Human Rights Violation Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Human Rights Violation College Essay Examples

Title: Human Rights Violations by multinational corporation

  • Total Pages: 22
  • Words: 6004
  • Sources:12
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: The paper is a thesis on human rights violations and multinational corporations, and mainly how to prevent or deter such actions from occurring. The paper should focus heavily on analysis and make recommendations on how to best limit or prevent such violations. This is a law school paper, there should be some inclusion of actual case law, but not to extensive. One of significance would be cases in the US involving the Alien Torts Act. Here is a link to a recent case http://www.nylj.com/nylawyer/adgifs/decisions/040909scheindlin.pdf.

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Sources:

Works Cited

Alien Tort Claims Act. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/torts3y/readings/update-a-02.html

Bernstein, a. June 23, 2003. Sweatshops: Finally, Airing the Dirty Linen. Business WeekNumber 3838; Pg. 100

"Child Labour." http://www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html

Deva, S. (2004) Acting Extraterritorially to Tame Multinational Corporations for Human

Rights Violations: Who Should 'Bell the Cat'? Melbourne Journal of International

Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Tsutsui K. (2005)Human Rights in a Globalizing World: The

Paradox of Empty Promises. American Journal of Sociology. Volume 110

Number 5 (March 2005): 1373 -- 1411

In Re South African Apartheid litigation.

http://www.nylj.com/nylawyer/adgifs/decisions/040909scheindlin.pdf

Joyce, a. Labor Deal With Wal-Mart Criticized Inspector General Cites 'Breakdowns'.

Washington Post Tuesday, November 1, 2005; Page D03

Kolk, a., Tulder, R.V. (2002)the Effectiveness of Self-regulation:

Corporate Codes of Conduct and Child Labour European Management Journal

Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 260 -- 271, June 2002

McKall, W. Nike battles backlash from overseas sweatshops. Marketing News v. 32 no.

23 (November 9-1998) p. 14

http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/auth/checkbrowser.do?ipcounter=1&co okieState=0&rand=0.28989368700463014&bhcp=1

Muchlinski, P.T. (2001). Human rights and multinationals: is there a problem?

International Affairs 77 (1), 31-48)

The Law of Nations. http://www.constitution.org/vattel/vattel_pre.htm

Spar D., Burns J. - 2002 . Hitting the wall: Nike and international labor practices.

http://extranet.hbsp.harvard.edu/pdfrecovery/700047_053108.pdf

Sweatshop. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

Retrieved May 12, 2009, from http://www.merriam-

webster.com/dictionary/sweatshop

"The Universal Declaration of Human rights." United Nations.

http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/

Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Tsutsui K. (2005)Human Rights in a Globalizing World: The Paradox of Empty Promises. American Journal of Sociology. Volume 110 Number 5 (March 2005): 1373 -- 1411

Hefner-Burton & Tsutsui

"The Universal Declaration of Human rights." United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/

Hefner-Burton & Tsutsui, 1374

Hefner-Burton & Tsutsui

Hefner-Burton & Tsutsui

Hefner-Burton & Tsutsui

Hefner-Burton & Tsutsui

Sweatshop. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.Retrieved May 12, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sweatshop

"Child Labour." http://www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html?

Kolk, a., Tulder, R.V. (2002)the Effectiveness of Self-regulation:Corporate Codes of Conduct and Child Labour European Management Journal Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 260 -- 271, June 2002

Kolk & Tulder

Kolk & Tulder

Kolk & Tulder, 4

Muchlinski, P.T. (2001). Human rights and multinationals: is there a problem? International Affairs 77 (1), 31

McKall, W. Nike battles backlash from overseas sweatshops. Marketing News v. 32 no. 23 (November 9-1998) p. 14

Mckall, 14

Spar D., Burns J. - 2002 . Hitting the wall: Nike and international labor practices. http://extranet.hbsp.harvard.edu/pdfrecovery/700047_053108.pdf

Spar & Burns

Spar & Burns

Joyce, a. Labor Deal With Wal-Mart Criticized Inspector General Cites 'Breakdowns'. Washington Post Tuesday, November 1, 2005; Page D03

Joyce

Joyce

Joyce, a. Labor Deal With Wal-Mart Criticized Inspector General Cites 'Breakdowns'. Washington Post Tuesday, November 1, 2005; Page D03

"Alien Tort Claims Act." http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/torts3y/readings/update-a-02.html

The Law of Nations. http://www.constitution.org/vattel/vattel_pre.htm

In Re South African Apartheid litigation. http://www.nylj.com/nylawyer/adgifs/decisions/040909scheindlin.pdf

"In Re South African Apartheid litigation."

