Total Pages: 2 Words: 632 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: The story of Gideon (Judges 6-8) reveals Gideon “testing” the Lord to determine God’s will. God complied with Gideon’s requests. (A) Does this situation represent a Biblical way to determine God’s will, or does it demonstrate Gideon’s immaturity? Explain why or why not. (B) How would you advise people today to discern the will of God for their lives? Give several examples.
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Essay Instructions: Question: What tools should the congregation have for their own discipleship process?
My thinking behind this question is that Jesus commanded us to ?go and make disciples?; not converts, social justice agents, or moralists. We were called as a church to transform the inward self, not the outward. Jesus emphasized that the inward transformation would produce the outward fruits. So, my contention is that the church is to disciple those in the congregation and therefore, what tools should the pastor/leadership use to accomplish this. Using at least the following Scripture as a guide (more can be used, but these must be).
1. Deuteronomy 6:4-6 - the basic teaching which exhorts the Israelites to love God with their whole being, including the intellect, emotions and will. The central importance defined by Moses in this passage extends to the required teaching of these commandments to the children by all means possible.
2. Colossians 3:1-17 - The call to follow Christ is also a call to be transformed into His image. Thus, when we accept Jesus? invitation to a ?with God? life?our goal is to ?keep company with him? in such a way that Christ?s life becomes visible in ours
3. Mark 13:9-11 - Jesus told his disciples to keep following Him even when the religious and government leaders turn against them and charge them with crimes. He does not promise protection or deliverance from the consequences of going against the leaders, but He does promise the Holy Spirit will be there. Jesus says the disciples will be persecuted because they believe in Him. Base on Jesus? initial warning to the disciples we should not walk around blindly, but to should be observant and intentional in our lives. The Holy Spirit will guide and use us when we are opposed for following the will of God.
4. Romans 12:1-2 - Although this comes close to stating the obvious, Romans 12:1?2 begins a major section of the book which runs from the beginning of chapter 12 to 15:13. In this section Paul relates the righteousness of God, his major theme throughout the book, to the conduct of the believer. Here we are being instructed that we must renew our minds and follow in the ways of Christ Jesus.
5. Lev 19:18b (NIV) "but love your neighbor as yourself." I was leaning more for the Deuteronomy passage for the paper. However, as a fallback, in reference to one of the tools being meditation, I was looking at Psalms 1:2, ?but whose delight is in the law of the Lord, and who meditates on his law day and night.?
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Essay Instructions: Attached is an essay I submitted to my instructor for grading as part of a two part project. Part one was for the instructor to critically review the paper and comment on it which she did and Part two involves reading the comments them rewrite the same paper addressing the criticism and comments the instructor raised to a final paper which will be part two of the project. What I want you to do is to review those comments and rewrite the paper as the instructor wants please add an abstract to the paper. Thanks. Below is all the information you need to write part two of the essay.
Your instructor will send you your peer-reviewed assignment from Module 4.
Use the comments from the peer review to revise your document to a final draft. Not all comments need to be followed. Use your best judgment in revising your first draft to an assignment that better meets the requirements of the original assignment, found in Module 3.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
HEALTH CARE PROVIDER AND FAITH DIVERSITY
Grand Canyon University
SPIRITUALITY IN HEALTH CARE
July 23, 2013
Mr. Saracouli, your paper addresses the 3 diverse faiths and identifies some of their components of care and healing. These could be developed more. This will give greater opportunity to discuss more specific comparisons and contrasts of these components with those of Christianity, which is a significantly key element of this assignment (as highlighted in the Mod 2 Assignment Assist and Assignment Clarification). The paper (final draft) can be benefitted by weaving in specific comparisons and contrasts within each faith section... as you go along. Consider organizing 3 faiths in separate paragraphs (see Buddhism below). [Review the Faith Diversity Recommended Content Format attached to Mod 2 Announcement.]
Module 2 Faith Diversity Assignment requirements, per syllabus and assignment assist:
* Research three diverse faiths. Yes.
* Compare the philosophy of providing care from the perspective of each of these three faiths with that of the Christian perspective and your own personal perspective. Needs further development.
* summarize your findings and compare and contrast the different belief systems (with respect to the healing process), reinforcing major themes with insights gained from your research. Needs further development.
