Essay Instructions: Read Arriagada and Perrings. 2011. Paying for International Environmental Public Goods. Ambio 40:798??"806
Bulte, E., G. van Kooten, and T. Swanson. 2003. Economic Incentives and Wildlife Conservation. Working paper. 4-page paper (typed, double spaced, 12 Arial font, 1” margins) discussing incentives to conserve marine biodiversity conservation within the framework of impure public goods. The intent of the assignment to insure that you understand the conceptual framework for the rest of the class. Discuss what an impure public good is, the types of externalities associated with impure public goods, the technology of public good supply (best shot, weakest link, etc.), and the types of economic incentives (positive and negative) that are created for impure public goods with different technologies of public good supply.
You will receive two orders for the same topic and same contents. However, I need you to write two different papers for it. Thank you very much!
There are faxes for this order.
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Total Pages: 2 Words: 627 Sources: 2 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Write an essay of a problem currently affecting the Saudi Arabian community. If it were withing your abilities, how would you work to solve this problem?
The problem is having indangered species like Orex and gazzles in Saudi and if they were extinct then it would affect the ecosystem. And what I did is I have been showing my interest for saving the environment and the indangered species till I have been chosen to participate in The Saudi Tanzanian Youth Dialogue forum with the theme of Biodiversity and Wildlife conservation from the ministry or foreign affairs or Saudi that lasted for 10 days in Tanzania and I was the leader of the Bilateral letter that is being sent to the king of Saudi and the Tanzanian president. We came up with the following suggestions to create initiatives: 1-Education and Awareness 2-Updating Laws and legistlations 3-Promote volunteer work 4-involve the local community in the decision making.
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Essay Instructions: Submit Marine Policy Project Part 4: The Letters of Appeal (30 points)
Compose a letter for each target (3 letters total) not longer than 1.5 pages, single spaced, single sided, with one inch margins that is a concise summary of your research paper. The trick here is to condense all the information included in your research paper to a length and clarity that the recipient can easily “digest.” Clarity is all important! You no longer have to include your scientific notation, but should include references if they support your main point.
These letters are arguments and must be written in a persuasive style. Qualities to consider in the tone of your letter are the recipient(s), what their position is on the issues, and how much persuading you will need to do.
For more insight on how to write a persuasive argument, here is a link to the University of North Carolina page: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/argument.html
Remember, your goal is to get the reader at the other end of your letter to understand your argument and do something about it. You are trying to get your letter past the summer intern doing a first pass of all web submissions and letters, and into the hands of your target, or a member of the targets staff, who deals specifically with your issue. (My sincere apologies to those of you who have worked as interns at political offices!)
See: Examples of Successful MPP Submissions
For Grading Part 4: submit your final letters and a list of final targets. You are not required to send your letters to your targets, but it would be a good idea to do so if you feel strongly about your issue.
If you do send the letters, I would be interested in hearing about the response you receive. If you hand in your responses before the final exam, I will give you extra credit on this assignment (max: 5 points this assignment only).
These are the contacts: Choose the first 3.
1) Office of Governor Rick Scott
State of Florida
400 S. Monroe St.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0001
(850) 487-0801 (fax)
2) Office of Governor Rick Perry
Office of the Governor
P.O. Box 12428
Austin, Texas 78711-2428
3) The Honorable Neil Abercrombie?
Governor, State of Hawai`i?
Executive Chambers, ?State Capitol?
Honolulu, Hawai`i 96813
4) Governor Jerry Brown
c/o State Capitol, Suite 1173
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: (916) 445-2841
Fax: (916) 558-3160
This is the appeal gist which should be concentrated on:
The environment we now dwell in is becoming more global. Businesses are expanding overseas to capitalize on an emerging middle class in both China and India. Nations are now more interconnected than ever as evident by the recent subprime mortgage crisis of 2008. Not only did America suffer catastrophic losses that have yet to be recovered, but other developed nations did as well. Individual member of the European Union are now going bankrupt. Both the Japanese and Chinese hold about $1 trillion in U.S. government debt (The Sacramento Bee 1). American jobs are being outsourced to emerging markets with allows companies to produce cost effective goods and services. These statements demonstrate a more dynamic and global environment in which we live in. Now, more that ever, actions taken by one nation can have severe consequences on an unsuspecting nation located elsewhere in the world. A topic that has not been properly addressed is that of pollution. With more business developing operations overseas, this problem will grow exponentially over the next few years if not properly addressed. Businesses are profiting from the products they create but are also damaging the environment in the process. The latest BP oil spill incident is a prime example of the extent of damages that could occur if procedures to mitigate them are not put into effect.
The purpose of this letter is to both inform and to provide a call to action on the part of elected officials about the immediate dangers of plastic water disposal. There have indeed been significant improvements to environmentally friendly business practices. However, much still remains to be accomplished in regard to disposals of plastic in the ocean.
