often esoteric interest of academics.
The later half of the 1980s and 1990s saw the emergence of a large distance education industry outside higher education with training for corporations and continuing education for the professions delivered through business TV that is, enter active video and audio delivered by satellite. I’m 1987 a study of Fortune 500 companies show at using this delivery system. IBM had interactive satellite education network with originating studios in four cities and receive sites and 13. Federal Express had daily programs 800 downlinks nationwide. Kodak Corp. sent twice-weekly two hour-long training programs nationwide. Tandem computers broadcasted to 11 European countries as well as to 72 sites in North America. Finally, Domino’s pizza sent mobile uplink to Amy store in the country or an employee has something to teach the rest. For organizations not having their own satellite networks time could be bought on one of the several business satellite networks. An example was American rehabilitation education network which provided professional continuing education for health care professionals at nearly 100 sites nationwide. One of American rehabilitation educational network programs, management vision, was broadcast to 240 sites in 1986-87 and 650 sites in 1987-88. Corporations made up 60% of management vision subscribers, hospitals 30%, and colleges most of remainder. The public service satellite consortium was a collaborative group representing a broad-spectrum of this is TV users such a s the American Hospital Association, the American Law Institute, American Bar Association, the national education Association, the AFL-CIO, and the US chamber of commerce. All of these organizations use satellites on a redwood bases in their continuing education programs. For example, the health education network was a subscription driven network with over 300 hospital members, focusing on in-service training of medical personnel and patient education with approximately 40 programs monthly.
Interactive video in the K-12 schools
In 1987 the federal Star school program assistance act was passed by Congress. The act authorized a five-year budget of 100 mean dollars to promote the use of telecommunications for instruction in math, science, and more languages at the K-12 level. The program stipulated that funds be allocated to state level partnerships and require matching funds from participating states. The office of educational research and improvement in the federal Hartman of education administer the Star school program. The first award under this project was for $19 million the year for two years to four regional partnerships. The myth that could sort them consisted of five universities in four states, the TI-In network-based and Texas included three state agencies, for universities, and a private corporation. Additionally $5.6 million was awarded to a third can sort them of state education agencies and state television authorities SERC to provide high school courses in 19 states. These consortiums covered 45 states and reached almost 3000 schools. They provided over 8000 students with high school credit courses, 32,037 participated in science programs. In 1990 four new grants totaling $14,813,000 were awarded to consortia located in the northeastern and northwestern United States. The star school program had tremendous impact on distance education in K-12 classrooms particularly in Guinea equipment installed and programs developed and providing teachers with training. One of the most important effects of the project was to stimulate collaborations among provider agencies located in different states to deliver access state boundaries. In addition to the star school consortium many states establish their own satellite interactive television adverts for school instructions. The national Governor’s Association report for 1989 reported that 10 states operated a statewide or regional teleconference education network and 14 more planning one. The most famous of these war Oklahoma’s art and sciences teleconferencing service was a partnership of the Oklahoma State University as the State Department of education. One of the most popular offerings of ASTS was a German language course, which was distributed to hundreds o f high schools around the country. Kentucky established the Kentucky educational television system and install satellites downlink at every school in the state at a cost of $11.5 million. During the 1991 and 1992 school year over 23 hundred students were enrolled in Kentucky educational television system, math, foreign languages, and science courses. Other states that establish educational satellite networks included Alaska where the LearnAlaska served 250 communities—Georgia, Indiana, Nebraska, Missouri, Virginia, and Utah.
The Star schools, universities, and this is TV system described previously used one-way/2-way audio communications. Participants at all sites could see and hear the presenter from the originating site but could only respond by audio. Participants could not see other participants only hear them. As the 1990s wore on two-way videoconferencing became more widely available. There are several ways of providing two-way teleconferencing the of older and more expensive method that provides signals from one studio to another using technology that transmitted data. The video signals were compressed by a device called a codec the earliest codec war as large as a refrigerator by the mid -19 90s they could be fitted inside a personal computer so that videoconferencing became possible at transmission rates as low as 56 kb per second. Michael G. Moore at Pennsylvania State initiated the first four graduate courses delivered by two-way compressed video teleconferencing in January 1986 in a studio on the campus at University Park with the group in Erie Pennsylvania. The two-way or multi-point videoconferencing became easier and less costly with the development of fiber optic telephone lines that permitted transmissions of higher data rates which allow videoconferencing between small groups of learners or individual learners and their teachers with the video displayed on personal computers.
