Total Pages: 10 Words: 2869 References: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Paper is on family communication ?Nonverbal Communication skills?, it needs to include the headings for each section.
This section will explain the topic area's importance to the field of Family Communication. You have described some of the key ideas of ?Nonverbal Communication skills?, topic; how did/does it relate to Family Communication and the course content?
Discussion and Conclusion summarize the main points of the paper. Include a discussion on the future trends and research in the field of communication.
Annotated Bibliography: For this paper you need to do research in peer-reviewed journals or other journals that are considered to have reliable information (do not use sources from the secular press, i.e. Time, Newsweek, Parent's Today). The Annotated Bibliography should include the following information for each source: Name of the article, including the complete bibliographic citation, using APA format. Who? (author) How? (was it done) Contributions? (new findings, applications, etc.) What were the findings? (identify the major ones) What was done? (for example, an experimental study investigating the interaction of short term memory and attention)
References and Annotated Bibliography
Include an APA format Reference page titled "References" (without the quotes) and list all sources used in writing the paper. NOTE: All these sources must have been cited in the paper body. The reference page should be followed by the Annotated Bibliography page (these are separate components of the paper). Please make sure you include at least 5 journal article references. Thank you so much anything please just let me know
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: The paper is based on the following proposal:
Problem: How does nonverbal communication between competitors affect the play and outcome of sporting contests?
Thesis: Non-verbal actions can establish with or without the help of actual words the level of intensity prior to or during a contest which can have an effect on outcome. Level of intensity includes such items as pecking order, dominance, territoriality, behavior and level of effort.
Outline: This paper will identify types of communication that are transacted prior to and during athletic contests that can have an effect on play and outcome between competitors or groups of competitors. While nonverbal communication will be the focus, nonverbal response to verbal communication will also be explored. Attention to possible strategies and conditions under which they may backfire will be investigated. While communication between teammates and their coaches is important, this paper does not delve into this well documented facet. Rather, the focus will be on dueling competitors or groups of competitors.
Importance: A large part of society is infatuated with athletic competition. Looking at an aspect that many are only vaguely aware of may provide some insight not only to the competition itself but also into its outcome. Further, it has been said that athletics is a microcosm of life as a whole and certainly competition is not solely the province of athletics. Seemingly therefore, any insight into athletic competition should expound on life’s other competitive parts.
Some points: While the subject of verbal communication can be broached, the paper is predominately about non-verbal communication. While I requested 8 sources, 8 is not necessary (use what you can and need) but those in the bibliography must be cited in the text of the paper. This paper is trying to make a point like a thesis. Please contact me with any questions or issues. Thanks.
1) Begin with the broad significance of your chosen topic (1-2 paragraphs)
2) Clearly state your thesis statement, making sure it logically flows from the paragraphs detailing the importance of your topic. Your thesis should be stated no later than at the end of your first page!
3) Provide a brief preview/outline of how you will tackle the thesis statement (optional)
4) State and develop your supporting arguments, one at a time. Be wise about the order of presenting your arguments!
5) State and refute counter-arguments (optional). If you chose to refute counter-arguments, it is important that you do so after you’ve laid out your own arguments.
6) Summarize your main points (optional)
7) Provide a strong conclusion that wraps up the argument in a forceful way and underlines its significance.
1) Length: a minimum of 8 pages and a maximum of 10 pages. Your TA will not be reading past the 10th page!
2) Double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins
3) Use section headings and subheadings to organize your paper
4) At least 8 scholarly references cited in APA style in the “References” section at the end of the paper. You should also include parenthetical citations throughout the paper. The references section should only include references cited in the text!
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: The topic of the paper is "Nonverbal Communication Skill".
Please answer the following Questions regarding this topic: Why learn about nonverbal communication? What are the challenge of interpreting nonverbal messages? Why is it important to understand nonverbal communication code? And finally how does nonverbal communication help us improve our interpersonal communication skills.
please limit to 4 quotation and 3 parenthetical citations. NO footnotes. etc.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: For this case assignment we will be looking at the nonverbal communication that takes place when you give a presentation. I want you to read the article below, in it the authors discuss several elements of nonverbal communication to consider when giving a presentation. After you have read the article answer the following questions:
? Do you agree with the authors?