"In Re South African Apartheid litigation."

"In Re South African Apartheid litigation."

"In Re South African Apartheid litigation."

"In Re South African Apartheid litigation."

In Re South African Apartheid litigation

"In Re South African Apartheid litigation."

In Re South African Apartheid litigation.

Greimel, H. (2006) Program Tackles Child Labor in Pakistan. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/14/AR2006121400918.html

Deva, S. (2004) Acting Extraterritorially to Tame Multinational Corporations for Human Rights Violations: Who Should 'Bell the Cat'? Melbourne Journal of International Law

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Deva

Bernstein, a. (2003). Sweatshops: Finally, Airing the Dirty Linen. Business WeekNumber 3838; Pg. 100

Bernstein

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Bernstein

Bernstein

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Title: Reflection on Perspectives from my Discipline

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1098
  • References:9
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Reflection Paper on Perspectives from your Discipline:

This is a 750-1000 word reflection paper on perspectives from your discipline. (My specific discipline is in General Studies with a minor in Psychology and Sociology.) While there are specific readings that are associated with the reflection paper, these readings are to be incorporated into all the readings/thoughts that you have had concerning human rights for your reflection. While these last readings are vital in terms of their topic area, they form part of the total readings for the reflection. Therefore, the reflection paper is not a reflection only about the final readings but all of them. As this is a personal essay, citation is very flexible (e.g., Chicago/MLA is fine). The key is proper attribution. Also, feel free to use ?I? when writing the paper.
Please make sure to address some/all the following questions:

1. What is the relationship between your discipline of study and human rights? Psychology or Sociology.
2. How have human rights made you think differently about your field of study?
3. What can you do within your field of study to improve human rights?
4. How do the readings reflect issues and perspectives within your discipline? Please use resources from the last 3 papers.

Works Cited:
Buergenthal, Thomas. 1997. "The Normative and Institutional Evolution of International Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 19(4): 703-723.
Shestack, Jerome. 1998. "The Philosophic Foundations of Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 20(2): 201-234.
Thoms, Oskar N. T., and James Ron. 2007. "Do Human Rights Violations Cause Internal Conflict?" Human Rights Quarterly 29(3): 674-705.
Hayner, Priscilla B. 1994. "Fifteen Truth Commissions-1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study." Human Rights Quarterly 16(4):597-655.
Mayerfeld, Jamie 2003. "Who Shall Be Judge?: The United States, the International Criminal Court, and the Global Enforcement of Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 25(1):93-129.
Peskin, Victor. 2009. Caution and Confrontation in the International Criminal Court's Pursuit of Accountability in Uganda and Sudan." Human Rights Quarterly 31(3): 655-691.
Donnelly, Jack. 2007. "The Relative Universality of Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 29(2): 281-306.
Farer, Tom J. 2000. "Restraining the Barbarians: Can International Criminal Law Help?" Human Rights Quarterly 22(1): 90-117.
Osiel, Mark. 2000. "Why Prosecute? Critics of Punishment for Mass Atrocity." Human Rights Quarterly 22(1): 118-147.

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References:

Works Cited

Buergenthal, Thomas. 1997. "The Normative and Institutional Evolution of International Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 19(4): 703-723.

Shestack, Jerome. 1998. "The Philosophic Foundations of Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 20(2): 201-234.

Thoms, Oskar N.T., and James Ron. 2007. "Do Human Rights Violations Cause Internal Conflict?" Human Rights Quarterly 29(3): 674-705.

Hayner, Priscilla B. 1994. "Fifteen Truth Commissions-1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study." Human Rights Quarterly 16(4):597-655.