Fifth generation: computers and Internet based virtual classes
The early computer systems developed in the 1960s and 70s wore large mainframe that involve rules both equipment. They were connected to terminals with keyboards either coal Axel cables within buildings, or remotely by using telephone connections. A precursor of computer networking lots of project developed during the 1970s at the University of Illinois called the PLATO project, which allowed a number of sites to communicate via either dial-up lines or dedicated connections. Plato introduce the idea of an electronic network form of instruction as well as originating a number of well-known commercial products such as Lotus Notes. After Intel invented the microprocessor in 1971 and the first personal computer the Altair 8800 came onto the market in 1975 the use of computer-based injections increased significantly. In 1989 according to the US Bureau of Census 15% of all households in the US had a personal computer and nearly half of all children have access to computers at home or school. In addition, graphics, caller, and the sound became possible and authoring languages make computer-based instruction easier to develop. But most importantly the cost barriers to availability of computers came down. Educational software also called courseware became a major business enterprise and thousands of programs were published at all levels and in all subject domains. In 1960 that the US Department of Defense through its advanced research Project agency set up a network to link the computers of the Armed Forces, universities, and defense contractors. In the mid-19 80s the National Science Foundation developed the national science foundation network, a network of five supercomputers centers connected to universities and research organizations. The National Science Foundation was upgraded in 1987 and again in 1992. It could be used for exchanging e-mails and data files and accessing bulletin boards and library facilities. In the earliest way of linking computers weren’t sure reduction of groups rather than individuals was referred to as audio graphics. The graphics were transmitted to a computer on one telephone line to enhance the audio presentation. For the computer included tablets and light pens, cameras to transmit low scanned pictures, and scanners for transmitting documents. When moving through a bridge the computers at a number of sites allow students and teachers to interact and real-time with the graphics and visual images as well as the audio messages. As early as 1989 Michael G. Moore at the Pennsylvania State University began experimenting in using audio graphics as a way of internationalizing teaching about distance education, teaching school graduate courses to cohorts of students in Mexico, Finland, and Estonia as well as in the United States. And now the major experiment in distance education by computer conferencing was the electronic University network. This was an undergraduate degree program earned by taking courses from 19 universities with accreditation awarded by Thomas Edison College in New Jersey. Horses were delivered on computer disk and in print, interaction with professors occurred through computer, telephone, and postal mail. The New York Institute of technology developed a similar program.
Arrival of the Internet and web-based education
The use of computer networking for distance education with the arrival of the World Wide Web a seemingly magical system that allowed documents to be accessed by different computers separate by any distance, running different software, operational systems, and different screen resolutions. The first Web browser called Mosaic appeared in 1993 and it was this program that gave educators a problem the way of opening access to learning at a distance. It has been estimated that in 1992 the web contain only 50 pages but by 2000 the number of pages had risen to at least one billion. In 1995 only 9% of American adults access the Internet, totaling 17.5 million users. By 2000 and 266% of American adults were going online, a total of 137 million users. Accessing the Web from home or workplace on average they spent eight hours a week online. In the 1990s a number of universities started running web-based programs. Example of providers of entire degree programs offered through the web including the online campus of the New York Institute of technology; connect education in partnership with the new school for social research in New York, and the international school of information management. Visit the state university offered the first graduate degree and adult education through its online program, the world campus. By the end of the decade, 84.1% of the public universities, and 83.3% of the four year public colleges offered web-based courses. 74% of community colleges also offer online courses. The rates were lower for private university and private for your colleges, 53.8% and 35.5% respectively. Just as previous generations of technology that is correspondence, broadcast radio and television, and interactive video and audio conferencing produced its particular form of distance learning organization the spread of Internet technology stimulated new thinking about how to organize distance teaching. This has been the case in establishing a single mode opened diversities and correspondence schools, but also especially in dual mode institutions and those single-mode , face-to-face teaching institutions that never before considered distance education but are now converting to dual mode status. New technologies have also led to the emergence of new forms of single mode, purely electronic universities and to new combinations and collaborations among institutions of all types.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Write a 2-page paper. Use the article below to help aid in answering the discussion question/writing the paper. You must “quote” from the readings in order to substantiate your points. State the question first. Use APA format. Do Not Use Outside Sources!
