Histology Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Histology College Essay Examples

Title: histology

  • Total Pages: 1
  • Words: 317
  • Sources:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I have 4 questions to write about and each one can be a short paragraph.

1. write a brief description of how you distinguish between areolar connective tissue and dense regular connective tissue on microscope slides.

2. Describe the basic difference between connective tissue structure and epithelial structure.

3. describe how the structure of dense regular connective tissue allows it to perform its function in ligaments that hold bones together.

4. Briefly descibe how the function of an organ is related to its histology.

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Title: Connexin43 expression following retinal ischaemia

  • Total Pages: 19
  • Words: 4785
  • References:50
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: This is an introductory chapter describing the methods that will be used in the study (not a detailed step-by-step methods section)

Please cover the following methods:
1. Tissue fixation (particularly paraformaldehyde fixation) - 2 pages
2. Histology using hematoxylin and eosin stain - 1 page
3. Immunohistochemistry - 3 pages
4. Fluorescence microscopy - 3 pages
5. Confocal microscopy - 3 pages
6. Western blotting - 2 page
7. Real time quantitative PCR - 3 pages
8. TUNEL for detection of apoptosis - 2 page

For each method please describe purpose, description of technique, steps involved, advantages, and briefly, disadvantages and alternatives.

I will email examples of information to cover, but please do not limit the references to these resources.

Please reference each point. Please use Vancouver reference system with superscript numerals after the full stop. If able use EndNote if possible.

Thank you very much for your help.
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Apoptosis (2009) Protocol Online. Available at: http://www.protocol-online.org/prot/Cell_Biology/Apoptosis/index.html

Coling, Donald and Kachar, Bechara (1997) Theory and Application of Fluorescence Microscopy. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons.

Gallagher, S., Winston, S.E, Fuller, S.A. And Hurrell, J.G.R. (2004) Immunoblotting and Immunodetection. Current Protocols in Neuroscience 2004. John Wiley & Sons.

Introduction to Immunohistochemistry (2009) IHC World Life Science Information Network. Online available at: http://www.ihcworld.com/_intro/intro.htm

Osborn, NN, et al. (2004) Retinal Ischemia: Mechanisms of Damage and Potential Therapeutic Strategies. Prog Retin Eye res. 2004 Jan; 23(1):91-47.

Paddock, Stephen W., Fellers, Thomas J. And Davidson, Michael W. (2009) Confocal Microscopy Basic Concepts. Microscopyu.com online available at: http://www.microscopyu.com/articles/confocal/confocalintrobasics.html

Real-Time PCR: From Theory to Practice. (nd) Invitrogen. Com Renwick, J. et al. (2006) XIAP-mediated neuroprotection in retinal ischemia. Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 338-347. 24 Nov 2005.

Smith, Carolyn L. (1997) Basic Confocal Microscopy. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons.

Terminal Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) Assay (2009) Protocol Online. Available at: http://www.protocol-online.org/prot/Cell_Biology/Apoptosis/Terminal_Transferase_dUTP_Nick_End_Labeling__TUNEL__Assay/index.html

Tips on Preparing a Sample for Confocal Microscopy (2000) Department of Bioengineering University of Pennsylvania. Bioengineering Confocal and Multiphoton Imaging Core Facility. Online available at: http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~confocal/sample_prep_l2.html#Tissue Fixation

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Title: squamous cell carcinoma

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1811
  • Works Cited:7
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: 3. Content will be graded on the basis of thoroughness, understanding of the topic, integration of content from multiple sources, organization, style, grammar and spelling, and selection of appropriate/current literature references.
4. Although the Oral Pathology Literature Review will be based entirely on the ideas of others, it must be written in the students own words. It may not be “cut and pasted” from the literatures sources. Additionally, the source material for the stated facts or ideas must be clearly referenced. Each paragraph should have multiple references. Use endnotes rather than footnotes to reference your sources (see below).
5. You must use a minimum of 7 references to write an acceptable literature review. Using more than 12 references is usually making the project bigger than necessary.
6. References must be from peer-reviewed journals articles and must include the most current sources relevant to the topic. Selection of quality references will affect grade.
7. Internet websites (such as WebMD, etc.) may NOT be used as sources. Likewise, Textbooks, atlases, and course notes are not acceptable to use as references.
8. Failure to follow formatting requirements will result in either request for revision of paper or grade penalty.
Guidelines for Organization of the Paper
The following is a road map to help you order the themes for your literature review.
Epidemiology – Such as incidence, age, gender, and race predilections, predisposing factors
Etiology and Pathogenesis – This is a significant part of the paper and should be detailed!
Clinical Features – Including sites of predilection, signs and symptoms, expected clinical appearance or range of presentations
Histopathologic Features – Diagnostic histology of the disease should be discussed; other diagnostic tests may be included.
Behavior and Prognosis