Mayerfeld, Jamie 2003. "Who Shall Be Judge?: The United States, the International Criminal Court, and the Global Enforcement of Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 25(1):93-129.

Peskin, Victor. 2009. Caution and Confrontation in the International Criminal Court's Pursuit of Accountability in Uganda and Sudan." Human Rights Quarterly 31(3): 655-691.

Donnelly, Jack. 2007. "The Relative Universality of Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 29(2): 281-306.

Farer, Tom J. 2000. "Restraining the Barbarians: Can International Criminal Law Help?" Human Rights Quarterly 22(1): 90-117.

Osiel, Mark. 2000. "Why Prosecute? Critics of Punishment for Mass Atrocity." Human Rights Quarterly 22(1): 118-147.

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Title: Gay and Lesbian torture in Iraq and the International Human Rights violations

  • Total Pages: 25
  • Words: 9056
  • Works Cited:30
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This paper is for a law school senior thesis paper in International Human Rights. It must have endnotes/footnotes included but no minimum amount. The writing style should be similar to that of a LAW REVIEW ARTICLE. Citiation style is known either as "Blue Book" citation or "ALWD" citation within the legal community.

The title of my paper is "Moral Cleansing with Blood: The Effect of U.S. ‘War on Terror’ on the Iraqi LGBT community in Iraq."
My overall research question to be answered is: "Does the US, unable to establish law and order in Iraq, bear some responsibility for the execution of gay Iraqis?"
The thesis should explain US responsibility in allowing religious fundamentalist to gain power and their creation of new laws that violate human rights of gays and lesbians in Iraq and the surge of religious fundamentalist which are going around killing gays and lesbians just for being gay and the failure of the US military to stop or try to stop these people. All should be addressed WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES AND DECLARATIONS. There are several news articles from the NY Times and other sources. If there are law review articles please use those as well.
The paper should should explain something to the effect that because of the failure of the U.S. government to establish a functional democracy after its 2003 “war on terror” and its failure to monitor/prevent human rights violations in Iraqi, hundreds of Iraqi LGBT(lesbian, gay, bi, transgendered) members are being tortured and killed by Shi’ite government official groups and religious fundamentalist groups.
The paper should be mostly policy based, but not 100% policy. You must use and cite to all applicable Human Rights Declarations/Treaties and their specific treaty articles numbers. Some of the applicable treaties include: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR- Article 2, 3, 7, 9,12, 27, 55; The “Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam; Convention Against Torture- Article 1(1),2(2), 4(1), 16; 1948 Geneva Convention- (prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide); International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), -Ratified by Iraq in January 1971; International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)-Ratified in Iraq in 1971; International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD); Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW); and the Hague Convention. This is not an exhaustive list.
The paper should include some background on the reason behind the US invasion of Iraq, despite its International Law violation and President Bush's unmerited argument of "anticipatory-self defense." Include the failure to implement a workable stabilization plan in Iraq for post war period prior to invasion as one of the reasons for the chaos in Iraq.
This paper should also discuss the duties that the US assumed by deciding to invade Iraq. These duties can be found by researching the Hague Convention and 1948 Geneva Convention. Duties such as duty to protect rights and not leave the country worse than when it started.
The bulk of the paper should cover the overall thesis and answer the research question which is that because the US invaded Iraq without a plan, and gays and lesbians are being tortured and killed due to the new rise in government power failure of the US to prevent attacks on LGBT community in Iraq and the how the US is implicitly sending a message to the new Iraqi government
The paper should begin with background information about living conditions for LGBT members before the US invaded Iraq and how different they are now. Use 2-3 personal accounts by Iraqi citizens who say that Iraq is worst for them now than it was when Saddam Hussein was in power.
Be sure to include how the US military is also directly contributing to the human right violations by harrassing and torturing gay civilans in Iraq during insurgency raids and inspections. Address how the world is looks to America to be epitomize human rights and we violate them while trying to spread democracy.
The paper should end with some SMALL section of how to resolve the problem the US has created in light of current presidential candidates possible withdraw of troops in Iraq.
The paper should begin with an introduction SECTION (1-1.5 pages)that outlines the sections of the paper. The paper should be divided into sections Part I,Part II, etc....