Describe and explain in how far distance learning and net-based learning are likely to change learning at universities drastically.
Distance education "represents changes in the way we conceptualize education and the ways we organize the resources of people and capital that are dedicated to the enterprise of education." (Kearsley and Moore, 1996). Changes brought about by both distance learning and net-based learning are likely to have an impact on the way universities develop courses, the way instructors teach and the way students learn.
Forms of distance education such as correspondence education have already impacted the ways distance educators think about education and the ways distance students learn. Because student and teacher were not in the same location, course developers were forced to make pedagogical considerations about course materials, including dialogue (that normally took place in the classroom), and student learning. The result were preplanned, carefully constructed courses available to anyone, anywhere, at anytime. The courses included self-teaching material (much of which established a one way conversation with the student), dialogue with the instructor (mail, phone, fax) and autonomy on the part of the learner. Autonomy required students to take over many of the teaching tasks and to become more aware of their learning and what conditions needed to exist in order for learning to occur. The traditional skills of speaking and listening are replaced with reading and writing (Peters, 19981).
As distance education continues to gain a larger share of the education market, universities will begin to more closely consider why distance education is successful. Recognition of distance education and its pedagogical impacts on education will become even more apparent with the emergence of net-based learning. Technological innovations combined with changing societal needs, have heightened the awareness of how distance education and net-based education will impact university learning. "New technologies widen the spectrum of forms of learning and teaching in distance education to an extent that until recently has been difficult to conceive" (Peters, 19982). Multimedia learning will become the norm (Peters, 1999) and members of society that are most interested in higher education will require educational programs that are convenient, service oriented, high in quality and affordable (Levine, 2000). This change in student needs will impact course design in traditional university classrooms.
The introduction of net-based learning into the distance education arena will have a significant impact on universities. "The digital revolution is not only changing distance education, it is changing our whole lives" (Peters, 19982). The impact of the digital revolution is so great that it will force universities to develop new forms of teaching and learning. Course development is likely to reap the benefits of net-based learning. The inclusion of a variety of multimedia in net-based learning, the use of hypertext, and the access to a wealth of related information are creating non-linear and multidimensional learning environments. Because net-based learning is available to a larger target audience, more and more students will adapt to, and require this different learning environment. As a result, we will begin to see more innovative and modernized approaches to education (a much needed reform in education).
Changing learning environments will have its greatest impact on the ways in which university learning occurs. These learning environments, like much of distance education, provide students with increased autonomy. Similar to correspondence education, students will need to understand how they learn and develop new skills. To be successful, such skills as browsing, exploring, searching, connecting will need to be mastered. These skills are utilized while students exercise cognitive flexibility and select their learning path (Peters, 1999). Rather than face to face conversations with classmates and professors, students will communicate via e-mail, computer conferences, or news lists (Peters, 1999). In addition, students will have access to a global community of peers and experts; thus creating a knowledge building community (Peters, 1999).
Although distance education and net-based learning will significantly impact university learning, the traditional university will not be lost because it provides experiences that are unavailable to the distance learning student. As a result, "the university of the future will be a mixed mode university and distance education will be a prominent if not the fundamental element in it" (Peters, 19981).
I have spent a great deal of time the last few weeks evaluating the university as an institution. Otto Peters has challenged my understanding of the components that construct the traditional university. This essay will consider the changes the digital age will force the university to make. For the purpose of this study, I have divided the university into four functioning groups--teaching, learning, administrating, and socializing groups.
For the teaching group, the traditional method of oral review of assigned textual material will no longer be the standard of instruction. Some instructors have transferred this method to distance and net-based learning, but Peters argues this is not pedagogically sound since it does not utilize the capacities of the technology or meet student needs. Teachers will be forced to acquire new technological and pedagogical skills to assist with course design and the non-linear learning atmosphere of the new learning environment. Net-based instruction especially will allow for students to learn without linear restrictions commonly imposed in traditional educational practices.
For the learning group, the digital advancements will be drastic as well. I believe this group is probably the most prepared for this due to the high use of digital and electronic devices by recent generations. Students will be allowed to explore non-linear paths in study. Where traditional students were expected to memorize, reproduce, and attempt to retain information, this learning group will be concerned with different skills. Learners will need skills in accessing, assimilating, and electronically storing information for future reference.