As targets for this letter, I have chosen 4 governors of densely populated states located on both the east and west coast of the United States. I have chosen these densely populated states because many large businesses are located within their borders. In addition, a majority of this states rely heavily on tourists income to finance and support state budgets. Many of these tourists visit and return to these states simply due to their aesthetic appeal. However if their beaches are polluted by plastic, many disgruntled tourist may not come back. In fact, through word of mouth marketing, other potential tourists may also not return or make the initial trip. By realizing the financial implications of not enacting plastic water disposal restrictions, my aim is present tangible monetary effects of the potential actions or non actions of lawmakers.
My appeal will be based primarily on three main pillars. The first and most important is the environment damage caused by excess plastic disposal in the ocean. The second is the financial implication for both states and businesses if disposal measures are not enacted immediately. Eventually, as evident by the BP oil spill, negative publicity on the part of businesses can have adverse consequences on both revenue and profit. Also, research has proven that when pricing remains constant, consumers often purchase products from socially conscious and environmentally friendly companies. My aim through this letter will be to provide an all encompassing, financially beneficial arrangement for all parties involved. Finally, my third pillar will be an appeal to individual’s sense of justice and ethics. My primary aim through this pillar is to provide an example of implications current legislation will have on future generations. Through this appeal, my aim is to show businesses and lawmakers the environment their own children will have to live in if immediate action is not enacted. With this plea, my appeal will target all aspects of both the psychological and financial benefits of legislations to slow the use of plastic water disposal.
Here are some examples of the letters:Dear Ms. Shea,
In April 2008, the state and federal fishing agencies placed an emergency closure on commercial and recreational salmon fishing off the coast of the California, which represented the biggest restriction ever placed on salmon fishing off the West Coast in U.S. As you are aware, this measure was taken due to the dramatic decline of Chinook salmon being reported in the Sacramento River with numbers in 2007 and 2008 being 88,000 and 66,000 respectively. I understand this is a huge decline and a certainly a big concern. The closure of the salmon fisheries affect everyone including commercial fisherman who rely on salmon as the primary source of income, recreational fishermen, people who enjoy eating salmon, and other related salmon based businesses. By taking measures to enforce catch limits, size restrictions, issue citations for any violations, and by having seasonal openings for fishing, we can take the appropriate steps to restore the salmon fisheries without a full closure.
The ocean waters off the California coast and the Sacramento River provide a crucial role for Chinook salmon because salmon are anadromous, which means that they are hatched and spend their early years in freshwater, then migrate down the river to the ocean where they spend 4 to 6 years, and then later return upstream in freshwater rivers and streams to spawn. Since both the Sacramento River and California Coast provides a crucial habitat for both young and adult salmon, I propose a closure for any salmon fishing in the Sacramento River, and enforce more strict catch limits and size restrictions off the California Coast.
Furthermore, the commercial and recreational fishermen and environmentalists claim that the state and federal agencies diverted too much water to agricultural areas and to Southern California in 2005 causing a disruption in the Sacramento River water flow. As a result of this massive water export, the salmon were more prone to diseases, vulnerable to other predators, and were also sucked into water pumps ultimately leaving them to die in irrigation channels. Salmon need cool clean water, clean gravel for spawning, the right water depth, quantity, and the right flow velocities in their habitat for an optimal habitat. I propose your agency to improve habitat conditions by removing dams, modifying water pumps so that salmon aren’t killed, and reducing water exports from the California Delta until the salmon numbers are restored back to the observed conservatory levels.
While changing the irregularities of the ocean or controlling global warming is well out of our reach, the state can take steps to closely monitor salmon fishing so that both commercial and recreational fisherman do violate any rules. To educate people on the importance of salmon, your agency can enforce the California coastline and Sacramento Rivers more heavily compared to other areas where salmon are less prominent, and distribute newsletters to the community and other state agencies that may have an impact on the salmon population. I hope that you give this letter serious consideration because this is an issue that simply cannot be ignored or put off. Feel free to contact me at _____________________________ or email me at _______________________________with any questions you may have. Thank you.
November 29, 2009
Pacific Fishery Management Council
7700 NE Ambassador Place, STE 101
Portland, OR 97220
ATTN: Chuck Tracy ??" Council Staff for Salmon
Dear Mr. Tracy,
In April 2008, the state and federal fishing agencies placed an emergency closure on commercial and recreational salmon fishing off the coast of the California, which represented the biggest restriction ever placed on salmon fishing off the West Coast in U.S. As you are aware, this measure was taken due to the dramatic decline of Chinook salmon being reported in the Sacramento River with numbers in 2007 and 2008 being 88,000 and 66,000 respectively. I understand this is a huge decline and a certainly a big concern. The closure of the salmon fisheries affect everyone including commercial fisherman who rely on salmon as the primary source of income, recreational fishermen, people who enjoy eating salmon, and other related salmon based businesses. With the help of the Pacific Fishery Management Council, I am requesting that we contact the California State Board of Forestry and the Associated California Loggers to prevent de-logging practices that directly impact and attribute to the decline of salmon.
