Essay Instructions: How people learn and adapting our instructional materials to reflect this knowledge. Introduction show familiarity with learning/principles. Discuss constructivism and active learning techniques.
Librarianship and teaching go hand in hand. For as long as libraries have existed, librarians have been in a position to teach people how to use libraries and information resources to effectively retrieve information. This process has come to be known by the term information literacy instruction (ILI).Grassian and Kaplowitz (2009) report that the term “information literacy” was coined by Zurkowski in 1974; he described an information literate individual as “anyone who has learned to use a wide range of information sources in order to solve problems at work and in his or her daily life” (quoted in Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2009, p. 3). Some classic components of ILI include library orientation, library instruction, and bibliographic instruction. In recent decades, with the explosive growth of computing and changes in the ways we use and access information throughout society, the need for ILI in libraries has grown; ILI now encompasses instruction in basic computer skills, online searching, social networking, blogging, and even in the use of digital media hardware (such as e-readers, tablets, smart phones, and MP3 players) and software (such as OverDrive Media Console, iTunes, and Adobe Digital Editions).
Familiarity with learning principles and theories is an important component of providing effective ILI. By knowing the theories behind the practice of teaching, we can improve not only our instructional materials but also our techniques. Many teaching techniques find their basis in the various learning theories, and familiarity with a wide array of theories and techniques allows us, as teachers, to respond to our students’ unique needs and to each situation appropriately and effectively. Theories of learning have been discussed throughout the centuries, and several theories have emerged from this ongoing debate. These theories are commonly discussed within the frameworks of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism (Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2012, March). Grassian and Kaplowitz (2009) separate the various learning theories into three major categories or schools of thought: doing (the behaviorist model), thinking (the cognitive model??"including the constructivist approach), and feeling (the humanist model) (pp. 27-39), asserting that “if we look at the theories this way, we not only have a way to organize them, but we can see what each category of theories has to contribute to the instructional endeavor” (p. 27).
Behaviorism, the oldest of the theories, falls into the doing school of thought. As a theory of learning, Grassian and Kaplowitz explain, behaviorism “[relies] on the links or associations between stimulus and response” (p. 28). The individual who is known for linking behaviorist theory and practical classroom applications is B. F. Skinner, whose “emphases on teaching to individual differences and allowing learners to progress at their own pace…have had great implications for the study of learning styles” (Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2009, pp. 28-29). Some educational applications of behaviorism include active participation, programmed instruction, modeling, and behavior modification (pp. 29-30).
Cognitivism developed at least in part as a reaction to behaviorism and its theories, which were viewed by early cognitive psychologists as “the mechanistic or simplistic view of learning” (Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2009, p. 30). This set of theories falls into the thinking school of thought. Early cognitivists focused on the ways in which people “perceive, organize, interact with, and respond to elements in their environment by determining how elements, ideas, concepts, and topics relate to one another” (p. 30). One approach which Grassian and Kaplowitz discuss within the cognitive framework is the constructivist approach: “To the constructivist … change occurs solely as a result of interactions with the environment and can happen at any age or level of development. Knowledge is not viewed as simply passing from teacher to learner; knowledge is actually constructed in the learner’s mind” (2009, p. 32). Some educational applications of cognitivism include Bruner’s discovery method, expository teaching, and advance organizers (pp. 34-36).
Finally, the humanist model of learning falls within the feeling school of thought. Humanism emphasizes the affective side of learning: “The humanist emphasized that we must teach to the whole person and stressed the importance of recognizing that our learners’ emotional, affective, or feeling states influence their educational successes” (Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2009, p. 36). What motivates people to learn is a key concern of humanist theories. Important contributors to the humanist school of thought include Maslow, Bandura, and Rogers. Some educational applications of humanism include self-directed or self-regulated learning and learner-centered teaching (Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2009, pp. 37-39).
As librarians charged with providing instruction, familiarity with these various theories and the teaching techniques they are associated with can make us more effective in facilitating learning for each and every student. Students approach learning from diverse backgrounds and viewpoints, and their preferred learning styles, mental models, and critical thinking skills can vary widely as well. In addition, many students experience anxiety and feelings of uncertainty as they approach learning about new subject areas. Therefore, the more flexible we are as instructors in drawing from the various learning theories and teaching techniques at our disposal, the more successful we and our students will be.
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Essay Instructions: INSTRUCTIONS/SPECIFICATIONS:
There are four (4) articles on information literacy that I will subsequently be sending you by email. Please review these articles and then write a 700-1050-word paper critically analyzing the topic from a perspective that discusses Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership. The paper should demonstrate the following components:
1) An articulate comparison and contrast of the authors’ perspectives, building a greater understanding of each in the process.
2) The synthesis of a minimum of one current, peer-reviewed external source into the comparison. The fourth attachment I will be sending you is actually the external peer-reviewed article.
3) Appropriate use of APA formatting and style, scholarly tone, and substantiated evidence from the literature. You will be required to create an informed statement, not a personal opinion, regarding the subject. The paper should be written in third person, not first person.
This paper should not a report on information literacy. Rather, it is an exploration of how this topic influences Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership within a selected industry; in this case, Higher Education. The paper therefore should discuss the application of information literacy within the higher education discipline.
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Essay Instructions: Resources: SPL Essay Grading Rubric located in the Week One Materials section of the student website.