The administrating group will also experience dramatic changes. These individuals will also have to master technological skills to keep up-to-date in the digital age. No more carbon packs and pencils in these supply closets! The time-honored policies are also being replaced. Prerequisites are now administrative suggestions for success and work does not allow for daytime hours and summers off. The restriction of education for the elite is out the window as well due to accessibility. Administrating is now student driven. Administrators, not students, do the legwork around campus to make sure everything is in order. Work hours are determined by student need and in a global university that can mean 24/7 demands. The majority of student contact is not face-to-face or by appointment. Administrators are also having to compete for local, national, and international students to secure funds to not only maintain the institutions, but to provide resources to deliver through the costly distance education formats.
The socializing group has also dramatically changed in the digital era. This group may see the most impact and remains one of the greatest arguments for the need for traditional university settings. Socialization is not as common in the new delivery formats as in the student union. Although teachers and administrators can continue to interact with little adaptation, interactions among students and students with faculty may not be as developed as one would believe they could be. Society often associates the traditional university with organizational memberships such as honor societies and fraternities. Distance learning formats do have a greater restriction in this area, but net-based learning can be designed to include these elements. Students can benefit from global exposure to students by joining the newsgroup honor society. Not only can institutional groups meet, but computer conventions can be held given the amazing links available.
Without a doubt, the university will continue to change in this information age. I do not believe they will disappear altogether due to research functions and the wealth of instructional experience of faculty. They will have to evolve to stay in competition for the students’ dollar none the less. All groups within the institution will feel the impact, but I believe this is just another progression of educational thought and practice. The digital age will not devour the traditional university, but it may just mark the deconstruction of the ivory towers of higher education.
The University Revolution
The year is 2010. In the last ten years, distance education, Internet advances, and technical innovations have revolutionized university education. Students, teachers, and administration, and society have started to adjust to the changes. In general, the struggles and discussions during the revolution have focused on the balance between structure and autonomy as identified by Michael Moore and described by Otto Peters (1998, chap.3).
The majority of students welcomed the increased autonomy. By developing their own learning structure, while continuing to accept the need for basic structured instruction as a foundation, they have achieved self-direction in setting goals. Due to increased opportunities and resources for autonomous research, students now explore topics of individual interest. As a result, more students are exhibiting increased intellectual creativity and experiencing the joy of learning. While still in secondary school, students access on-line university level preparatory and remedial programs in anticipation of the demands of the current expanded learning spaces, as described a decade ago by Peters (1999, pp. 1-18). Students straight out of US high schools, despite previous doubts, have shown that they, like their European counterparts, have the necessary maturity and discipline to handle the demands of self-directed learning.
No longer seen as "the" expert but as part of a "team of experts", teachers have moved from being sole practitioners to team members. Due to the increased student autonomy, the teaching role has shifted from being a leader to coach. Greater skills and creativity have resulted. The structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating. In the 20th Century the pressure on university professors was "publish or perish"; now, it is "innovate or perish". Previous evaluation methods that measured all students against the same pre-determined expectations no longer suffice. Evaluation methods now include the students’ measurement and documentation of their own learning progress. Study groups, a long-standing tool of distance education, are increasingly popular as a means of teacher communication and mentoring.
University administrators have had to decide between becoming more competitive or cooperative with fellow universities. Many universities have developed mixed mode systems combining classroom with web-based instruction while others have adopted an entirely on-line format. No longer limited by geography, students have greater choices in choosing a university of desired caliber and universities are no longer able to depend on a captive source of students based on proximity. In response, many universities have improved the quality of and choice of courses. Universities are increasingly entering into joint ventures in order to provide web-based courses and share faculty. Due to the increase in qualified students seeking course access, universities are currently examining the issue of open or expanded enrollment. Prestigious universities have begun examining ways of responding to the increased admission demand while controlling supply in order to ensure continued quality and to preserve the "elitist" status of their degrees.
Worldwide, societies are just beginning to develop strategies for employing the increased number of highly educated students. Women in culturally restrictive societies, people with disabilities, students with financial or geographic barriers are now attending university and seeking fulfilling employment. At the same time, political and religious leaders continue to debate whether it is desirable to control the extent of knowledge exploration by students.