* In your paper, Do Research and Address questions 1-2 listed in your assignment: Yes.
(1) What is their spiritual perspective on healing?
(2) What are the critical components of healing, such as prayer, meditation, belief, family, diet, death, afterlife, modesty, same sex caregivers, hygiene, etc?
* In your conclusion, describe what you have learned from your research and how this learning can be applied to a health care provider practice. Yes.
* An abstract. No. Abstract should address briefly: purpose/thesis statement, methodology, observations, and outcomes/results. Review APA guidelines (see Student Success Center>Writing Center; or, google Purdue Owl). Separate page, after title page.
* 1250-1500 words. Yes.
HEALTH CARE PROVIDER AND FAITH DIVERSITY
Healthcare, Faith and Healing
Often times, healing and faith go directly hand in hand with one another. Every religious tradition has its own set of beliefs on treatment, healing and the general administration of medicine. While we take our understanding of healthcare and faith from the well-defined intersection of medicine and Christianity, there are broad variations in belief and practice that enter into the medical traditions and values of every religious denomination. The discussion here, which addresses elements of spirituality in healthcare treatment for adherents to the Sikh, Shinto and Buddhist faiths, proceeds from a Christian healthcare perspective.
To initiate the discussion, it is appropriate to first consider some of the Christian care-giving values that drive this perspective. Christian ethicality and theology are important forces in healing, especially through its invocation of spiritual hope. Hope is a sentiment, which has commanded recognition as bearing a place of importance in human affairs throughout recorded history. This creates a documented association between hope and such important institutions as politics, philosophy and religion. To this end, the Bible makes numerous references to the concept and importance of hope. An oft-quoted passage provides that there are ?three things that last forever-faith, hope, and love.? (1 Corinthians 13:13, New Living Translation). The point to the close association between hope and these other crucial dynamics of human sentiment. Somewhat less immediately straightforward is another verse describing hope, which conjectures, ?but hope that is seen is no hope at all. Who hopes for what he already has? But if we hope for what we do not yet have, we wait for it patiently? (Romans 8: 24-25, New International Version). In the context of healing, bringing this kind of hope to patients is a distinctly Christian principle that connects the spiritual, emotional and practical dimensions of healing into a distinctly humanistic healing strategy.
This mode of spirituality is shared by other faiths but there are some variations that are highly driven by mode of belief. Indeed, hope is a doctrine that is used to by Christian adherents to encourage fortitude in fighting illness. But it may also sometimes serve the purpose of helping one accept and prepare for mortality. This is an orientation, which is shared by the Sikh religion. Here, the concept of karma influences the manner in which adherents face their own mortality. According to QLD (2011), ?Sikhs are encouraged to accept death and illness as part of life and the will of God. Due to the Sikh belief in the doctrine of karma, some Sikh patients may be accepting of death.? (p. 16)
While these spiritual ideals of Sikhs and Christians are not altogether different in their medical implementation, the concept of karma does distinguish the belief system of patients subscribing to the former faith as opposed to the latter. It is also on the issue of death that such religious traditions as Shintoism drawn their greatest distinction. Looking to the issue of medically fatality, the source by Tanabe (1998) suggests that the Shinto faith has a decidedly less accepting view on the ?impurity? affiliated with death. Accordingly, healthcare providers to those of the Shinto faith have historically faced a great dilemma that surely owes itself to the ancient history reflected in Shinto?s ideals. According to Tanabe, ?It is a common saying that Japanese are born Shinto but die Buddhist. In Shintoism, the emphasis is on purity and cleanliness. Terminal illnesses, dying and death are considered ?negative? or impure and akin to ?contamination.? Thus, open frank discussions that occur with informed consent procedures, choices in treatment, and advance directives may be difficult at first.? (p. 3)
This source ultimately demonstrates that the Shinto faith presents some highly restrictive conditions especially in the area of treating those who are terminally ill. Removing ourselves from the discussion on hope, the sheer practical challenges posed by this philosophical understanding of death makes it difficult to establish a clear path for end-of-life treatment tactics. Ultimately, as the Tanabe source implies here above, the resolution for a great many Shinto adherents is to move gradually toward the more philosophically amenable ideals of Buddhism.