Deforestation practices affect the salmon habitat by contributing to incidental take of salmon, and by ruining their natural habitat. Also, careless logging practices can ruin a salmon trying to swim upstream to spawn. Salmon need cool clean water, clean gravel for spawning, the right water depth, quantity, and the right flow velocities in their habitat for an optimal habitat. The habitat of salmon is important because the fish go through different phases from swimming upstream to spawn, smolts migrating to estuaries to acclimate with saltwater, and returning to the ocean. Each of these phases may require a distinct habitat for the salmon, and any changes or disruptions in these habitats can influence the ability of the salmon to adapt to natural and artificial changes in their environment.
Another cause of the decline in salmon numbers may be warmer waters due to global warming. According to a joint study done by Natural Resources Defense Council and the Defenders of Wildlife, global warming may cause the disappearance of salmon as much as 18 to 38 percent by the year 2090. 2090 is a long ways from now, but this number is significant when you compare more than one species. Global warming is an important issue because salmon, which are cold water fish, need to be in water temperatures of 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. How does this come into play with de-logging? Deforestation further contributes to global warming by releasing carbon dioxide into the earth’s atmosphere. Deforestation must be minimized and safe practices of de-logging without interrupting the natural habitat must be taken.
Although the closure is an immediate response to preserve the declining number, it is imperative to dig deeper and look into more closely on the factors that lead to the salmon decline. It is my understanding that PFMC has been working in the past with the California State Board of Forestry to develop forest practice rules that address incidental take of certain salmon species; however, I request that we step it up and address all issues of incidental take of any salmon. At the same time, I request that the California State Board of Forestry takes measures to minimize deforestation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, pay funds and hold reserves to pay for salmon habitat restoration, and to take steps in logging practices that do a better job on protecting the salmon habitat. It is imperative that all agencies be cooperative and work together to protect the endangered salmon species. Feel free to contact me at ____________________ or email me at _______________________________ with any questions you may have. Thank you.
November 29, 2009
The Institute for Fisheries Resources
P.O. Box 29196
San Francisco, CA 94129
ATTN: Zeke Grader, Executive Director
To Mr. Grader,
In April 2008, the state and federal fishing agencies placed an emergency closure on commercial and recreational salmon fishing off the coast of the California, which represented the biggest restriction ever placed on salmon fishing off the West Coast in U.S. As you are aware, this measure was taken due to the dramatic decline of Chinook salmon being reported in the Sacramento River with numbers in 2007 and 2008 being 88,000 and 66,000 respectively. I understand this is a huge decline and a certainly a big concern. The closure of the salmon fisheries affect everyone including commercial fisherman who rely on salmon as the primary source of income, recreational fishermen, people who enjoy eating salmon, and other related salmon based businesses. With the help of the Institute of Fisheries Resource, I propose that you contact the appropriate federal agencies to sponsor a climate change legislation. This legislation includes dedicated funding for fish and wildlife conservation and restoration through a cap and trade system to reduce greenhouse emissions.
Among many other factors, the cause of the salmon decline very well may be due to warmer waters due to global warming. According to a joint study done by Natural Resources Defense Council and the Defenders of Wildlife, global warming may cause the disappearance of salmon as much as 18 to 38 percent by the year 2090. 2090 is a long ways from now, but this number is significant when you compare more than one species. Global warming is an important issue because salmon, which are cold water fish, need to be in water temperatures of 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Most fish now are living on the upper end of the temperature spectrum and any uprise in temperature from greenhouse gas emissions will be detrimental.
The proposed cap and trade system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will be enforced to achieve a 1% reduction on a yearly basis. Although 1% may not be a significant, this represents a 40% reduction by 2050. Furthermore, funding from federal agencies will aid other fish and wildlife agencies to incorporate climate change science and research in their work to continuously reduce carbon dioxide pollution.
Although we don’t have the power to instantly change weather and climate conditions, we can certainly take steps and measures to reduce the carbon dioxide by going “green-ER” which can ultimately slow down the effects of global warming. Current state and federal efforts to conserve salmon and other wildlife have dramatic results, but they fall short of what is needed for the overall long term survival of salmon. I hope that the Institute for Fisheries Resources will be able to carry this conservation project to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the appropriate federal agencies so that we can begin the journey of long term conservation. Feel free to contact me at ________________ or email me at ______________________with any questions you may have. Thank you.
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