Essay Instructions: Assignment instructions (these are the instructions provided to me/ see also additional instructions I'm providing below):
Seeks to understand concepts by examining openly your own experiences as they relate to the experienced therapy, to illustrate points you are making. Demonstrates an open, non-defensive ability to self-appraise, discussing both growth and frustrations as they related to learning in class.
- Connection to readings (assigned and ones you have sought on your own):
In-depth synthesis of thoughtfully selected aspects of readings related to the topic. Makes clear connections between what is learned from readings and the experience. Demonstrate further analysis and insight resulting from what you have learned from reading, Includes reference to at least two readings other than those assigned for class.
Please, write a self reflection essay for Psychiatric-Mental-Health-in-Nursing class. The book used for the class is: Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Evidence-Based Concepts, Skills, and Practices, 7th edition, author Wanda K. Mohr, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Mandatory readings besides the book are articles attached as documents. For the additional readings, please choose 2-3 articles related to mental health issues (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, etc) from online sources, so they are easily accessible for me to read.
Regarding the class: 50% online based; lots of online discussion boards, assignments, etc; in class: lectures related to the material from the book; clinical: psychiatric unit; patients on the unit: bipolar disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, anxiety for the most part.... Make sure to mention in the paper that I was dissapointed from the fact that in clinical we are not alowed to do documentation or adinistering medications. I'm interested in working as a mental health nurse and I don't feel that the experience I got was sufficient as the one I got from other clinical rotations.
This is a self-evaluation/reflection paper and should correspond to "my" experience from the class (lectures/clinical)....therefore, PLEASE, don't cite too much from the sources I provided (the textbook and the articles). They are to guide you what I've read and learned from the class.
If you have questions, please e-mail.
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 5 Words: 1533 Bibliography: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Dear Sir / Madam,
I am master student in entrepreneurship course. I have a lot of assignment to submit in this intake. Due to time constraint, i can"t manage to write one assignment which is concern persoanl reflection (feedback) assignment on . Therefore i would kindly request you to wirite below assignment,
Assignment question. ( Self reflection question)
1) How relevant do you find the Entrepreneurial Dynamic Leadership Process (EDLP) model in reviewing your own leadership experiences and behaviours so far ?
2) Which particular aspects of the EDLP model have impacted your thinking, attitudes, and motivation ? why or why not ?
3) What have you discovered about your personal entrepreneurial leadership profile? What surprises you ? why?
4) What have been the most important learning and insight for you ?
5) How will you purse your entrepreneurial goals and career ?
I have attached some related article concern with assignment question by email.
Please kindly let me know if you needed further information.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: MIDTERM EXAM
This exam has three parts:
1. First, you must answer one self reflection question (no more than 4 pages).
2. Secondly, you will answer one question relating to a “real world” case study (no more than 4 pages).
3. Thirdly, you will be required to answer one of two scenario-based questions (no more than 2 pages).
Your answers must be double-spaced, in 12 pitch font, with one-inch margins. The only exception to this general requirement is if you elect to answer question 3’s second scenario you should follow the information paper format you were provided.
Total exam page count will not exceed ten pages nor be less than eight pages. The completed exam is to be submitted to your professor via email ( NOT Digital Drop Box) by 22 Feb 2011.
Your responses will be evaluated on your ability to (1) develop a complete and logical approach to the topic, (2) apply appropriate course concepts, and (3) communicate your ideas with brevity, clarity and specificity.
The exam accounts for 40% of your overall NSDM grade. Grading criteria are contained in Naval War College Instruction 1520.2M and can be found in the front of your NSDM syllabus.
NSDM MID-TERM EXAM
Question 1. Self Reflection. Essay format (3) three pages.
Throughout the first part of the NSDM course you were asked to assess your level of competency in certain personal, interpersonal, and group and organizational management skills. These skills* (see below), together with your technical and functional knowledge, are the keys to your continued success in positions of more complex responsibility.
Choose which two ( 2 & 3 )of these skills you consider your highest priority for improvement in yourself. In an essay of no more than four pages, describe why these two are your highest priority and a personal plan for developing them. What should your plan look like? It should have an introduction and a conclusion. You should draw from and apply the concepts covered in NSDM-2 through NSDM-11. Here are some additional suggestions:
1. (Current competency). How well do you currently demonstrate each of these skills? You can use the assessments from the text as “evidence.” If you attach the assessments as appendices to the exam, the space they take up will not count towards the exam page limit.