Progress has been made since the 1990's however the revolution continues. Different concepts have been tried with many being discarded such as attempts at adapting expository teaching directly into on-line instruction (Peters, 1999, pp. 2-3). Mistakes have been made including early efforts that resulted in the further isolation of the handicapped from mainstream society. After an intense decade of exploration, all participants in the revolution admit that the interim outcomes of the university revolution differ from the initial intent and the ultimate outcomes are still unknown. The remaining challenges include controlling the financial impact of the new university system, responding more effectively to the needs of future employers, maintaining quality, and preventing the loss of innovation.
It is the year 2010 and it is not a good year for the traditional university academic. He/she has been relegated to a role that many find quite deflating considering the central role had they played with respect to teaching and student’s learning up through the turn of the millennium. It was of course the evolving of the Information Age to the Age of Autonomy that provided these major changes in the structure of learning and teaching and the pedagogical changes behind them.
It is worth taking a look at some of the major changes that have transpired in the learning environments of both traditional universities and that of distance education since the year 2000. Back then most traditional academics felt that the growing benefits of the digital learning environment were, at best a convenience for extending the traditional expository classroom presentation and learner receptivity, often by the use of videoconferencing. Even the field of distance education, which has more often focused on learner autonomy, failed in many instances to see the revolution in learning already in process.
The spur for many of the changes that took place was the economic response to increasing demands of the adult learners who were returning to school to increase their job marketability in a highly volatile job market and as a response to the growing opportunities provided by the availability of web based learning, certification and academic degrees. As the demand grew, so did the race for a share of this growing and pot6entially lucrative market, pitting many traditional universities against established distance education institutions. Many of the earlier attempts to take advantage of the opportunities presented by the new digital learning environment did not come up to their developer’s expectation because of a misplaced focus on the technology itself rather than a pedagogical focus.
It was the adult learners themselves who provided the push to develop a more effective pedagogy, to meettheir needs and the opportunities presented by the newly developing digital learning environment. They had no patience with traditional expository teaching and the passive learning expected by the offerings of traditional universities. Instead, they were drawn to distance education institutions who were already oriented to the concept of student autonomy and prepared to offer more choice to the new learner of what, how and in what sequence he or she wished to study.
Despite a great deal of resistance to change from many of their traditionally oriented faculty, more and more universities began to learn from their enrollment loss of adult students, and began to develop more autonomously effective learning structures. Then a new alloy was created that rivaled the speed and bandwidth of fiber optics but was as easy and as cheap as the twisted pair telephone lines to install. Overnight, smaller companies, subsidized by a government suddenly eager to claim a role in this new technological revolution, had covered the US, including every home, school and library. Suddenly instant communication and access to the treasures of the web, anywhere in the world, was available to everyone in the US. And in the process, the world, at least the academic world, was turned upside down.
The new technology opened the door to instant access and communication by the distant learner as well as more advanced multimedia educational presentations. It was no longer necessary, or desirable, to use the linear approach of presenting knowledge of the traditional course presentation. The learner no longer had to rely on a teacher for access to knowledge, but had instant access to the acquired stock of knowledge of a particular discipline, in the form of text, audio, and "moving pictures." Research could be done instantly from databases all over the world. (Peters, 150.)
In the traditional college, many of the younger students who had grown up developing skills in autonomous learning by browsing and exploring the hypertext and hypermedia linking of information on the web, researching new interests, and joining worldwide communities of common interests, were also ready for, and demanding, their choice of learning material and individualized learning sequences in the digital learning environment they were already familiar with and skilled in using. Teachers in the old, traditional sense, all but disappeared or were forced to take on new roles as tutors and researchers who provided select seminars and face-to-face tutoring for those who still desired it.
Traditional campuses no longer served a viable purpose, and became a thing of the past. Instead, special centers were formed for research as well as tutoring and seminars for those who chose to use them. Distance education institutions and former universities began to merge their resources to minimize costs, bring together experts in each field, and create ‘expert systems’ of specialized databases for teaching and research (Peters, 150.)
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Total Pages: 2 Words: 602 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: At least once or twice a year, businesspeople the world
over are reminded of the high cost of a little exaggeration,
a material omission, or an outright lie on a r?sum? and
how a tangled web concerning one?s background can lead
to career catastrophe.
