Learning English Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Learning English College Essay Examples

Title: English language acquisition among Latino immigrants

  • Total Pages: 12
  • Words: 4201
  • References:35
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I am interested in seeing how someone else might approach the literature review that I am working on. Below is informaiton related to how I am approaching this literature review and paper. I will also share with you other parts of the paper that may provide helpful context and let you see what I am working on. I also have one or two resources already that may be helpful and will also submit those.

OUTLINE AND HELPFUL INFORMATION FOR LIT REVIEW I AM WORKING ON
TITLE OF PAPER:
“The benefits of self-reliance: A study of immigrant family ties and their effects on English-language use”
LOCATION AND TIME OF RESEARCH:
The research is being done in the United States and the majority of articles should be in reference to immigrants in the US. That is to say, it is okay to point to research in Canada or Australia, but 90% of the articles should be about immigrants in the US. We should also try to keep the literature review articles to the years 2000-2010. A few articles can appear earlier than 2000, but 90% should be after the year 2000.
OVERALL DIRECTION OF LITERATURE REVIEW:
To show that ties to family can reduce an immigrants ability to speak and understand English.
HYPOTHESIS 1:
Latino immigrants without close kin ties have an advantage in learning English because of a need for self-reliance (i.e., they are not living in highly connected family or community groups and therefore must interact more frequently with native English speakers. Comparatively, those immigrants who live in highly connected family or community groups are less likely to interact with native English speakers and therefore learn less English)
HYPOTHESIS 2:
Women will speak and understand English less than men on average because women are likely to be even more connected to family and community without much interaction with non-family native English speakers. Women might be better at learning languages, but this effect will only be demonstrated when they are not in highly connected family situations that prevent them from needing to learn English.
POTENTIAL RESOURCES:
The studies that are likely to examine these topics and the keywords you might want to focus on are (but do not limit yourself to this list, use your expert judgement):
? immigrant enclaves
? English language use among second generation immigrants (i.e., children of immigrants)
? acculturation studies that use English language ability as an outcome variable
? second-language education of Spanish-speakers.
You might find helpful articles in the following journals (but do not limit yourself to this list, use your expert judgement):
? “Social Science and Medicine”
? “International Migration Review”
? “Journal of Ethnic and Migration studies”
? “International Journal of the Sociology of Language”

KEY TIE VARIABLES THAT LITERATURE REVIEW SHOULD ADDRESS IN SOME WAY:
? Ties to spouses
? Ties to children
? Ties to parents
? Ties to civic institutions and/or churches
ROUGH OUTLINE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AS I APPROACHED IT:
Review the literature on English-language acquisition among Spanish-speaking immigrants to the US (a.k.a., Latinos, Hispanics) with particular attention to:
? Effect of highly connected immigrant communities (a.k.a. immigrant enclaves)
- It is likely that in immigrant enclaves people are less likely to speak/understand English because they can interact with other Spanish- speaking immigrants. The idea here is to tie this literature into the fact that ties can limit English language study
? Effect of having children
- It is likely that having children will reduce people’s ability to speak English because they will rely on their children to speak English for them (this is in the literature)

? Effect of parents
- This should be the opposite of the finding above meaning that people who have parents in the US speak better English because they took on the responsibility of translating for their parents
? Effect of spouses
- Being married creates a unique “closed loop” where people who are married are likely to speak less English because they interact with and talk most with their partner, who often speaks their language.
? Effect of civic ties
- It is likely that these ties will increase English language use because people are interacting with and reaching out to members of the broader US society and interacting regularly in English

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Bibliography

Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.

Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.

Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.

Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069/pdf/nihms-132959.pdf.

-- . "What Holds Back the Second Generation? The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital Among Immigrants." Journal of Human Resources (2008): 267-298.

Burr, J and J. Mutchler. "English language skills, ethnic concentration, and household composition: older Mexican immigrants." The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2003): 83-92.

Chaney, J. "The Formation of a Hispanic Enclave in Nashville, Tennessee." Southeastern Geographer (2010): 17-38.

Echevarria, J, D Short and K. Powers. "School Reform and Standards-Based Education: A Model for English-Language Learners." Journal of Educational Research (2006): 195-211.

Guardada, M. "Loss and maintenance of first language skills: case studies of Hispanic families in Vancouver." Canadian Modern Language Review (2002): 341-363.

Hakimzadeh, S and D. Cohn. English Usage among Hispanics in the United States. Research Report. Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center, 2007.