2. (Strategy for self-improvement). What are you going to work on and in what order? How will you know if your plan is working? Here is where you explain the specific actions you plan to take to develop your priority skills. You can also describe how you would adjust your strategy to meet evolving needs.
*The skills correspond to the chapter titles in the Whetten & Cameron text: developing self-awareness, managing personal stress, solving problems, building relationships by communicating supportively, gaining power & influence, motivating others, managing conflict, empowering & delegating, building effective teams & teamwork, and leading positive change.
Question 2. Case Study. Essay format - (3) three pages.
Drawing from the Darfur Case Study found on page 249 of your “Case Studies in Policy Making” 10th Edition, discuss the likely impact of organizational behavior within Department of Defense, its interagency partners, and Congress on developing and implementing any future coordinated U.S. response to the crisis at hand.
Question 3. Scenario #1 Essay format (2) two pages.
A. SCENARIO #1:
You have recently graduated from the Naval War College and reported aboard a Combatant Commander (COCOM) staff. A month or so after your arrival, your immediate superior (Colonel, USA) calls you into his office and asks for some assistance. As soon as you are seated, he says:
“It’s no secret that the CCDR (a four star general/flag officer) is not totally pleased with some of the skills displayed by our recent staff work. He has asked the Chief of Staff (Major General, USAF) for ideas on how to make our staff more effective as a team. The Chief of Staff has asked me for input, and I have to brief her in three days.
Frankly, with the planning for the new joint and coalition exercise coming up, I am pressed for time and could also use some fresh thinking to help me focus my ideas. I would like your thoughts on paper, in no more than 2 pages, which I can then work from to finalize my own thoughts. Don’t be concerned about the format or the personalities involved. I want you to focus on how we can apply some tested approaches to break down barriers, facilitate effective problem solving, improve communications, and resolve disagreements within the staff.
It seems that our staff climate has become stagnant, and in some ways, even divisive (see skills * from Question 1). I know some of it is because of stress and long hours, but there must be something we can do to improve the environment around here. I know this is a lot to get your arms around on short notice.
What I would like is not so much a list of techniques, but your integrated approach to help the boss get our staff skills up to par. Welcome aboard and thanks, I look forward to reading your paper in two days.”
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: You are to write a 3-page paper. Please read the article below and then answer the discussion question. State the Question first and then continue to answer. *Do Not Use Outside Sources.*
1.How can adulthood be socially constructed? What does it mean to say that something is "socially constructed"?
2.What are the strengths and weaknesses of an individual or social perspective on adult learning? Is one more relevant than another in certain contexts?
Linking the Individual Learner to the Context of Adult Learning: by Caffarella & Merriam
As educators of adults we have long been driven by two primary perspectives in how we work with adult learners. Until recently, focusing on the learning process of individual learners has dominated the way we think about adult learning. This perspective still permeates much of our practice from our continued belief that responding to individual learning styles is critical in working with adults, to a wish for some kind of magic memory pill that will help us learn more efficiently. In the second perspective, the context within which adults learn becomes an essential component of the learning process. There are two important dimensions to the contextual approach to learning what we’re calling “interactive” and “structural.” The interactive dimension acknowledges that learning is a product of the individual interacting with the context. The most effective learning is that which takes place in authentic, real life situations. Translated into practice, this has led to incorporating internships, role playing, simulations, and apprenticeships into our instruction. The Structural dimension of context takes into consideration the social and cultural factors that affect learning such as race, class, gender, ethnicity, and power and oppression. The structural factors have long been a part of our educational systems. There are some who strongly favor the more psychologically driven paradigm of viewing learning as a process internal to the individual, while others clearly adhere to the contextual approach to learning. As researchers and practitioners, we have for the most part viewed these two perspectives as separate and distinct ways of conceptualizing learning in adulthood. One side speaks from the merits of seeing every learner as an individual with unlimited potential, while the other fights for basic social change as fundamental to education practice. Although both of these perspectives are important in understanding adult learning, we believe that either perspective by itself is too limiting in addressing the complex array of issues and problems we face in working with adults. Therefore, we advocate a third way of conceptualizing adult learning that of thinking the individual and contextual perspectives. For us, advancing this third perspective has been a major change in our thinking and a challenge to incorporate into our practice as teachers and scholars. While we were both schooled primarily in the individual perspective, it has come clear to us in recent years that often the two are so interwoven that our practice is incomplete if we only address one. This change in our thinking and practice has come from our continued in depth review of the adult learning literature, and in particular, feminist and critical theory and our experiences with diverse learners and cultures in both formal and informal settings.