Consider the case of the MIT dean whose career track
was halted when her employer realized that she hadn?t
graduated from a single one of the three institutions from
which she had claimed to have earned degrees. Or any one
of a string of business executives who learned the hard way
174 PART 2 Acquiring and Preparing Human Resources
that faking their way is no way of making their way into
Just ask headhunter Jude Werra. The president of
Brookfield, Wisconsin?based Jude M. Werra & Associates
has spent the better part of 25 years documenting executive
r?sum? fraud, credentials inflation, and the misrepresentation
of executive educational credentials. It?s
something that has kept Werra pretty busy over the years,
given the prevalence of such management-level chicanery
and the fact that so many ambitious and transition-minded
individuals have convinced themselves that it?s their
credentials?real or otherwise?that matter most.
Werra?s semiannual barometer of executive r?sum? deception
hit a five-year high, based on his review of r?sum?s
he received during the first half of 2007. He figures
that about 16 percent of executive r?sum?s contain false
academic claims and/or material omissions relating to educational
And when you account for the fudging of claims of experience
unrelated to academic degrees earned, it?s easy to
see why executive headhunters generally acknowledge
that as many as one-third of management-level r?sum?s
contain errors, exaggerations, material omissions, and/or
Some people will stop at almost nothing to get to where
they want in their career. Still, Werra wonders why otherwise
experienced executives would inflate their credentials
or otherwise mislead with their r?sum?, in light of the
potential career-ending consequences.
Given the alarming levels to which they do attempt to
mislead, he constantly reminds hiring organizations that it?s
critical that they verify what they read on r?sum?s, even at
the executive level. What?s even more alarming?and more
prevalent than people falsifying their backgrounds and
qualifications?is the number of hiring organizations that
fail to conduct a rigorous background check on their new
management recruits. Far too many organizations figure
that checking a few references is enough.
And even the most thorough reference checks won?t uncover
false claims that predate those references? own professional
interactions with the individual executive. It?s quite
possible that a fabrication of one?s education, certifications,
and experience is what got the executive his first management
job many years ago, leaving the trail cold unless it?s
reopened during the course of a diligent background check.
When it comes to executive-level hiring that?s going to
cost the organization into the high six figures, at minimum,
when you factor in headhunting fees, the new executive?s
salary, and benefits, it becomes a matter of caveat
emptor [let the buyer beware].
A thorough background check is an important insurance
policy for the recruiting process, and headhunters
will tell you that your organization risks getting burned if
an executive it hires has, at any time in his or her past, decided
to assume the risks of playing with fire. Given the
high cost of a bad executive hire, today?s organizations
simply can?t afford not to do their homework.
SOURCE : Excerpted from Joseph Daniel McCool, ?Executives: Making It by
Faking It,? BusinessWeek , October 4, 2007, www.businessweek.com .
1. Suppose you are an HR manager at a company that
needs to fill an important management position. In
what situations would a candidate?s educational background
be important? In what situations would a candidate?s
track record as a manager or leader be important?
2. If you are considering a candidate whose management
track record is good, would it matter whether the
candidate described his or her educational background
accurately? Why or why not? What if the
misrepresentations involved the candidate?s work history?
Would your opinion change?
3. The writer of this article expresses an opinion that
the utility of background checks is high. Do you agree
that employers should place more emphasis on background
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: You are to write a 4-page paper.
This is a 2-part paper. Part 1 and Part 2 is to be done separately. Do Not Use Outside Sources!
You are to write a 3-page paper. Summarize results of the confidential interview below… they are to be put into a summary report of 3 pages.
You are to write a 1-page Analysis of your most interesting findings from the interview.
1.Background information on the programmer/organizer:
•What is your social, educational, and work experience?
I come from a lower middle class background. I went to a private college on scholarship as an undergraduate. After graduating from college I taught high school English for several years, then stayed home with my kids for 10 years and provided in-home day care to several other children. When my youngest started first grade, I started the M.Ed. program in Adult Education at Penn State, and then immediately on finishing that started the doctoral program. I graduated with a D.Ed. in 1996.
While I was a doctoral student, and for about a year after receiving my degree, I worked at the American Center for the Study of Distance Education as a publications editor. In 1997 I joined the newly formed World Campus as Assistant Director for Operations and Evaluation. I worked for the World Campus 9 years, finishing my time there with a dual appointment as Director of the American Center for the Study of Distance Education and Director of Research and Planning.
•How did you become involved in program planning?
Much of my responsibility at the World Campus involved interacting with the representative of our primary funder, the Sloan Foundation. The World Campus would occasionally propose new program ideas—in addition to the University’s academic degree programs--to the Sloan Foundation. These would be programs related to online education that would complement the World Campus’s and the Sloan Foundations’ missions. One of these programs was an invited conference on collaborative possibilities to strengthen online K-16 education.