? Which element of nonverbal communication that they discuss do you think is the most important element to remember?
Write three to four pages answering the above questions and hand it in by the end of this module
Successful businesspersons realize that the ability to make an effective presentation before an audience is a key business skill often associated with career advancement. With proper training in the rules for making successful presentations and by examining their own behaviors to avoid those that detract from their message, speakers can enjoy the accolades that accompany a winning presentation.
Presentation effectiveness is not only related to what the speaker says but to the nonverbal elements as well. How people dress, their body language, vocal characteristics and use of visuals when speaking to a group largely determines whether they and their organization are perceived as credible. In addition, speaker credibility is linked to preparation and-use of time.
Eye Contact, Posture And Gestures
Eye contact with the audience has been identified as perhaps the most important characteristic a speaker should possess. Experts advise connecting with individuals rather than letting the eyes sweep over the audience without making eye contact with anyone. A good technique to use is to select a person in the audience who is smiling and nodding in agreement and to talk directly to that person, then choose another and so on. With direct eye contact, the speaker appears more confident and more accepting of audience feedback. Eye contact, accompanied by a smile, gives the audience the impression the speaker is happy to be there. Preparation is associated with eye contact; speakers who are well prepared find it easier to meet this recommended goal: maintaining eye contact with the audience 75 percent to 85 percent of the time.
Posture is important to projecting a positive image when making a presentation. Speakers should avoid the extremes of being too stiff, which is perceived as being uptight, or too loose, which comes across as sloppy and careless. Further, a hunched-over posture indicates low confidence and self-- esteem. The presenter should stand erectly with weight balanced on both feet to convey an aura of confidence. While some presenters feel sitting or leaning on a table or desk gives the impression they are relaxed, this type of posture is often viewed negatively. Leaning on the lectern is to be avoided since this may be interpreted as a lack of strength and forcefulness as well as conveying a need for support. Another misuse of the lectern is sometimes referred to as "the death grip," which indicates extreme nervousness.
Gestures are helpful for a speaker; they complement, clarify and intensify the spoken message. Speakers who use some gestures appear more at ease than those who use no gestures. Gestures may be voluntary or involuntary and may support a point or call attention to the speaker's discomfort. Natural relaxed movements communicate selfconfidence; to appear natural, however, gestures should coincide with specific points but should not distract from the presentation. Rocking back and forth and clenching or rubbing hands together should be avoided. Gestures that may be interpreted negatively, such as folding both arms across the chest or standing with hands on hips, should also be avoided. Distracting gestures men are sometimes guilty of include jingling coins or keys in the pant's pocket. Women sometimes wear jangling jewelry that can be both a visual and an audio distraction. Other gestures that may prove distracting include repeated removal/replacement of one's glasses; nervous mannerisms such as clicking a pen or clearing the throat; touching the face, ears, or hair; adjusting articles of clothing and repeated use of the same gesture.
People form impressions of others within about a minute; much of this initial impression is based on such nonverbal elements as dress and appearance. Being dressed appropriately will boost the speaker's confidence and make him or her more at ease before a group. How a speaker dresses is also related to respect.
Some listeners will make judgments about the message based on their interpretation of the respect being shown them by the speaker's choice of attire. When speakers dress too casually, the audience may feel the speaker does not consider them sufficiently important to warrant their wearing more professional attire. Presenters should wear serious clothing when they wish to be taken seriously. Serious clothing usually means dark suits in charcoal gray, navy or another traditional color.
Presenters should remember presentation attire includes not only their clothing but their accessories, hair style and grooming as well. Shoes are especially important to presenters; they should be well shined and in good repair as the audience will scrutinize them.
Accessories should be conservative; jewelry should be kept to a minimum and should not be distracting. Hair should be clean and styled conservatively; nails should be clean and well trimmed. In short, speakers should dress in a way that does not distract the audience and detract from the message.