The individual learner
A focus on the individual learners has a long tradition and history in adult learning and has until recently been how both the researchers and practitioners in adult education have fashioned their craft. Two basic assumptions from the foundation for this perspective. First is that learning is something that happens primarily internally, inside our heads. In essence the outside environment is given little if any attention in the way what we think and learn. Second, this perspective is based on the assumption that all adults can be effective learners, no matter what their background or situation. A sampling of topics that are grounded primarily in this perspective include: participation and motivation, self directed learning, andragogy, transformational learning, memory and learning, learning style, intellectual and cognitive development, and the neurobiology of learning. Three of these topics are discussed illustrate this perspective: participation and motivation, self directed learning, and transformational learning.
Participation is one of the more thoroughly studied the areas in adult education. We have a sense of who participates, what is studied, and what motivates some adults and not others to enroll in a course for undertake an independent learning project. Beginning with the landmark study of Johnstone and Rivera, scholars have sought to describe the typical adult learner. What is interesting is that the original profile put forth by Johnstone and Rivera has changed little over the past 30 years. Compared to those who do not participate, participants in adult education are better educated, younger, have higher incomes, and are most likely to be white and employed full time. This accumulation of descriptive information about participation has led to the efforts to build models that try to convey the complexity of the phenomenon. The work on determining why people participate that is, the underlying motivational structure for participation has been carried on most notably by Boshier and others using Boshier’s Educational Participation Scale. Between three and seven factors have been delineated to explain why adults participate, such as expectations of others, educational preparation, professional advancement, social stimulation, and cognitive interests. A number of other models, grounded in characteristics of individual learners, have been developed to further explain participation; several of these models also linked a more socio-demographic or contextual approach with that of the individual backgrounds of learners. Studies in participation and motivation have had wide reaching effects on the practice of adult education. Many of those have come to expect the instructor will take into account their individual needs and desires and may leave programs when these are ignored. In addition, an area that always seems to interest educators of adults are ways to motivate and retain learners once they are enrolled in programs. This interest in motivation and retention is both a function of wanting to address individual participants’ needs in motives for attending as well as an economic necessity for adult education programs that operate as profit centers. We also design and market numerous programs in adult education related to what we know about why adults participate. The many job related programs that are offered by a variety of organizations are good examples of matching program content with one of the major reasons why adults participate in formal educational programs.
Although learning on one’s own or self-directed learning as been the primary mode of learning throughout the ages, systematic studies in this arena did not become prevalent until the 1970s and 1980s. The majority of this work is grounded in humanistic philosophy, which posits personal growth as a goal of adult learning. Therefore, understanding how individuals go about the process of learning on their own and what attributes can be associated with learners who are self-directed have been the two major threads of this research tradition. The process of self-directed learning was first presented as primarily linear, using much of the same language we use to describe learning process informal settings. As more complex models were developed, this emphasis began to shift to viewing the self-directed learning process as much more of the trial and error activity, with many loops and curves. In addition, as in the participation literature, contextual aspects of the process, such as the circumstances learners found themselves within, were found to also be important. In practice, the study of self-directed learning has led instructors and program planners to use such teaching tools as individualized learner plans or contracts and to test learners for their readiness to engage in self-directed learning. For example, individual learning plans and contracts have been used in a variety of ways, from framing the whole program of professional development and even graduate study, to being used as one format among many within a set of learning activities. The use of learning contracts allows participants to write their own learning objectives, choose how they will learn the material, and evaluate what they have learned; in essence, they are given the opportunity to individualize their own learning. In addition, a number of organizations have chosen to equate self-directedness in learning with the ability to be lifelong learners. Many public schools, colleges, and universities, for example, now include the promotion of self-directed learning as a part of their mission statements.