Harari, N, M Davis and M. Heisler. "Strangers in a Strange Land: Health Care Experiences for Recent Latino Immigrants in Midwest Communities." Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved (2008): 1350-1367.

Haurin, D and S. Rosenthal. "Language, Agglomeration and Hispanic Homeownership." Real Estate Economics (2009): 155-183.

Hurtado, A and L. Vega. "Shift happens: Spanish and English transmission between parents and their children." Journal of Social Issues (2004): 137-155.

Hwang, S, J Xi and Y. Cao. "The conditional relationship between English language proficiency and earnings among U.S. immigrants." Ethnic and Racial Studies (2010).

Ishizawah, H. "Minority language use among grandchildren in multigenerational homes." Sociological perspectives (2004): 465-483.

Kullgren, J. "Restrictions on Undocumented Immigrants' Access to Health Services: The Public Health Implications of Welfare Reform." American Journal of Public Health (2003): 1630-1633.

Livert, D and R. Otheguy. "A multilevel statistical analysis of changes in language use among first-generation immigrants in a bilingual setting." International Journal of the Sociology of Language (2010): 83-89.

Meng, X and D. Meurs. "Intermarriage, language, and economic assimilation process: A case study of France." International Journal of Manpower (2009): 127-144.

Moua, M and S. Lamborn. "Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices." Journal of Adolescent Research (2010): 416-440.

Nesteruk, O. "Heritage language maintenance and loss among the children of Eastern European immigrants in the U.S.A. ." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2010): 271-286.

Oh, J and A. Fuligni. "The Role of Heritage Language Development in the Ethnic Identity and Family Relationships of Adolescents from Immigrant Backgrounds." Social Development (2009): 202-220.

Orrenius, P and M. Zavodny. "Do Immigrants Work in Riskier Jobs?" Demography (2009): 535-551.

Park, S and M. Sarkar. "Parents' Attitudes Toward Heritage Language Maintenance for Their Children and Their Efforts to Help Their Children Maintain the Heritage Language: A Case Study of Korean-Canadian Immigrants ." Language, Culture, and Curriculum (2007): 223-235.

Pease-Alvarez, L. "Moving beyond linear trajectories of language shift and bilingual language socialization. Conversations within Mexican-descent families: Diverse contexts for language socialization and learning. ." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences (2002): 114-137.

Portes, A and L. Hao. "The price of uniformity: language, family and personality adjustment in the immigrant second generation ." Ethnic and Racial Studies (2002): 889-912.

Proctor, C, et al. "Language Maintenance vs. Language of Instruction: Spanish Reading Development among Latino and Latina Bilingual Learners." Journal of Social Issues (2010): 79-94.

Romero, A., Robinson, T., Haydel, K, Mendoza, F., & Killen, J. "Associations among familism, language preference, and education in Mexican-American mothers and their children." Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (2004): 34-40.

Schrauf, R. "English use among older bilingual immigrants in linguistically concentrated neighborhoods: social proficiency and internal speech as intracultural variation." Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology (2009): 157-179.

Schwartz, M. "Exploring the Relationship between Family Language Policy and Heritage Language Knowledge Among Second Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel ." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2008): 400-418.

Shehadeh, E and R. Barranco. "Latino Immigration, Economic Deprivation, and Violence: Regional Differences in the Effect of Linguistic Isolation." Homocide Studies (2010): 336-355.

Suarez, D. "Second and Third Generation Heritage Language Speakers: HL Scholarship's Relevance to the Research Needs and Future Directions of TESOL." Heritage Language Journal (2007): available online: http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/heritagelanguages/journal/article.asp?parentid=72420.

Tse, L. "Resisting and Reversing Language Shift: Heritage-Language Resilience among U.S. Native Biliterates." Harvard Educational Review (2001): 676-709.

Zhang, D. "Home language maintenance among second generation Chinese-American children." Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (2004): 19(2).

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Title: Diversity 5

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1055
  • Works Cited:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Below are the requiremetns for the paper. I will e-mail what I have so far.
What I need to have included is the following:
1. Each example given must be supported by research and include an in-text citation. Research supported examples and in-text citations appear to be missing for the following strategies: pre-instruction, cooperative groups and music.
2. Include research supported expected learning outcomes and in-text citations for the following strategies: visual aids and repeat/rephrase.