Specific Formatting Requirements for the Paper
Margins: 1.0 inch for left, right, top and bottom.
Font: Courier New font style in 12 pt size.
Spacing: Use double spacing throughout the body of the paper. Endnotes may be single spaced.
Paragraphs: Please indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5". Do not add extra pts of space before or after paragraphs.
Style: Please write the paper in prose. This means that the paper is written in complete, grammatically correct sentences and organized into logical paragraphs. Papers written in outline form will not be accepted. Correct spelling and exemplary grammar are always appreciated.
Headings: Please do NOT use any paragraph headings in the body of your paper.

You must indicate the source of your ideas in the literature review using endnotes.
o The endnotes should be listed at the end of your paper on a Reference page. Make a numbered list of every source you have used for your Literature Review. List each article only once. You will use the number assigned to each article throughout the paper to indicate the source for your ideas.
o Within the body of your literature review, type the number (or numbers) for your source articles (see above) at the end of the applicable sentence. You may type the reference number in parenthesis or superscripted.
o Source articles on the Reference page must be formatted as follows, including punctuation:
1. Author(s) last name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal (use the standard abbreviation for the journal) year of publication; volume(number, if known):page range.
2. Napenas J.J., Hong C.H.L., Brennan M.T., et. al. The frequency of bleeding complications after invasive dental treatment in patients receiving single and dual antiplatelet therapy. JADA 2009; 140(6):690-695.

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Works Cited:


1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at, http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf

4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007

5) Ravi Mehrotra, S Yadav, 'Oral squamous cell carcinoma: Etiology, pathogenesis and prognostic value of genomic alterations', Indian Journal of Cancer, 2006, Vol 43, Issue 2-Page 60-66

6) Stephen M. Schwartz, David R. Doody & E. Dawn Fitzgibbons et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Cancer Risk in Relation to Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Dehydrogenase-3 Genotypes', Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Nov 2001, 10: 1137

7) Gypsyamber D'Souza, Ph.D., Aimee R. Kreimer, Ph.D., Raphael Viscidi, M.D. et.al, 'Case -- Control Study of Human Papilloma virus and Oropharyngeal Cancer', NEJM, 2007, No 19, Available Online at, http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/356/19/1944

8) University of Maryland, 'Oral Health: What is Oral Cancer', Accessed Jan 16th 2010, available at, http://www.umm.edu/oralhealth/cancer.htm

9) CDC, 'Oral Cancer: Histopathology: Biology and Marker', Accessed Jan 16th 2010, available at, http://www.cdc.gov/Oralhealth/pdfs/chapter2.pdf

10) V. Rao, Jr., D. Chaukar, M. Vaidya, s. Sawant, A. Dcruz and S. Kane, 'Role of cytokeratin and vimentin as prognostic markers in oral Cancers', Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2008, Vol 26, No 15S

11) CAI Zhi-gang, SHI Xiao-jian & GOA Yan et.al, '?-Catenin expression Pattern in primary oral cell carcinoma', China Med J. 2008, 121 (19) 1866-1870, Available Online at, http://www.cmj.org/Periodical/PDF/200892338879180.pdf

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Title: DNA fingerprinting and its impact on the United Kingdom

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1394
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I. A brief history of the technology’s development - technology is DNA fingerprinting

II. A brief description of the culture of the selected country, e.g. its government, economy, educational and religious systems, and its status as a high-tech or low-tech nation - country is United Kingdom