Transformational learning theory
And other major strand of research that is grounded primarily in this individual perspective is transformative or transformational learning theory. First articulated by Mezirow in 1978, transformational learning theory is about change—dramatic, fundamental changes in the way individual see themselves and the world in which they live. The mental constructions of experience, inner meaning, and critical self reflection are common components of this approach. Self reflection is often triggered by a major dilemma or problem and may be undertaken individually as well as collectively with others who share similar problems or dilemmas. The in result of this process is a change in one’s perspective. For example, a person has a heart attack and though a process of self-examination decides that the “type A” lifestyle that she has lived is no longer a positive action; or a newly divorced, single-parent reworks his understanding of the parenting role. Although there are a number of writers who have or would like to connect this transformational learning process more to it a social action, the predominant work has been and continues to be done from the individual perspective. Only the few educators have looked at how to operationalize the work on transformational learning into the formal practice of Adult Education. Cranton and Mezirow, for example, have offered both philosophical discussions and practical strategies and techniques that instructors use in fostering and supporting transformational learning. Yet the implementation of transformational learning brings with it many practical and practical questions. Do we have the right as adult educators to ask people to examine and change the basic life assumption as part of our educational programs? Can we expect learners to freely share this type of learning experience? Should we actually precipitate such a learning experience by posing real dilemmas or problems that forced learners to examine who they are and what they stand for as individuals (at least if they want to pass a class or earn a certain credential)? And it do we have the competencies as a dove educators from our current training to assist learners through a transformational learning process? What makes these various orientations individual is the presumption that adult learning is primarily an individual, psychological process only relatively shaped by contextual factors. As noted throughout this discussion of the individual learner perspective, though, some of the work has taken into account the contextual factors that we explore more in depth in the next section of this chapter. Actually in the last decade it has become more difficult to place topic areas into one camp or the other. Still, the majority of work on these and other topics mentioned draw heavily from psychology and are grounded in thinking about learners as individuals.
The contextual perspective
The contextual perspective takes an account to import elements: the interactive nature of learning and the structural aspects of learning grounded in a sociocultural framework. Although the contextual perspective is not new to adult learning, it has resurfaced as an important consideration over the past decade. The interactive dimensions acknowledge that learning cannot be separated from the context in which the learning takes place. In other words, the learn the situation and learning context are as important to the learning process as what the individual learner and/or instructor bring to that situation. Recent theories of learning from experience, situated cognition, cognitive and intellectual development, and writings on reflective practice in form the dimension of the contextual approach. In exploring the interactive dimension of the contextual perspectives we focus and two interrelated areas: situated cognition and reflective practice.
In situated cognition, one cannot separate the learning process from the situation in which the learning takes place. Knowledge and the process of learning within this framework are viewed as “a product of the activity, context, and the culture in which it is developed and used.” The proponents of the situated view of learning argued that learning for everyday living which includes our practice as professionals have been only among people acting in culturally organized settings. In other words, the physical and social experience at situation in which learners find themselves in the tools they use and that experience are integral to the learning process. And practice situated cognition can be incorporated into the learning process through attending more closely to our everyday world to developing highly sophisticated simulations of real-world activities and events. For example, in the teaching of well baby care to low income mothers, new mothers are encourage to bring their newborns to class and actually practiced their new knowledge and skills. In addition, the old staff visit these mothers to see how their home situations can either enhance or detract from actually using what they have learned. The old staff may even more toward changing aspects of the context by helping these new mothers access adequate healthcare and decent housing. As another example, technological base simulations of real-life bring to bear all of the possible outcomes than the learner might have to face and carrying through a particular job or responding to a crisis situation. A flight simulator in which a pilot flies a plane in all kinds of weather conditions or computer simulations of floods or hurricanes for relief workers are examples of how technology has made situated cognition and integral part of education and training programs. The tenants of situated cognition are often played out in reflective practices. Reflective practices allow us to make judgments in complex and murky situations, judgments based on experience and prior knowledge. One way that Adult Education have integrated and interactive reflective mode into their work is through what to Schon has termed reflection-in-action. Reflection in action assist us in reshaping what we are doing while we’re doing it and is often characterized as being able to think our feet. In addition to Schon work, useful models of using reflective practice and a conceptual way in clue the new work of Boud and Walker, Boud and Miller, and Usher, Bryant, and Johnstone. The interactive reflective mode has been incorporated into practice in a number of ways. For example, in training instructors on how to a teach adults, the practicing teacher and learner are asked in the middle of a teaching scenario to reflect on what can Schechter has done that has been helpful to the learning process and what can be improved. The practicing teacher at the end either continue and incorporate what she had learned as she commences teaching, or she may start the teaching of the soul over again after she has had a chance to revise the lesson. The second way to incorporate this form of reflective practice into our teaching is to have learners pay attention to the here and now of the learning situation that is, what they are thinking and feeling now about whatever content is being discussed. Tremmel terms being mindful and awareness of the present moment. Mindfulness moves away from mindless absorption in the endless parade of thoughts through the mind. When one is mindful, one lives in the present and pays attention pure and simple.