Task requirements:

In most schools today, students who are non-native English speakers are integrated into the regular classroom. Students may be described in terms of their English language ability in order to create cooperative learning groups and to measure their progress. A student's English language ability is often described in one of the following ways:

- Emergent language learner (just beginning to learn the language)
- Limited English Proficient (LEP) - a student who has reached a level of Basic Interpersonal Communication (BIC) that allows the student to interact with peers on a social level
- LEP can also describe a student who has some level of Cognitive Academic Language (CALP) that allows the student to interact at a deeper level with content,
- Native English speaker - a student for whom English is the first language.

This combination can present many challenges for teaching and learning. It is the teacher's responsibility to provide a classroom atmosphere where optimal learning can take place for all students. One of the primary tasks a teacher has is to create a safe environment where students can risk "trying" the language. In addition, certain strategies have been found to be particularly helpful in providing a learning community where everyone has access not only to learning English, but also the content.

You have been assigned a middle school mathematics classroom that has a total of 30 students with one half of the students speaking English only, one fourth emergent learners, and one fourth with some level of proficiency between BICS and CALP. In no more than 3 pages, for EACH of the strategies listed below:

A. Cite research that supports the use of each research-based strategy indicated below. What does research provide as rationale for using each strategy? What does the research say about the effectiveness of the strategy?
B. Provide examples of situations or activities where the strategy is used. When might you use this strategy in the classroom with ELL students? Use examples that are cited in the research. Make sure you include in-text citations in your essay.
C. Use research to indicate what the expected learning outcome is for each strategy for teaching ELL. Make sure you cite your references

Research Based ELL Strategies:

1.Pre-instruction activities (example: semantic webbing, graphic organizers, KWL charts)
2.Visual aids, realia, maps, pictures, multimedia
3.Cooperative Groups, Peer Coaching
4.Repeat and Re-phrase
5.Music and jazz chant activities

Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from outside sources, even if cited correctly.

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Colvin, G. (2002). "Designing classroom organization and structure." in, K.L. Lane, F.M.

Gresham, & T.E. O'Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders, pp.159-174, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Givner, G.C., Lane, K.L. & Pierson, M.R. (2003). Teacher expectations of student behavior: Which skills do elementary and secondary teachers deem necessary for success in the classroom? Education & Treatment of Children, 26(4):413.

Hall, K., Marchenkova, L., & Vitanova, G. (2004). Dialogue with Bakhtin on second and foreign language learning: new perspectives. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Diversity

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Title: Cross Cultural Communication

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1160
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Word limit: See notes in brackets for each segment; no length is specified for planning materials since they are guided by template.

This project requires you to develop a sequence of three detailed lesson plans and one accompanying resource that you design to support a specific child’s language development in speaking a second language or foreign language e.g. English. Child case studies across cultures will be provided for you to choose from or you may develop your own subject to prior submission to the course teacher for approval.

Your project must include:

The description of the Case study child.

Description of the school and classroom context (150 words)

Justification for the design and content of your lesson plans and development of the supportive teaching resource (200 words).

A template to assist with lesson planning will be provided on Study Desk. (Depending on the age of your child you will need to think about how you can work with this child when you have the responsibility of a whole class or group. For instance, will these learning experience be part of pair work with an English speaking buddy, or will they be appropriate for a context where all of the children are learning English as a second language or foreign language? Will they be related to the general class program such that you are working with the child on the language aspect of a task that the whole class is engaged with? Might they be learning experiences that a specialist teacher aide could use?)

A critical discussion of aspects of the child’s culture and language and, identification and justification of the key implications for his or her learning of the second or foreign culture in question and the language learning involved (650 words).

A list of specific language learning objectives (based on the information in the case study and the outcomes of your discussion at 4.

Your resource must be your original design. Do not submit it with your project you only need to provide between three and five photographs that clearly allow the marker to see what it is and its relevance to the lesson plans. As a resource it should be durable (able to be used again and again) to develop students’ speaking proficiency.

The lessons

The actual assessment tool/s that are to be used to assess if the child has achieved the language learning objective/s you have specified.

It is expected that your discussion will be supported by a range of authoritative professional sources that may include education journals, quality education web sites and course readings, where relevant, but not simplified literature intended for the general public or web sites such as Wikipedia

Your project and writing should be professional in its presentation. It should:

conform to word limitations

include a Table of Contents, Page Numbers and the Assignment Assessment Criteria page

use 1.5 or double line spacing

use Times New Roman 12 point font

reflect a high standard of literacy e.g. should be grammatically correct and should be free of spelling and punctuation errors

use referencing that follow APA style

present handwriting that is neat and accurate (e.g. Queensland Hand Writing Script if you are working in that context or other script as applicable to you work).