III. The specific impact (both positive and negative) that the technology has had upon the culture of the country, e.g. upon its government, economy, educational and religious systems - country is United Kingdom

IV. And the moral and ethical issues brought about by the technology and how the country has dealt with these issues - country is United Kingdom

Below is a rough outline of the specifics:
I. Introduction of DNA Fingerprinting
A. Developed by Sir Alec Jeffreys in 1985 at University of Leicester
1. 1.Evolution of DNA Fingerprinting and DNA profiling (DNA’s Detective Story, 2004)
2. DNA Fingerprinting – How does it work? (Jeffreys, 2005)

B. Dr. Jeffreys’ contribution has led to the creation of several DNA databases worldwide allowing for closer scrutiny from both critics and supporters.
C. For Dr. Jeffreys’ work he was inducted into the Royal Society and sponsored by the Wolfson Foundation (TRS, 2009)
D. A chemical probe was soon developed, known as the Jeffreys probe, by attaching chemicals that were shared between different stuttered regions called minisatellites, which resulted as a pattern of bands, or stripes on x-ray film that could be used in comparisons (BBC, 2009)

II. Detailed background of the United Kingdom
A. The government is a “constitutional monarchy and Commonwealth realm” (CIA, 2009).
1. The constitution set in place is unwritten, partly statutes, and partly common law and practice.
2. The United Kingdom has also a parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a parliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers, and 26 bishops; and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected members
B. Economy
1. As of 2008, the official exchange rate of the GDP in the UK is $2.787 trillion dollars (converted from pounds).
a. Compared to the US in 2008, the unemployment rate of the UK sits at 5.5% as opposed to 7.5% to the US.
2. Agriculturally, the UK’s products deal in cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep, fish and poultry.
3. The UK entered a recession in the 3rd quarter of 2008. As of June 2009, the economy had shrunk by 5.6% compared to the year before.
4. In July 2009, the UK appeared to have seen the worst of the global recession of 2009, with latest Office of National Statistics figures for 2nd quarter of 2009 showing that the economy shrank by 0.8%, an improvement in comparison to the previous quarter.
C. Education
1. Languages spoken in the UK are majority English with second language being Welsh along with the rarely spoken Scottish form of Gaelic.
D. Religion
1. According to a 2001 census, a vast majority of the UK’s population is “Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) at 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified or none 23.1%” (CIA, 2009).

III. Impacts DNA fingerprinting has had on the UK
A. Negative/detrimental effects
1. Government
a. With the establishment of the National DNA Database controversy has arisen with collection and maintenance of samples of people who have not been convicted of a crime (Jobling & Gill, 2004, pg 745).
b. Due to the Government’s decision to allow and expand the police power through changing some English and Welsh laws, more people are alarmed by the potential threat to “genetic privacy”.
2. Economy
a. DNA research is a costly process but the amount spent towards the research does not equal more than 2% of the country’s budget considering most countries spend almost 50% or more on their budget for defense.
3. Education
a. Various schools in the United Kingdom have put into operation fingerprint locks or registered children's fingerprints. The main basis of this implementation is to discourage school skipping and to replace library cards or money for meals. The fingerprinting is allowed by the British government to be implemented without parental consent. (Edinformatics)

4. Religion
a. Refer to above section; II-D-1 in which almost one-fourth of the population of the UK chose not to define their religion or acknowledge it to be public knowledge therefore how would the religious community feel with their own private identity stored into a nationwide and worldwide DNA database?
B. Positive/beneficial effects
1. Government
a. For a government use, according to Jeffreys the future of DNA fingerprinting could be miniaturization (lab on a ‘chip’) to allow for analyzing DNA at the crime scene in seconds. (Jeffreys, 2005, pg. 1038-1039)
b. He also points out that the field of DNA could expand to new dimensions of security to DNA PINs as true PINs and be used for everything from credit cards to immigration clearance. (Jeffreys, 2005, pg. 1039)
c. To date the practice of DNA profiling is being used in criminal investigations and stemmed from a criminal investigation in 1986 over the rape and murder of two school girls. DNA profiling was used to identify the true killer and prove the innocence of the prime suspect. (Jeffreys, 2005, pg. 1037)
d. In 1995, a National DNA database was established to maintain samples of those either suspected of or convicted of a crime. To date it is the largest database in the world with nearly 2.7 million samples. (Home Office, 2006, pg 4)
2. Economy
a. While DNA technology doesn’t have a direct impact on the country’s economy, it does share it’s benefits with the medical community in processes such as profiling and identification along with resolving paternal-related matters and of course selling genome scans to consumers for “assessing their genetic risks of developing a range of diseases” (Henderson, 2009, para. 6).