Below I have outlined some subheadings and issues that I planned to include in the paper. These are just as reference to give you an idea of my direction.

US Failure to Prevent Attacks and Assist Citizens
A. No Public Denouncement by the U.S. State
Department to correct militia behavior
B. No prevention methods or monitoring for Human
Rights violations established
C. Limited Asylum Granted to LGBT members into US

Implicit US Support of Current Iraq Gov.
A. Limited intervention in election process and
failure to prevent Islamic ideals in constitution
B. US government reluctant to condemn religious
leader Sistani because he backed the creation of an elected Iraqi government
C. Account of U.S. military officials repeatedly
turning down pleas for gays who show up in Green Zone in Baghdad.
D. US State Department doing nothing
US Failure to Lead by Example
A. Treatment of LGBT community in the US
B. Treatment of Iraqi Military POWS during this war
C. Treatment of Iraqi gay and lesbian civilians by
the military

Conclusion and Solutions for the problem
A. Creation of gay safe houses and other military protection against LGBT attacks
B. Establish working committees to investigate U.S. military behavior on the battlefield
C. Overall enforcement of international law policies in US and abroad.

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Works Cited

Gay.com Newscenter Staff. "Center Examines LGBT Military Deaths." 365 Gay.com, (9 April 2008) http://www.365gay.com/Newscon08/04/040908mil.htm.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022150099

Apel, Dora. "Torture Culture: Lynching Photographs and the Images of Abu Ghraib." Art Journal 64.2 (2005): 88+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009058509

Balestrieri, Elizabeth Brownell. "Abu Ghraib Prison Abuse and the Rule of Law." International Journal on World Peace 21.4 (2004): 3+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042181

Ben-Porath, Eran N. "Rhetoric of Atrocities: The Place of Horrific Human Rights Abuses in Presidential Persuasion Efforts." Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.2 (2007): 181+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014162490

Blanche, Ed. "A Crumbling Coalition: Despite the Rhetoric from Washington, Which Attempts to Persuade the International Community Things Are Improving, U.S. Allies Are Peeling Away as the Crisis in Iraq Deepens." The Middle East Mar. 2006: 16+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020919372

Brouwer, Daniel C., and Aaron Hess. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church." Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007): 69+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008577110

Brower, Charles H. "The Lives of Animals, the Lives of Prisoners and the Revelations of Abu Ghraib." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 37.5 (2004): 1353+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006720379

Byers, Michael. "Agreeing to Disagree: Security Council Resolution 1441 and Intentional Ambiguity." Global Governance 10.2 (2004): 165+.

Chibbaro, Jr., Lou. "U.S. Military Acknowledges Iraq Anti-Gay Killings." Iraqi LGBT. (7 June 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/06/us-military-acknowledges-iraq-anti-gay.html.

Chibbaro, Lou. "U.S. State Dept. 'Troubled' over Anti-Gay Violence in Iraq." Iraqi LGBT, (25 May 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/05/us-state-dept-troubled-over-anti-gay.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018613482

Danchev, Alex. "Like a Dog!": Humiliation and Shame in the War on Terror." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 31.3 (2006): 259+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014525337

Estes, Steve. "Ask and Tell: Gay Veterans, Identity, and Oral History on a Civil Rights Frontier." The Oral History Review 32.2 (2005): 21+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015246180

Gordon, Joy. "Accountability and Global Governance: The Case of Iraq." Ethics & International Affairs 20.1 (2006): 79+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001051282

Grattet, Ryken, and Valerie Jenness. "Examining the Boundaries of Hate Crime Law: Disabilities and the "Dilemma of Difference." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.3 (2001): 653+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002093223

Harris, Bill. "The United States in Iraq: Assessment and Outlook Bill Harris Finds Positive Aspects to the American Intervention in Iraq." New Zealand International Review 29.1 (2004): 2+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015582841

Heinze, Eric a. "Humanitarian Intervention and the War in Iraq: Norms, Discourse, and State Practice." Parameters 36.1 (2006): 20+.