PLEASE NOTE THAT I WILL SEND CASE STUDY,A LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE AND THE CRITERIA SHEET VIA EMAIL. I AM FROM AUSTRALIA IF POSSIBLE COULD YOU PLEASE TAKE THIS INTO MIND WHEN WRITING. MY LAST ESSAY YOU WROTE WAS GREAT, BUT THERE WAS TO MUCH AMERICAN THEORY INVOLVED - MY FAULT FOR NOT INFORMING YOU I WAS FROM AUSTRALIA.

I UNDERSTAND YOU CANNOT TAKE PHOTOS OF THE RESOURCE AS PER CRITERIA, BUT WHEN DEVELOPING ONE, IF POSSIBLE KEEP IT FAIRLY SIMPLY SO IF NEED TO I CAN RECREATE IT WITH SIMPLE MATERIALS AND TAKE PHOTOS. I HOPE THIS MAKES SENSE.

THANKYOU AGAIN
ALISON

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references between each culture (Vance, Fitzpatrick, 2007). In the case of Neal, his father, studying veterinary science, could discuss how he chose this as a profession and how daily like in their Maori village is heavily dependent on livestock for their livelihood for example. This would be an excellent learning experience for the other students who may have been raised in urban or suburban areas. To them, animals are more like pets than vital members of the local economy. This could also assist in easing the ethnocentrism both Neal may feel and sense and his classmates as well. The development of teaching strategies specifically aimed at breaking down these barriers with the parents' assistance also gives the parents themselves ownership in seeing their students improve and become more conversant in English. Being able to assist student and their parents internalize learning objectives is crucial if scaffolding (Wallace, 1994) strategies are to be effective in breaking down barriers to learning (Dawson, Williams, 2008). The classroom context must also change after the visits from parents of other cultures, as having continual reminders of the diversity represented in the classroom is crucial for Neal and his fellow students learning English to be successful in accomplishing their learning objectives. For the entire series of strategies to work, scaffolding must be continually relied on to give Neal and students like him and opportunity to see progression in their English language skills and gain a sense of mastery over them.

LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE for the THREE LESSON PLANS

Year 2008

Level: Grade 1

Topic/Theme/Focus: Learning English

Date: October 1, 2008

Language level or brief note on child's language development needs:

The child, Neil, has a fundamental grasp of English yet is more conversant in his native language of Maori. His pronunciation and use of the language is comparable to a preschooler, as he often sounds out words as he says them. Struggling with the syntax and meaning of words, Neal also does not participate in class sessions. He does however have a passion for art work and expresses himself

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Title: CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs Demetilla Hernandez a 63 year Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health maintenance organization HMO clinic weakness lethargy fatigue experienced 2 months A week ago cooking dinner daughter Marianas house momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 2064
  • Sources:3
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: CUBAN CASE STUDY
Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez is a 63-year-old Cuban woman who seeks consultation at
the Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic because of weakness,
lethargy, and fatigue that she has experienced for the last 2 months. A week ago, while
cooking dinner at her daughter, Mariana?s house, she momentarily lost her balance and
slipped on the kitchen floor. Although Mrs. Hernandez sustained only a mild bruise on
her leg, her daughter insisted on taking her to the clinic for a check-up because of her
persistent symptoms.
Mrs. Hernandez, widowed 4 years ago when her husband died of a heart attack,
lives with Mariana, aged 40. Mariana is divorced and has three children: Luis, aged 15;
Carolina, aged 10; and Sofia, aged 7. Since moving into Mariana?s house, Mrs.
Hernandez has been managing the household while Mariana is at work. Mrs.
Hernandez prepares the family?s meals, attends to the children when they come home
from school, and performs light housekeeping chores. Mariana is employed full-time
as a supervisor at the local telephone company. The family, originally from Cuba, has
been living in Miami for 12 years. Carolina and Sofia were born in Miami, but Luis
came from Cuba with his parents when he was 3 years old. Mrs. Hernandez, who does
not speak English, converses with her daughter and grandchildren in Spanish.
Although the children and their mother occasionally speak English among themselves,
the family?s language at home is Spanish.
At the Liberty HMO clinic, Mrs. Hernandez was diagnosed with essential
hypertension and non?insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The physician prescribed
an oral hypoglycemic drug and advised Mrs. Hernandez to exercise daily and to limit
her food intake to 1500 calories a day. Mrs. Hernandez was concerned because she
usually prepares traditional Cuban meals at home and was not sure whether she could
tolerate being on a diet. Besides, she explained to Mariana, she thought the dishes she
prepares are very ?healthy.? Proof of that, she stated, is that her three grandchildren are
plump and nice-looking. Mrs. Hernandez told her daughter that, instead of buying the
prescribed medicine, perhaps she should go to the botanica and obtain some herbs that
would help lower her blood sugar.
Study Questions
1. As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you
need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?
2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez
in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?
3. Would you encourage Mrs. Hernandez to go to the botanica to purchase some
herbs? How would you approach her desire to use herbs instead of the prescribed
oral hypoglycemic agent?
4. Discuss some common folk practices that Cuban families may use to maintain health
or cure common ailments.
5. Explain how time orientation may influence Mrs. Hernandez?s compliance with
follow-up clinic visits.
6. Formulate three important goals in teaching Mrs. Hernandez and her family about
health care.
7. Identify the typical family and value structure among Cuban Americans.
8. List three major health problems among Cuban Americans.
9. If you were the health-education specialist at the clinic, what would you teach the
staff about Cuban culture to help them provide culturally comptent care?
10. Discuss traditional child-rearing practices among Cuban Americans.