IV. Issues that arose with the use and advances of DNA-related technology
A. From an ethical and moral perspective/viewpoint
1. DNA fingerprinting and its related technology has often been criticized by the public for invasion of privacy due to military and police unrestricted access to the DNA database .
a. Several lawsuits have taken place regarding this matter in courts of the UK.

B. The continuing expansion of police power over the UK population
a.British Prime Minister Tony Blair announced in 2000 that the DNA Expansion Programme would include "virtually the entire active criminal population"—an estimated 3 million people— by 2004. (Wallace, 2006)
b. In March, 2003, it was announced in the UK that the police will be allowed to retain DNA profiles indefinitely, which lead some people to be concerned of possible wrongful conviction. (Linacre, 2003)
c. English and Welsh law permits the police to take DNA samples without consent from anyone arrested, regardless of whether they are charged or not, with the information taken permanently kept (Wallace, 2006).

Here is a list of sources it is not all inclusive just a few that I found:

Aldhous, P. (1992, January). Challenge to British Forensic Database. Nature, 355 (6357), 191. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from ProQuest database (Document ID: 1729093).

Beatson, J. (2009, June). Forensic science and human rights: The challenges. Judiciary of England and Wales. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from http://www.judiciary.gov.uk/docs/speeches/j-beatson-bafs-160609.pdf

Berry, A. & Watson, J. (2003, April). DNA The Secret of Life: Life Sciences – Genetics and Genomics & Biology – Molecular Biology. New York: Random House.

Charter Lecture. (2007). Alec Jeffreys. Biologist. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from Academic Search Premier database

Gill, P. & Jobling, M. (2004). Encoded Evidence: DNA in Forensic Analysis. Nature Reviews Genetics, 5, 739-751. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from http://www.le.ac.uk/ge/maj4/JoblingGill04.NRG.Forensics.pdf

Gill, P. (2005, June). DNA as Evidence - The Technology of Identification. The New England Journal of Medicine, 352 (26), 2669-71. Retrieved July 16, 2009 from ProQuest database (Document ID: ).

Hayden, T. (n.d.). Colin Pitchfork. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from http://www.murderuk.com/one_off_colin_pitchfork.html

Home Office (2006) DNA Expansion Programme 2000–2005: Reporting Achievement. London, UK: The Home Office. Retrieved August 1, 2009, from

Jeffreys, A. (2005, October). Genetic fingerprinting. Nature Medicine, 11(10), 1035-1039.

Kayser, K. (2000, March). DNA Profiling and DNA Engineering. Electronic Journal of Pathology & Histology, 6 (1), 17.

Kloosterman, A. & Sjerps, M. (2003, August). Statistical aspects of interpreting DNA profiling in legal cases. Statistica Neerlandica, 57(3), 368. Retrieved July 17, 2009

Krawczak, M. & Schmidtke, J. (1998, January). DNA Fingerprinting. New York: Random House.
Rothstein, M. (2005, June). Genetic Justice. The New England Journal of Medicine, 352 (26), 2667-8. Retrieved July 16, 2009 from ProQuest database (Document ID: ).

The Royal Society. (2009, July). Sir Alec Jeffreys FRS – DNA fingerprinting. The Royal Society. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from http://royalsociety.org/page.asp?id=1523

Zagorski, N. (2006). Profile of Alec J. Jeffreys. [Electronic Version]. The National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103(24): 8918–8920. Retrieved July 14, 2009 from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1482540

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DirectGov. (2009). Accessed 6 August 2009. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/index.htm

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