Hutcheson, Ron and Schofield, Matthew. "Bush, Blair Hail Handover as Fresh Start for Iraq." Knight Ridder Washington Bureau, (28 June 2004).

Iraq Torture 'Worse after Saddam'." Iraqi LGBT, (21 September 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/09/iraq-torture-worse-after-saddam.html.

Ireland, Doug. "Iran Exports Anti-Gay Pogrom to Iraq." Iraqi LGBT, (31 May 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/05/iran-exports-anti-gay-pogrom-to-iraq.html.

Ireland, Doug. "Shia Death Squads Target Iraqi Gays." Iraqi LGBT, (23 March 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/04/shia-death-squads-target-iraqi-gays-us.html.

IRIN News Service. "IRAQ: Boys Trapped in Commercial Sex Trade." Iraqi LGBT, (8 August 2005) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2005/08/iraq-boys-trapped-in-commercial-sex.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006002130

Ismael, Shereen T. "Dismantling the Iraqi Social Fabric: From Dictatorship through Sanctions to Occupation." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 35.2 (2004): 333+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105333863

Jayawickrama, Nihal. The Judicial Application of Human Rights Law: National, Regional, and International Jurisprudence. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012123729

Kampmark, Binoy. "Torture, Truth and Liberty: Placing the Conduct at Abu Ghraib in Context." Contemporary Review Aug. 2005: 65+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024109830

Kellner, Douglas. "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the "War on Terror." Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.4 (2007): 622+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016095776

Kramer, Ronald, Raymond Michalowski, and Dawn Rothe. "The Supreme International Crime": How the U.S. War in Iraq Threatens the Rule of Law." Social Justice 32.2 (2005): 52+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007470127

Massimino, Elisa. "Holding America Accountable: Why the United States Should Take Human-Rights Obligations Seriously." The American Prospect Oct. 2004: 14+.

McGrory, Daniel. "Gays flee as Religious Militias Sentence Them All to Death." Iraqi LGBT, (17 May 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/05/gays-flee-as-religious-militias.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013997376

Moore, Patrick. "Murder and Hypocrisy: Democracy Will Not Flourish in the Middle East until Islamic Governments Stop Murdering Their Gay Citizens -- and We Need to Halt Antigay Violence at Home before We Can Condemn it Abroad." The Advocate 31 Jan. 2006: 36+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=89012282

Poole, Hilary, ed. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.

Queer Iraqis are finding life is now worse than it was under Saddam." Iraqi LGBT. (1 June 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/06/queer-iraqis-are-finding-life-is-now.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002526170

Record, Jeffrey. "The Bush doctrine and War with Iraq." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 4+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110551195

Sahliyeh, Emile. "10 the Status of Human Rights in the Middle East Prospects and Challenges." Human Rights and Diversity: Area Studies Revisited. Ed. David P. Forsythe and Patrice C. McMahon. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2003. null53-null58.

Sistani Removes 'Death to Gays' Fatwa." Iraqi LGBT. (12 May 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/05/sistani-removes-death-to-gays-fatwa.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009738732

Stahn, Carsten. "Justice under Transitional Administration: Contours and Critique of a Paradigm." Houston Journal of International Law 27.2 (2005): 311+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020132072

Taras, Ray. "The (IL) Logic of Intervention in Iraq: Sectarianism, Civil War, and the U.S. Game Plan." International Journal on World Peace 23.4 (2006): 33+.

Two Dossiers That Accuse the Allies; 'Captives Battered, Burned Stripped, Starved'." The Daily Mail (London, England): 6.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2. (10 December 1948) http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html.

The Week." National Review. 10 Mar. 2003: 8.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019333253

Wilkinson, J. Harvie. "Gay Rights and American Constitutionalism: What's a Constitution for?." Duke Law Journal 56.2 (2006): 545+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006720379

Michael Byers, "Agreeing to Disagree: Security Council Resolution 1441 and Intentional Ambiguity," Global Governance 10.2 (2004).