Buddhism, like Shintoism, derives its practices and principles from early Confucianism. Contrary to the Shinto faith though, Buddhism perceives death as simply another life stage. In this regard, Buddhism shares a pointed crossover of beliefs with the Sikh faith. The notion of karmic reincarnation and the continuity of life substantially impact the treatment of mortality in Buddhist healthcare. This is one way in which Buddhism differs from Christianity in terms of healthcare provision. However, there are also dimensions of everyday religious practice that contribute to their differences as well. Indeed, a stark distinction may be drawn between the Christian healthcare approach and the approach taken by Buddhist ideologies regarding health and healing. While Christianity does employ elements of prayer and worship in its healthcare orientation, Buddhism is far more philosophically speculative and instead calls for certain lifestyle decisions reflecting a purity of mind, body and spirit. Therefore, healing reflects the practical implications of the spiritual tradition. This is driven by the experiences attributed to the Buddha himself. According to Bhikshu (2006), ?when the Buddha was young, he learned the science of medicine. He became knowledgeable about the nature and cure of diseases. The Buddha?s realization of the perpetual cycle of rebirth and the stages of aging, illness, and death, enabled him to guide others to live a healthy life. His pragmatic approach includes the insistence on proper hygiene and medicine, but more to the point, he never resorted to what might be considered ?faith healing.? Instead, he offered rational, practical instruction for dealing with both physical injury and mental illness.? (Bhikshu, 1)
This suggests that in one sense, the Christian model of treatment is not universal. Though it calls for universal application of compassion and humanitarian values, its focus on faith through theology may not be appropriate for all patients. This is an important distinction to make especially when a divergence between caregiver and patient spirituality may exist. Regardless of religious orientation, the promise in bringing hope and humaneness to the patient should be seen as appealing. It is important to pursue this orientation without imposing theological ideals on a patient. The Buddhist philosophy helps to highlight the value of this strategy.
There are yet additional distinctions in every religious tradition that may be derived as much from cultural context as from scriptures or faith practices. For instance, Shinto is a faith that is almost entirely comprised of individuals of Japanese descent. This means that religious beliefs aren?t the only cultural factors shaping healthcare needs and demands. An ethnic culture and a set of related practices and proclivities must also play a part in the lifestyle, habits and medical requirements for those of Shinto faith. For instance, the source by Tanabe indicates that dietary predilections for those of Japanese descent may have very specific medical implications. According to the source, ?for those Japanese Americans with hypertension or at risk for hypertension, it may be worth noting that educational counseling on a low salt diet may need to be elaborated upon as the traditional diet is high in salt. Some of the high salt dietary items may not be understood as being very salty, such as soy sauce (shoyu), preserved meat and fish, and pickled vegetables. In discussing dietary issues, such as calcium intake for prevention of osteoporosis, it should be noted that the prevalence of lactose intolerance is high.? (p. 5)
This underscores a point, which is important to the broader discussion, even beyond the specific characteristics of Shintoism. Here, we can see that there may be a high correlation between religious faith and lifestyle habits. This is an observation that may be less applicable to Christianity, a faith that largely permeates many ethnic and national borders. But in cases where religion and ethnic culture are inextricable, medical needs may be as much influenced by cultural context as by theology, practice of worship or measure of faith. It should be incumbent upon nurses, physicians and other care providers to understand the ways that faith, culture and ethnicity interact to produce certain health beliefs, behaviors and knowledge. From any perspective, religious or otherwise, it is the duty of healthcare providers to ensure respect and sensitivity for cultural or religious values while still taking all practical steps to ease suffering, reduce symptoms and promote positive health outcomes.
As the discussion here above shows, while we all share a set of common ideals about the importance of healthcare in preserving human health, we come from a wide array of ideological backgrounds. As a result, we fall across a broad spectrum of beliefs on how medical care should be administered.
Bhikshu, K. (2006). A Buddhist Approach to Patient Health Care. Ubran Darma.org.
Queensland Government (QLD). (2011). Health Care Providers? Handbook on Sikh Patients. Health.qld.gov.au.
Tanabe, M.K.G. (1998). Health and Health Care of Japanese-American Elders. Stanford.edu.