MEXICAN CASE STUDY #2
Pablo Gaborra, aged 32, and his wife, Olga, aged 24, live in a migrant-worker camp on
the eastern shore of Maryland. They have two children: Roberto, aged 7, and Linda, aged
18 months. Olga?s two younger sisters, Florencia, aged 16, and Rosa, aged 12, live with
them. Another distant relative, Rodolpho, aged 28, comes and goes several times each
year and seems to have no fixed address.
Pablo and Olga, born in Mexico, have lived in the United States for 13 years, first
in Texas for 6 years and then in Delaware for 1 year, before moving to the eastern shore
of Maryland 5 years ago. Neither of them have U.S. citizenship, but both children were
born in the United States.
Pablo completed the sixth grade and Olga the third grade in Mexico. Pablo can
read and write enough English to function at a satisfactory level. Olga knows a few
English words but sees no reason for learning English, even though free classes are
available in the community. Olga?s sisters have attended school in the United States and
can speak English with varying degrees of fluency. Roberto attends school in the local
community but is having great difficulty with his educational endeavors. The family
speaks only Spanish at home. Not much is known about the distant relative, Rodolpho,
except that he is from Mexico, speaks minimal English, drinks beer heavily, and
occasionally works picking vegetables. The Gaborra family lives in a trailer on a large
vegetable farm. The house has cold running water but no hot water, has an indoor
bathroom without a shower or bathtub, and is heated with a wood-burning stove. The
trailer park has an outside shower, which the family uses in the summer.
The entire family picks asparagus, squash, peppers, cabbage, and spinach at
various times during the year. Olga takes the infant, Linda, with her to the field, where
her sisters take turns watching the baby and picking vegetables. When the vegetablepicking
season is over, Pablo helps the farmer to maintain machinery and make repairs on
the property. Their income last year was $30,000.
From the middle of April until the end of May, the children attend school
sporadically because they are needed to help pick vegetables. During December and
January, the entire Gaborra family travels to Texas to visit relatives and friends, taking
them many presents. They return home in early February with numerous pills and herbal
medicines.
Olga was diagnosed with anemia when she had an obscure health problem with
her last pregnancy. Because she frequently complains of feeling tired and weak, the
farmer gave her the job of handing out ?chits? to the vegetable pickers so that she did not
have to do the more-strenuous work of picking vegetables.
Pablo has had tuberculosis for years and sporadically takes medication from a
local clinic. When he is not traveling or is too busy picking vegetables to make the trip to
the clinic for refills, he generally takes his medicine. Twice last year, the family had to
take Linda to the local emergency room because she had diarrhea and was listless and
unable to take liquids. The Gaborra family subscribes to the hot and cold theory of
disease and health-prevention maintenance.
Study Questions
1. Identify three socioeconomic factors that influence the health of the
Gaborra family.
2. Name three health-teaching interventions the health-care provider might
use to encourage Olga to seek treatment for her anemia.
3. Identify strategies to help improve communications in English for the
Gaborra family.
4. Identify three health-teaching goals for the Gaborra family.
5. Name three interventions Olga must learn regarding fluid balance for the
infant, Linda.
6. Discuss three preventive maintenance?teaching activities that respect the
Gaborra family?s belief in the hot and cold theory of disease management.
7. Identify strategies for obtaining health data for the Gaborra family.
8. Identify four major health problems of Mexican Americans that affect the
Gaborra family.
9. If Olga were to see a folk practitioner, which one(s) would she seek?
10. Explain the concept of familism as exhibited in this family.
11. Distinguish between the two culture-bound syndromes el ataque and
susto.
12. Discuss culturally conscious health-care advice consistent with the healthbelief
practices of the pregnant Mexican American woman.
13. Discuss two interventions to encourage Mexican American clients with
tuberculosis to keep clinic appointments and to comply with the prescribed medication regimen.
14. Identify where the majority of Mexican Americans have settled in the
United States.