The structural dimensions
The second dimension of the contextual perspective, the structural dimension, argues that factors such as race, class, gender, and ethnicity need to be taken into consideration in the learning process. Being white or of color or being male or female, for example, does influence the way we learn and even what we learn. The structural dimension of a dealt learning is interwoven into a number of research trains, such as work on a dealt cognitive development, a dealt development and learning, and participation studies, and indigenous learning. The strongest voices for the structural dimension are those scholars writing from a feminist, critical, or postmodern viewpoint. Those that a adult learning from these theoretical perspectives asked questions regarding whose interests are being served by the program being offered, really has access to these programs, and who has the control to make changes in the learning process and outcomes. Further, our assumption about the nature of knowledge including what counts as knowledge, where it is located, and how it is acquired are also a challenge. Fundamental to these questions are the themes of power and oppression in both the process and organization of the learning enterprise. Are those who hold the power really operating in the best interests of those being educated? Do our behaviors and actions as educators actually reinforce our power position, or do they acknowledge and use the experience and knowledge of those with whom we work, especially those who have been traditionally underrepresented in our are dealt learning program(such as the indigenous, or people of color)? Do we use our power as instructors and the leaders in Adult Education to either all void or band discussions about the importance of race, gender, ethnicity, and class and the adult learning enterprise? Some of the clearest messages on how to translate this structural contextual dimension into practice have come from feminist and multicultural writers. For example, using insight from both multicultural education and feminist pedagogy, Tisdell has explored how to make our practice as adult educators more in schools of people from a variety of backgrounds. She emphasizes the importance of understanding both the specific learning context of the classroom or learning activity and the organizational context in which one is working. Is there something within either of these contexts that would inhibit learners from speaking and especially from challenging predominate views and ideas? Or does the instructor incorporate ways for the learner to challenge what they are being taught in an open and positive way? Tisdell goals all and to suggest specific ways to create the inclusive learning environments including acknowledging the power disparity between the teacher/facilitator and the students… considering how curricula choicest implicitly or explicitly contribute to challenging structured power relations, and adopting emancipator teaching strategies. Other insights for practice have come from people writing about the learning of indigenous cultural groups. Cajete’s book on the tribal foundations of American Indian education is a useful example of this type of material. In his book, Cajete speaks to the importance of tapping into the ethnic backgrounds and ways of knowing for indigenous people. More specifically, he emphasizes techniques such as storytelling, dreaming, and artistic creation as methods for doing this. What is interesting about Cajete’s observation is that he captures both the conceptual perspective of learning and the spirit of individual learners and teachers. As he states: the integration of the inner and outer realities about learners and teachers must be fully honored and we must engage both realities to make our educational process complete. He and others including ourselves have argued that both perspectives, the individual and the contextual, should inform our practice as educators of adults.