Less than Satisfactory
100.0 %Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity: Final Draft
40.0 %Comprehension of concepts of diversity of faith
Reveals inaccurate comprehension of material and lacks the ability to apply information.
Displays a lack of comprehension but attempts to apply information. Presentation of material does not meet minimal requirements of the assignment. Demonstrates no critical thinking aspects.
Exhibits comprehension of the material and attempts to integrate it with outside material. Information represents basic thought and formulation surrounding understanding of varying components of faith across diverse religions and how health care providers handle those diversities.
Demonstrates integrative comprehension. Student exhibits thorough and thoughtful processing of material. Evidentiary support is creatively interwoven and presented in a manner that demonstrates the diversities of faith, the role they play in patient beliefs and practices, and their importance in managing patients? spiritual care.
Demonstrates integrative comprehension and thoughtful application of concepts surrounding spiritual diversity and circumstances involving application in real-world situations. Presentation of material and components includes expanded and unique perspective relative to similarities and differences of practices across various religions.
30.0 %Coverage of subject matter.
Subject matter is absent, inappropriate, and/or irrelevant.
There is weak, marginal coverage of subject matter with large gaps in presentation.
All subject matter is covered in minimal quantity and quality.
Comprehensive coverage of subject matter is evident.
Coverage extends beyond what is needed to support subject matter.
7.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose
Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing thesis and/or main claim.
Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear.
Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose.
Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.
Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive. The essence of the paper is contained within the thesis and/or main claim. Thesis and/or main statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
8.0 %Argument Logic and Construction
Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the thesis and/or main claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.
Sufficient justification of thesis and/or main claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.
Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of thesis and/or main claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.
Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of thesis and/or main claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.
Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive thesis and/or main claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)
Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used.
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register); sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.
Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.
Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.
Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
5.0 %Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)
Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.
Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting. is apparent.
Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.
Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.
All format elements are correct.
5.0 %Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style)
No reference page is included. No citations are used.
Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used.
Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present
Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and citation style is usually correct.
In-text citations and a reference page are complete and correct. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.
100 %Total Weightage
Paper with instructors comment were uploaded. Thanks.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Apophatic theology leads not to knowledge, but to union. It presupposes a series of genuine contemplation and inward purification - explain what this means. Why is total ignorance needed before we can enter into communion with the ONE who transcends all knowledge?
Instructions: Unless absolutely necessary, do not make extensive quotations from the references provided. Instead, phrase the author's words, concisely, in your own words and write the author's name and the number of the page to which you refer in the brackets after your paraphrase. Discuss, interpret and comment on the scriptural texts pertaining to the topic and then make your own synthesis. Do not start with dogmatic assertions and use biblical quotes merely as "seasoning".
Please use the below as notes for the essay:
The essay needs to highlight Lossky's apophatic theology, which leads not to knowledge, but to reunion. The renunciation of the known and unknown leads into the darkness of ignorance, not as an intellectual obstacle, but to a new sense of God's intimate preserve, a state of being with God, of being in union with God, of being as communion with no emotion, ecstasy and spiritual revelation. The mystical union is the most difficult thing for us to accept because it requires submission to the will of God. Use the required materials ONLY and make the essay free from borrowed concepts, make it as lucid as possible.
Here are the following references you need to choose from for the 3 sources.
Paul Nadim Tarazi 1 Corinthians: A Commentary ISBN: 1-60191-016-9
Paul Nadim Tarazi Colossians & Philemon: A Commentary ISBN: 1-60191-013-4
J. N. D. Kelly Early Christian Doctrines ISBN-13: 978-0-06-064334-8
Paul Nadim Tarazi First Thessalonians: A Commentary ISBN: 0-913836-97-4
Paul Nadim Tarazi Galatians: A Commentary ISBN: 0-88141-083-7
Vladimir Lossky In the Image and Likeness of God ISBN-13: 978-0-91383-613-2
Vladimir Lossky Orthodox Theology: An Introduction ISBN: 0-913836-43-5
Paul Nadim Tarazi Philippians: A Commentary ISBN: 1-60191-010-X
Paul Nadim Tarazi Romans: A Commentary ISBN: 1-60191-012-6
Vladimir Lossky The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church ISBN: 0-913836-31-1
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