Essay Instructions: This assignment will require students to articulate and critique the different philosophical paradigms (positivism and constructivism) and how they apply in real-world contexts. First, describe the ontological, epistemological, and methodological assumptions of both positivism and constructivism. Be sure to compare and contrast each of these assumptions for each philosophical position. Next, discuss the relationship between the positivist and constructivist paradigms and theories relevant to your field. For example, there are several schools of thought for how a human being should deal with stress. The positivist (medical model) posits that medication will achieve the best outcome. The medical model has support from the scientific community through published empirical data and results that support the medical model’s success in treatment. In contrast, some schools of Eastern medicine support the use of acupuncture as a way to reduce stress. While the theory for why this may be successful is not well-articulated, acupuncturists say that the effects are not easily explained through traditional medical models. However, there is a body of literature that claims that patients have experienced stress reduction despite theoretical support in relation to the physiological effects of acupuncture (constructivist). Finally, state your position as to which paradigm best fits your own belief system. Be sure to include the literature support for your points
Item Possible Points Score
Description of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology
Ontology, epistemology, and methodology were written clearly and concisely. 4
Statements are concise and focused 1
Theory in real world setting
Each theory is clearly described and appropriately applied to the student’s field. 3
The compare and contrast section is logical and clear 3
Preference for paradigm is clearly stated and supported by literature references. 2
Style and Format
APA style is appropriately used. 1
Grammar and style are within expectations for a technical report. 1
Total Points 15
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: BACKGROUND READINGS:
Please begin by reading the following article,
Becker, J., & Niehaves, B. (2007). Epistemological perspectives on IS research: A framework for analysing and systematizing epistemological assumptions. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 197-214.
[Note: Epistemology and Ontology can be difficult concepts to understand, and to distinguish from each other. Therefore, we have provided additional resources in the Optional Materials section below to support you in strengthening your ability to differentiate and articulate these philosophical foundations of scientific research.]
The next article focuses on the issue of collaboration across philosophical research paradigms:
• Weber, R. (2008). The rhetoric of positivism versus interpretivism: A personal view.
MIS Quarterly, 28(1), III-XII.
[Note: Although the Weber article focuses on the field of information systems, the debate is germane to social science research (and some would argue to all scientific research; for example, see the optional materials section below for similar debates in the fields of finance, management accounting, and a debate in the Journal of Marketing spanning four articles and multiple authors from 1990-1992)].
Finally, please read the following three theoretical overviews (I encourage you to read the case assignment before reading these three articles):
• Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (1997, January). The Ubiquity and Potency of Labeling in Organizations. Organization Science, 8(1), 43-58.
• Boland Jr., R., & Tenkasi, R. (1995). Perspective Making and Perspective Taking in Communities of Knowing. Organization Science, 6(4), 350-372.
• Jackson, J.W. (1993). Realistic group conflict theory: A review and evaluation of the theoretical and empirical literature. Psychological Record, 43(3), 395-405.
In the required background readings, Dr. Ron Weber (2004) shared his personal reactions to the ways in which he felt that “positivists” were being caricatured by “interpretivists”. Toward the end of his article he wonders “why the rhetoric of positivism versus interpretivism has persisted” (p. X) and says that “I no longer want to be labeled as a positivist researcher or an interpretevist researcher. It is time for us to move beyond labels and to see the underlying unity in what we are trying to achieve via our research methods” (p. XI).
In this case assignment you will:
Compare and contrast three alternative theoretical rationales as explanatory mechanisms
for why the rhetoric of positivism vs. interpretivism has persisted.
1. Give a brief overview of the framework that Becker and Niehaves (2007) (from the required background readings) provide.
2. Describe the overarching context that their framework establishes related to Dr. Weber’s concerns
3. Apply that framework to briefly assessing, comparing, and contrasting the epistemological bases for the following three articles (from the required background readings) as potential theoretical explanations for the persistence of the positivism vs. interpretivism rhetoric:
o Labeling theory: Ashforth and Humphrey, 1997
o Perspective making and taking in communities of knowing: Boland and Tenkasi, 1995
o Realistic group conflict theory: Jackson, 1993
4. Assess the degree to which each of the three potential theoretical explanations fits the nature of the problem that Dr. Weber posed (i.e., “why the rhetoric of positivism versus interpretivism has persisted”), and the context(s) within which it is situated
5. Argue for and support your choice of one of the three, or some combination of two or all three of the theoretical explanations, in terms of best fit and potential explanatory power as to why the rhetoric of positivism vs. interpretivism has persisted.
6. Make sure you articulate your understanding of each term that you employ (i.e., don't just say "inductivism" - define it, and provide evidence to support your contention as to why you believe that the author(s) is/are assuming an inductivist methodological aspect).
1. Length 4-5 pages of double spaced 12 point font text, plus cover and reference page.
2. Structure: Narrative style, including a brief introduction in which you provide an overview of your paper.
3. References; Follow Campion's (1997) rules for references (see background page).
4. Style: APA format.
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Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: You are being asked to write a 500 word report on your recent (imaginary) field trip to a remote island where, it has been confirmed, a hitherto unknown tribal society lives. You have been sent there to discover whether there is present in that tribal society anything resembling 'law'. You and your colleagues have now returned and you must detail your findings in a short report.
You should include in your report a short statement of your understanding of your task, your methods of investigation (how you went about it and why) and your findings and conclusions at each stage of the investigation. It is important, of course, that you relate this throughout to the concept of 'legal positivism'. Feel free to say which of the theories helped you most, why and with regard to which issues, and also to identify shortcomings in any of them.
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 7 Words: 1925 Sources: 3 Citation Style: Harvard Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: THEORETICAL CRIMINOLOGY.
JONES--PP 88-89 AND CHAPTER 13,14 AND 15.
WHITE AND HAINES--CHAPTER 3.
WILLIAMS,K,S.(2008)CRIMINOLOGY (OXFORD).CHAPTER 6,7,8 AND 10.
NEWBURN,T .(2008) CRIMINOLOGY (WILLAN) PAGE 120--166.
1,WHAT ARE THE MAIN FEATURES OF POSITIVIST CRIMINOLOGY?
2,WHAT EXPLANATION DID POSITIVIST CRIMINOLOGISTS GIVE FOR
THE FAILURE OF CLASSICISM CRIME?
3,OUTLINE THE IDEAS OF 2 MAJOR THEORISTS OF BIOLOGICAL
4,OUTLINE THE IDEAS OF 2 MAJOR THEORISTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
5,WHAT HAS BEEN THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTIFIC POSITIVISM TO
CRIMINOLOGY? I.E PROVIDE A CRITIQUE.
6,WHAT DANGERS LIE IN APPLICATION OF GENETIC AND ETHOLOGICAL
THEORIES OF CRIMINALITY AND ATTEMPTS TO CURE THE CRIMINAL?
7,IS SCIENTIFIC POSITIVISM RELEVANT TODAY?EXPLAIN.
Excerpt From Essay:
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