Linking the perspectives
Linking the individual and contextual perspectives can provide us with yet another way of gaining a more comprehensive understanding of learning and adulthood. What this means is that those of us who work with a belt learners need to look at each learning situation from two major lenses or frames: an awareness of individual learners and how they learn, and an understanding of how the context shapes learners, teachers, and the learning transaction itself. A number of adult education scholars acknowledge the importance of taking into account both the individual and contextual perspectives. Their work provides a starting place for both researchers and practitioners who want to gain a better understanding of this integrative perspective of adult learning. For example, Jarvis writes that learning is not just a psychological process that happens in splendid isolation from the world in which the learner lives, but that it is intimately related to that world and affected by it. Likewise, Tennant and Pogson highlight both psychological and social development and their relationship to a double learning. They shreds that the nature, timing, and the process of development will vary according to the experiences and opportunities other individuals and the circumstances in their lives. Heaney emphasizes that a narrow focus on individual in the head images of learning separates learning from its social conscience, both the social relationship which are reproduced in us and the transformative consequences of our learning on society. From Heaney’s perspective, learning is an individual’s ongoing negotiation with communities of practice which ultimately gives definition to both self and that practice. In a more practical vein, Pratt and associates outlined alternative frames for understanding teaching in a way that captures both the individual and contextual nature of adult learning. Some teachers, for example, focused more on individual learning in their practice those who fall under Pratt’s nurturing perspective, others adopt more of what Pratt terms a social reform perspective more contextual in nature, and still others combined frames and therefore address both the individual and contextual side of the learning transaction. As teachers and program planners, we are often challenge to consider both what the individual brings to the learning situation as well as the life circumstances of the learner at any particular point in time. Furthermore, the organizational context in which learn takes place will have an impact on the nature of the learning transaction. Taking a course in computer technology and the university is part of a credit program, versus a three-day training session at work, versus a workshop sponsored by community agency such as local library, will make a difference in how the course is taught and what learning takes place. To illustrate how taking account of both the individual learner and contextual factors can eliminate our understanding of learning, we offer the following three scenarios and comments.
Marie a first generation Hispanic is an assistant supervisor of a production unit in the local automotive plant. She would like to be promoted by lacks a high school diploma, an essential credential for a supervisor. She decides to attend an evening class to prepare for the GED. After finding childcare for her two young children, she attends classes readily, making progress in preparing for the exam. After several weeks she no longer shows up for class. For an individual learning perspective the teacher would explain the recent behavior in terms of her ability to actually do the work, or perhaps detest anxiety as the time for the GED exam grew closer. She might also question whether Marie really wanted a promotion, which appeared to be the major motivating factor for earning her GED, from a contextual perspective the teacher would view the situation quite differently. She would not automatically assume it was Marie’s fault or problem, but would consider other issues. For example, were there pressures from family members not to contribute? Perhaps they feel she does not need any more education especially when it means leaving the kids home with a sitter a couple of nights a week. Were there childcare problems, and if so, as she convinced the company that it would be in their own best interest to provide childcare services as a part of the program? After all, as a result of this program, at least Marie would have be potential to be promoted according to the company policies, the teacher might also consider whether her teaching methods more appropriate for Marie, at first generation Hispanic woman. Could the teacher better connect the skills she was teaching to Marie’s work and home life? In reality more recent research on participation and retention in adult literacy programs often ignore a social context of learners lives—the world learners live in and deal with everyday life and therefore the most literacy programs minimize or overlook cultural, social, economic, ethnic, and gender injustices… not everyone has a fair and equal chance in society. If a literacy curriculum helps learners to problematize there world so that they can see that their situation is not necessarily their fault, they can begin to gain greater control over their lives.
David is an elementary teacher, teaching children with diverse backgrounds all from low income families. Like many teachers nationwide he is being pressured by borough is principal at the local district to bring up the state and national task force of his students in reading and math. He decides to enroll in a three-day summer workshop offered by a well-respected national professional association so he could learn new ways to approach this problem of low test scores. Part of the requirement for attending the workshop is to bring a team of people from Federal Building. He convinces three of his fellow teachers to join him. During the first three hours of the workshop, team members are asked to identify major issues they are facing and attempting to raise test scores. David’s team members list items like 850% turn over instant during each academic year, second language problems, and a principal who gives them little, if any, tangible support for addressing the problems. The team is excited that they are finally in a workshop where their needs would be addressed. The facilitators thank each of the teams for their input, and in and out they are predetermined agenda, saying they would incorporate the issues identified that each of the teams. The afternoon constitutes a basic introduction to the academic problems of low test scores, material David’s team is already familiar with. Even though they found the afternoon session useless, they decide to come back the second day as their morning discussion has been stimulating. The second day is even worse. Not only on the problems they identified the work, but all of the examples used to illustrate how schools were able to raise their test scores were set in middle and upper class districts and require new resource. David and his colleagues did not bother to come back the third day. Although it appeared that the needs of individual learners and this workshop for going to be considered, those of David and his colleagues were not. Rather then be inched options being situated or anchored in the participants real-life context in the case of David Steen, schools located in poor neighborhoods they were given information that was either too general or so out of context that it was not worth their time or effort to continue to attend. For this workshop to have been useful to David and his team, illustrations or case examples from school and low common districts with high student turnover rates and English-language problems would have been more meaningful as would have sharing new ideas for no or low-cost instructional materials and techniques.