PUERTO RICAN CASE STUDY #2
Carmen Medina, aged 39, lives with her husband, Ra?l, aged 43, who works as a
mechanic in a small auto shop. Mr. Medina has worked in the same place since he and his
wife came to the United States from Puerto Rico 15 years ago. The Medinas have a 4-
year-old son, Jos?; a 16-year-old daughter, Rosa; and an 18-year-old son, Miguel. The
Medinas both attended vocational school after completing high school. Mrs. Medina is
employed 4 hours a day at a garden shop. She stopped working her full-time job to care
for her ill mother and aged father, who do not speak English and depend on government
assistance. The family income last year was $28,500.
The family has health insurance through Mr. Medina?s job. They live in a threebedroom
apartment in a low-income Illinois community. Miguel works in a fast-food
store a few hours a week. Because Rosa has responsibilities at home, the Medina?s do not
allow her to work outside the home. She is very close to her grandmother but avoids
talking with her parents. Both Rosa and Miguel are having difficulties in school. Rosa is
pregnant and the family does not know. She is planning to drop out of school, get a job in
a beauty shop, and leave home without telling the family. Miguel frequently comes home
late and, on occasion, sleeps out of the home. He is beginning college next semester and
has plans to move out of the house during the summer.
The family is having difficulty dealing with Rosa?s and Miguel?s developmental
and behavioral challenges. Although Mrs. Medina is outspoken about these concerns, Mr.
Medina is quiet and not actively involved in the discussion. He is more preoccupied with
the family?s financial situation. Mrs. Medina?s parents are encouraging them to return to
Puerto Rico.
Mr. Medina was diagnosed with hypertension 2 months ago, when he went to the
emergency room for a respiratory infection. He smokes cigarettes and drinks two to three
beers every evening after work. He has not followed up on his blood pressure treatment.
Miguel is beginning to smoke, but not at home. Jos? has had frequent colds and sinus
allergies. He has been to the emergency room three times during the past year for
respiratory infections. Mrs. Medina?s last physical examination was after she had Jos?.
She is experiencing insomnia, tiredness, headaches, and gastrointestinal problems. She is
very concerned about Rosa and Miguel, her parents, and the family?s finances. Mrs.
Medina is Catholic and recently has been visiting her church more often.
Study Questions
1. Explain Mrs. Medina?s attitude in her relationship with her adolescent
daughter.
2. Identify strategies to ensure that Rosa seeks prenatal care.
3. Identify barriers to accessing health care for the Medina family.
4. What are the high-risk behaviors exhibited by this family?
5. What communication barriers exist in this family that affect care delivery?
6. Discuss gender and family roles in the context of traditional Puerto Rican
culture.
7. Identify sociodemographic factors affecting the physical- and mentalhealth
well-being for this family.
8. Identify Puerto Rican folk practices appropriate for this family.
9. If the Medina family chose to visit a folk healer, which one(s) do you
think they might visit? Why?
10. If Mrs. Medina?s parents visit a health-care provider, what might they
expect?
11. Identify culturally congruent interventions to ensure compliance with
Western health prescriptions for Mr. Medina.
12. Discuss the importance of respeto and familism in the Medina family.
13. Identify culturally congruent interventions for Rosa?s pregnancy.
14. Identify health-promotion and disease-prevention interventions needed for
Jos?.

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References

Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.

Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among

Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved: http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268.

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