2.What is your "philosophy" of program planning, if any? I don’t have an articulated philosophy of program planning.
3.What models of program planning are you familiar with? Those of Tyler, Houle, Knowles, Sork, Caffarella, Cervero and Wilson
•Which particular model have you used in the past?
I have not used either of these in their “pure” form, but rather incorporated elements of several models.
•Do you have any preference for any model? Why?
I think Cervero and Wilson’s model, which recognizes multiple agendas and different power relationships, is the one that most closely reflects the “political” nature of planning decisions in the University.
4.How has your approach to program planning changed over the years?
I have become more aware that my personal values need to be considered and reflected in any program with which I’m associated. I can’t set those values aside and plan programs that run counter to my beliefs about the appropriate goals for or methods to deliver educational activities.
5.What do you consider the single most important skill in planning effective programs?
Building trust among stakeholders.
6.Information about a particular program he/she designed (workshop, class, etc.):
•How did the agency become aware of the need for the program?
There had been a developing recognition in the higher education community, as reflected in articles and policy papers, that it no longer made sense to think of K-12 education and higher education as unconnected. Many policy makers had noted the need for greater collaboration between the two levels, a more integrated K-16 system, that would lead to greater student success in progressing through the system. The Sloan Foundation’s primary focus is on improving higher education, including online higher education, and the World Campus proposed to the Foundation that they support a conference on K-12/higher education collaboration around online education activities.
•What information did the agency require to proceed with the program?
They required a formal proposal that included a list of conference goals and themes, possible participants, other potential partners who might support and/or host the conference, a budget, and proposed evaluation activities.
•What was the setting of the program and who were the learners?
The setting was the corporate headquarters of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting in Washington, DC. Participants were 35 representatives from higher education, the K-12 sector, alternative education providers (e.g., museums, PBS, National Geographic Foundation), and professional organizations
•What resources were available for the program and how did you determine registration fees, if any?
Because this was an invitational conference, there was no registration fee. The Sloan Foundation funded travel for the participants to DC as well as hotel accommodations. The CPB, as host for the event, provided a reception for participants the night before the conference and breakfast, breaks, and lunch on the day of the conference. Four staff from the World Campus attended to implement the activities, and two staff from the Team Decision Center of the Penn State Conference Center were on hand to implement the technology (networked laptops for each participant) that was used for collecting and analyzing participant input into the discussions.
•What were the goals and objectives and how were they established?
The goals were to 1) share information on the current status of online K-12 education and the success of the “pipeline” from K=12 to higher education; 2) explore possibilities for collaboration between the online K-12 education and online higher education, and 3) to identify successful models of K-12—higher education collaboration, and 4) to explore opportunities for extending Sloan Foundation partnerships into the K-12 arena. These goals were proposed by the World Campus and approved by the Sloan Foundation.
•What teaching and learning methods were employed?
Presentation followed by discussion was the primary method used, followed by brainstorming and team decision making, supported by Penn State’s mobile electronic team-decision center.
•How was the learning sequenced?
The first half of the day was devoted to information sessions. The first information sessions presented baseline data related to numbers of programs and enrollments. Next, presenters offered specific examples of the three program foci: dual enrollment programs, online teacher professional development, and online alternative certification for teachers. General discussion followed these presentations. During the afternoon participants used Penn State’s mobile electronic team-decision center to identify 1) successful models for collaboration between K-12 and higher education and 2) next steps in extending Sloan-Consortium/higher education partnerships into the K-12 sector.
•What were the criteria for evaluation? How was the program evaluated and who conducted the evaluation?
Criteria for evaluation were developed by the funder and focused on the funder’s expectation of recommendations and action steps from the participants as a result of the day’s discussions. Data for this evaluation were collected via the electronic team-decision center and developed into a report to the Sloan Foundation.
•What problems arose in the development and delivery of this program?
The program was originally envisioned to include 50 participants and to span one and a half days in order to cover all of the material deemed important. However, the funder cut the budget, necessitating a shorter program with fewer participants. There were no problems with the actual delivery of the program.
•How did you incorporate adult education theories and principles?
The primary adult education principles were active engagement of all participants and an integration of participant experience into the activities. The participants were themselves the teachers, as well as the learners.
Excerpt From Essay:
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