In a gradual class and adult education one of the authors who delighted to find out that the Taiwanese student who rarely contribute to the client’s discussion and written an outstanding paper on the assigned topic. The paper was so well written that the professor decided to read it to the class as an exemplar; she also hoped that by recognizing the student in this way, the student would have more confidence to participate in class discussions and activities. While she read the paper the student will now with her head in her hands, and barren; subsequent papers were not quite as outstanding, nor did her participation increased as the teacher had hoped. In this scenario the teacher is focused on the individual learner. Though well mention, ignoring the students hold true context impacted negatively on the student’s subsequent learning. For some Asian students, their culture has talked them that to be singled out from their peer group the other students is acutely embarrassing and jeopardizing their position in the group; to be singled out is a risk being marginalized. Not wanting to stand out from the group, the need to save face, and respect for authority, especially that of teachers, all mitigate against contributing to class discussion and activities as an individual. In a sense their learning style favors direct interaction with the written materials and nonpublic assessment of their work. Pratt, Kelly, and Wong (1998) have questioned whether we can in polls as a part of our practice of adult education our Westernized assumption of teaching and learning. More specifically, Pratt asserts that: Adult Education within any country is not simply a neutral body of knowledge and procedures… there are significant cultural and ideological differences… in how adulthood is defined… which must be considered when exporting or importing educational practices and procedures. What we have hoped to make clear and the last section of the chapter is that paying attention to both the individual learner and the context of learning provides yet another way to gain a richer understanding of adults as learners. In considering our own practice, we might ask ourselves questions that incorporate both perspectives such as: how can I recognize in the learning process strengthens learners bring to the situation that had been culturally engendered for example, the importance of the group, of silence, of the oral tradition? As programs are being planned, what power relations among participants, teacher, and/or organizational personnel should I address? Can I, as a teacher, respond to both the individual needs of learners in my group as well as consider the contextual factors act as barriers or supports or learning? How can I use both the collective for example, being white, a woman, a man, a person of color and individual experiences of learning in my teaching? How do I, as a teacher, inadvertently reinforced the show actual assuring some learning, and what can I do to resist reinforcing the status quo? In responding to such questions, it is our hope that our practice as adult educators can be richer, more inclusive of differing perspectives, and more comprehensive and our actions. Although we strongly endorse both further study and incorporating in practice the integrative perspective on a belt learning, we recognize there are limitations to our acknowledge position. First, some might read into our stance that expanding research efforts in this way would mean ignoring scholarship and attention to the individual and conceptual frames. However, rather than curtailing work from either of these perspectives we suggest more effort be put into identifying and then focusing on questions that offer cause the most promising information for our enhancing practice. For example, from the individual perspective what we are currently learning about the neurobiology of learning has the potential for greatly expanding knowledge about adults with learning disabilities, the importance of emotion in the learning process, and how biological changes in adulthood are linked to learning. Likewise, we still need more in-depth exploration of the interactive and structural dimensions of the conceptual perspective of learning, including such areas as reflective practice, and the influence of race, gender, class, and ethnicity on how and what adults learn. We acknowledge that the integration of the individual and conceptual frames into our everyday work roles is challenging at best and actively resisted by some. Raise the issue of power and knowledge construction or even questioning how our institutional norms, structure, and assumed ways of operating shapeup the up the learning transaction can be a threatening and disruptive undertaking. Embracing this frame involves not only changes in how we as individuals do our jobs, but also major realignment’s in the ways our formal institutions are organized and what is considered to be acceptable practice.
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