Review the Electronic Readings Reserve (ERR) articles and the Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership essay grading rubric on the COM/705 course page.
Write a 700- to 1050-word paper explaining how information literacy influences scholarship, practice, and leadership in a specific profession or discipline.
Include the following components in your paper:
Four sources ??" You must incorporate in-text citations and references from the three assigned ERR articles and one additional peer-reviewed source of your choice. Use the authors’ viewpoints to develop your argument. Please do not merely summarize the sources. Instead, use the sources to support your analysis of the assigned topics.
APA formatting and style ??" Consult your APA Manual to format the title page, margins, header, spacing, citations, references, etc. according to APA standards. (Note: The assigned ERR articles may not reflect APA standards. Do not rely on the articles to model APA format or style.)
Scholarly tone ??" Write in third person, not first or second person??"i.e. avoid “I,” “we,” “my,” “our,” “you,” “your,” etc. Present an analysis of the topics, not personal opinions. Use a formal tone rather than a casual or conversational style. (Note: The assigned ERR articles may not reflect SAS writing standards. Do not rely on the articles to model scholarly tone.)
Please note: No author’s note or abstract is required for this assignment.
Use the Scholarship, Practice, Leadership Essay Grading Rubric to ensure you meet the assignment requirements.
Submit your paper to the Assignments page as a Microsoft® Word attachment.
Badke, W. (2009, July/August). How we failed the net generation. Online, 33(4), 47.
Russell, P. (2009). Why universities need information literacy now more than ever. Feliciter, 55(3), 92.
Turusheva, L. (2009). Students' information competence and its importance for life-long education. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 12, 126.
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Essay Instructions: The purpose of this assignment is to encourage students to:
1.Develop information literacy skills.
2.Effectively use APA format in creating a formal paper.
3.Develop clear concise writing skills.
4.Increase their knowledge and understanding of nursing informatics.
Using that topic and the theoretical framework, write a paper which must be between 15 and 20 pages in narrative, not including the title page and reference page. The paper should follow APA format and include the following sections: abstract, introduction, background, body of the paper, implications and conclusions with future directions.
1. How do computer, information and informatics literacy interrelate and overlap?
The concept of computer, information and informatics literacy are interrelated and overlap as all three concepts are dependent upon on another in order to manipulate information. Computer literacy and information literacy are areas that each individual will have different skill sets in based on training and education. There are several questions with regards to computer literacy that will need to be answered for each individual such as:
At what educational level is the individual with the concept of understanding the functionality of a computer?
Does the individual understand how the use of the computer fits into the environment in which they are working?
Does the individual know how to use a computer?
After these questions have been answered, it will be easier to determine how to introduce the individual to the concept of the computer and its functionality.
“Information literacy competencies deal with information retrieval knowledge and skills: knowing when there is a need for information; identifying the information needed to address a given problem or issue; finding the needed information and evaluating it; organizing the information; and using the information effectively to address the problem or issue.” (ANA, 2008). Again this concept is dependent on the individuals training and education. At what educational level is the individual with regards to information retrieval? Does the individual know what they are trying to accomplish and what data do they need to accomplish the request?
As we can see the concepts of computer literacy and information literacy are now overlapping and interrelated as the individual will be unable to manipulate and retrieve information without the ability to utilize the computer effectively.
The concept of informatics literacy now is going to integrate computer literacy, information literacy and the concept of nursing. Again, are we dealing with a new graduate nurse or a seasoned nurse of 35 years? How much education has the nurse received regarding computer systems and information literacy? Is the nurse using computerized charting or are they still using paper charting? What is their role in the nursing function? Are they a nurse manager, staff nurse or a nurse educator? There are just a few concepts regarding nursing experience, however, they are quite relevant in anticipating what skill set the nurse may possess with regards to computer, information and informatics literacy. Informatics is conceptual the process of bringing computer literacy, information literacy and nursing together so the nursing function can collect data and make decisions more effectively and efficiently. However, the entire concept is dependent on education and the willingness to be educated.
2. How do the knowledge and skills in each are impact life in general as well as the practice of nursing?
The concept of knowledge and skills in any area will impact life for the individual. The more knowledge and skills one individual possess the more able that individual will be able to contribute more to society as a whole. Computers and computer technology is forever evolving and will continue to do so in the future. As mankind looks for more efficient and expedient ways to perform data and information manipulation, technology will have to be improving. The individuals in our society will have to maintain their education at a level that is conducive for them to perform in the career of their choice. Technology has now entered the career of nursing and is changing expediently by the day as the demands on the health care industry increase daily. Nurses are being introduced to computerized charting, databases, and concepts as simple as Excel spreadsheets. The key is to educate the individual so they can remain a functioning part of the organization. Nurses are now being required to do more and more each day and the introduction of technology is now making the ability to perform those responsibilities easier. Although, there are individuals who resist change and unfortunately they will be unable to remain in the current environment. It is key that all nurses remain flexible and receptive to change and education in technology.
All professions are in the same environment. Physicians are also experiencing a change in their career as technology continues to advance. It is causing them to change how the practice medicine. Education and mentorship is also needed for the physician so they can remain effective in their roles. If individuals decide not to educate themselves in the evolving technological world, they will no longer be considered marketable in the labor force. Change is inevitable and a good thing for society, but we must remember to remain flexible and open minded.
Reference: ANA, Nursing Informatics: Scope & Standard of Practice. 2008, p. 36
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