Jeffrey Record, "The Bush doctrine and War with Iraq," Parameters 33, no. 1 (2003). http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015582841

Eric a. Heinze, "Humanitarian Intervention and the War in Iraq: Norms, Discourse, and State Practice," Parameters 36.1 (2006). http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015246180

Joy Gordon, "Accountability and Global Governance: The Case of Iraq," Ethics & International Affairs 20.1 (2006).

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009738732

Carsten Stahn, "Justice under Transitional Administration: Contours and Critique of a Paradigm," Houston Journal of International Law 27.2 (2005). http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024109830

Douglas Kellner, "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the "War on Terror," Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.4 (2007). http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009738732

Queer Iraqis are finding life is now worse than it was under Saddam," Iraqi LGBT, (1 June 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/06/queer-iraqis-are-finding-life-is-now.html.

Sistani Removes 'Death to Gays' Fatwa," Iraqi LGBT, (12 May 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/05/sistani-removes-death-to-gays-fatwa.html. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=89012558

Hilary Poole, ed., Human Rights: The Essential Reference (Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999) 269.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009738732

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2, (10 December 1948 Accessed 12 April 2008) http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105334775

Nihal Jayawickrama, the Judicial Application of Human Rights Law: National, Regional, and International Jurisprudence (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002) 789.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 7, (10 December 1948) http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009738732

Ibid., Article 12.

Ron Hutcheson and Matthew Schofield, "Bush, Blair Hail Handover as Fresh Start for Iraq," Knight Ridder Washington Bureau, (28 June 2004).

Lou Chibbaro, Jr., "U.S. Military Acknowledges Iraq Anti-Gay Killings," Iraqi LGBT, (7 June 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/06/us-military-acknowledges-iraq-anti-gay.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009738732

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 1, (1966) http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/b3ccpr.htm. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020132072

Ray Taras, "The (IL) Logic of Intervention in Iraq: Sectarianism, Civil War, and the U.S. Game Plan," International Journal on World Peace 23.4 (2006). http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014162490

Ed Blanche, "A Crumbling Coalition: Despite the Rhetoric from Washington, Which Attempts to Persuade the International Community Things Are Improving, U.S. Allies Are Peeling Away as the Crisis in Iraq Deepens," the Middle East Mar. 2006.

Daniel McGrory, "Gays flee as Religious Militias Sentence Them All to Death," Iraqi LGBT, (17 May 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/05/gays-flee-as-religious-militias.html. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042181

Eran N. Ben-Porath, "Rhetoric of Atrocities: The Place of Horrific Human Rights Abuses in Presidential Persuasion Efforts," Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.2 (2007).

Doug Ireland, "Shia death Squads Target Iraqi Gays," Iraqi LGBT, (23 March 2006) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2006/04/shia-death-squads-target-iraqi-gays-us.html.

IRIN News Service, "IRAQ: Boys Trapped in Commercial Sex Trade," Iraqi LGBT, (8 August 2005) http://iraqilgbtuk.blogspot.com/2005/08/iraq-boys-trapped-in-commercial-sex.html. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006002130

Shereen T. Ismael, "Dismantling the Iraqi Social Fabric: From Dictatorship through Sanctions to Occupation," Journal of Comparative Family Studies 35.2 (2004). http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002518816

The Week," National Review 10 Mar. 2003: 8.

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Title: South Africa and Apartheid

  • Total Pages: 14
  • Words: 3936
  • Bibliography:6
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Analysis of South Africa under the apartheid system. How and why did it begin? What took place under this system? What kind of human rights violations took place? What was the world's reaction to it? What were its impacts? How did it end? Who were the key figures involved?

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Bibliography

Lodge, Tom "Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945"(1983).. Longman

Allen, John " Apartheid South Africa: An Insider's Overview of the Origin And Effects of Separate Development. "(2005). iUniverse. p. xi.

Leach, Graham "South Africa: no easy path to peace. Routledge. "(1986). p. 68

Beck, Roger B. "The history of South Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group"(2000).

Richmond, Anthony H. "The colour problem: a study of racial relations. "(1955). Penguin Books

Muller, C.F.J. "Five hundred years: a history of South Africa?. "(1975). Academica

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