Vocal image is important in establishing credibility. Varying the rate, pitch and volume enhances the speaker's image.
Speakers with a smooth and clear vocal image, with good volume, and a varied speech rate free of hesitation are thought to be more dynamic and trustworthy. Weaknesses in vocal image include speaking at a steady, even pace; speaking in a monotone; maintaining one level of volume throughout the presentation; and improper use of pauses. Presenters who speak too slowly or in a low voice, as well as those who mispronounce words and use poor grammar, damage their credibility.
One of the most common speech problems is speaking with a nasal voice. Excessive nasality is not peculiar to a specific region or culture. Because it can be distracting, speakers should make an effort to correct this habit. Other voice problems include harshness, speaking in too high a pitch (associated more with women than with men) and use of filler words to avoid silent pauses.
Silent pauses are desirable; they allow time for the audience to get the full impact of what the speaker said. Pausing is useful before changing the subject or for emphasizing a point. Vocalized pauses and fillers, however, can be distracting. A vocalized pause is a pause a speaker fills with "uh," "uhm," or "okay."
When vocalized pauses become frequent, listeners become distracted and start noticing these fillers and lose sight of the message content. These vocalized pauses can, in fact, be just as distracting as can slang and regional peculiarities in speech.
Speakers who have picked up local accents and speech patterns have to make a real effort to lose them, especially when they move to another part of the country where such regionalisms can be distracting. In addition to these fillers, some speakers use speech tics that are popular at the time, such as "like, "you know," and "basically."
Visual aids can be very useful for gaining attention, for helping audience members remember main points and for better understanding the flow of the message. Visual aids give a polished touch to presentations and are evidence of preparation. Visuals can also be useful for keeping the speaker well organized and can replace the speaker's notes; they serve as an outline to keep the speaker on track. When visuals are used incorrectly, however, the effect may to negate the impact of an important message. Presenters should bear in mind, therefore, that visual aids should be both visual and aids. To make sure the visual aids are visual, presenters should avoid standing between the visual and the audience and should use a font size sufficiently large that persons at the back of the room can read the slide or transparency. Presenters should also observe the 6 by 6 rule - limit each slide/transparency to six lines of copy with a maximum of six words per line. Putting too much information on each visual, as well as having an excessive number of visuals, will reduce the effectiveness of the presentation. To assure the visual aids are aids, presenters should be well prepared so they do not have to read from their slides or transparencies. Reading suggests a lack of preparation and confidence. When notes are needed, experienced presenters recommend the use of note cards (4 by 6 inches or 5 by 7 inches) as they are easier to handle and are less conspicuous than full sheets of paper.
The cards can be numbered to keep them in correct order; the notes should be large and clear enough to see at a glance. A caution when preparing visuals is they should not be so fancy and overpowering audience members are concentrating on the visuals rather than on the speaker and the content of the message. A final reminder about visual aids: they should be used with discretion and, when used, should make a meaningful contribution to the presentation.
Preparation And Use Of Time
Speakers who are not well prepared spend a large amount of time looking at their notes rather than at their audience. Audiences will remain more alert and interested when the speaker has organized, practiced and timed the presentation. When speakers exceed the expected time limit, audience members will leave, either physically or mentally. Speakers should ask someone to monitor the time and give them a signal when they are approaching their allotted time so they do not have to glance at their watches. When speakers look at their watches, audience members start looking at their watches. Smart speakers will end on time even if they have to omit parts of the presentation they had intended to cover. Studies show the maximum time the average person can listen to a speaker attentively is about 20 minutes.
As businesspersons are increasingly expected to make presentations, speakers should attempt to understand what factors contribute to presentation effectiveness and what behaviors are distracting or annoying to audience members to the extent they interfere with the intended message. Presentation consultants and recognized authorities on oral communication agree that eye contact with the audience, proper attire, a strong vocal image, appropriate use of visual aids, and being well prepared contribute to presentation effectiveness.
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