PLATFORM FOR ETHICS AND LEADERSHIP
Writers in health care
ethics repeatedly emphasize the role of the health care professional
as a moral agent or a person whose actions affect self and others at a moral level. Many writers further emphasize the importance of a personal ethic or moral framework in which the health care
practitioner grounds his or her practice and professional
relationships. Ideally, the content of this course gives the students an opportunity to consider their own personal and professional
ethic within the various theoretical standpoints and case studies presented. The purpose of the Professional
Platform for Ethics and Leadership is to initiate and facilitate a well articulated foundation for leadership and ethics in practice.
The platform is worth 100 points. Please note, points are awarded based on the clarity and depth of your writing and the apparent effort given the assignment -- NOT on the rightness or wrongness of your position. Students are encouraged to be honest in their self-assessments and conclusions. The Professional
Ethical Platform is due no later than Sunday, 11:59 p.m. Mountain Tine Zone of the week indicated in the Course Outline/Course Syllabus/Weekly Overview.
The ethics platform is a written essay demonstrating deep reflection on the nature, sources and implications of the values, beliefs and ethical perspectives that guide your personal and professional
practice. The recommended length of the paper is 10-15 pages--more pages does not always equal a better paper, excluding the cover and reference pages, double-spaced with a 12-point font. Papers will not be penalized for exceeding 15 pages in length--more pages does not always equal a better paper. The essay may address areas beyond those found in the required information, and should reflect your own individual perspective and approach to ethical and leadership practice. However, the paper must minimally address the following items:
1. Identify the primary influences in your own ethical development and leadership perspective from childhood to the present. Describe any experiences or people that have had a particular impact. (2 to 3 pages.)
2. Examine the six ethical principles discussed in class (autonomy [respect for persons], nonmaleficence, beneficence, veracity, fidelity, and justice). Choose 3 or more principles that are most important to you. How important are these principles in relation to each other when they are in conflict? Under what circumstances have you, or would you, feel justified in violating one or more of these principles? What other values support or conflict with these principles? (2 to 3 pages.)
3. Most of us find ourselves using several or all of the ethical theories described in your readings; however, most of us are also generally inclined to one or two particular theories. Comment on which of the ethical theories seems the most consistent with your own perspective. Which ethical perspective is the most troublesome to you? Briefly explain why. (2 to 3 pages.) The ethical theories include Kantian deontology, Rossian deontology, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, Catholic moral tradition, Rawlsian ethics, rights-based ethics, communitarian ethics, feminist ethics, and ethic of care
. You may also present a cultural or faith-based perspective not covered by these theories.
4. Using the ethical concepts from your answers to #2 and #3 above, when working with patients, families and other health care professionals
, how do you see yourself working to resolve ethical disagreements (1 page)?
5. Describe your view of the ethical practice of nursing (1 page).
6. Healthcare professionals
are often challenged to assume leadership roles in order to improve clinical practice, advocate for patients, further or protect the interests of the profession, challenge unethical practices by colleagues or facilities, and actively work to shape meaningful health care
policy. The Johnson text explores the ?shadow? side of ethical leadership. Discuss the shadow side of your own ethical practices and leadership behaviors; what are your opportunities for development. (1 to 2 pages.)
7. Articulate a realistic plan for personal and professional
development with respect to ethical and leadership practice. State your plan in terms of specific and measurable goals, objectives, and a timeline. Describe how you will be held accountable for meeting the elements of your plan. (1 to 2 pages.)
This is a very personal assignment. Students are encouraged to be honest in their self-assessments and conclusions.
--Identifies the primary influences in ethical development and perspective, including any experiences or people that have had a particular impact on personal ethical viewpoint. 15
--Discusses the various ethical principles in terms of which principles are most important, how situations are approached in which principles conflict, and any other values that support or conflict with these principles.
--Presents logical justification for choices. 15
-- Identifies those theories that seem most consistent with one's own perspective and those theories that seem least consistent with that perspective.
--The discussion contains enough depth for the evaluator to assess the personal understanding of the concepts.
--Identifies and addresses any inconsistencies in the personal views.
--Presents a framework by which ethical disagreements are resolved. 20
Ethical Practice of Nursing
--Details those ethical components deemed necessary to the practice of nursing.
--Does more than simply repeat the Nursing Code of Ethics; presents a well-developed and experientially-based construct. 15
--Explores the shadow side of personal ethical practices and leadership behaviors, identifies opportunities for personal development. 15
Personal Development Plan
--Articulates a plan, with specific steps, for personal and professional
development with respect to ethical practice. 10
Organization / Writing / APA format 10
There are many approaches to ethical analysis and each has inherent strengths and limitations. Compelling arguments can be made on both sides of most ethical dilemmas. As such, your work will not be evaluated on the basis of the rightness or wrongness of your position. However, it will be evaluated on the basis of presentation and the depth and clarity of your analysis. All papers will be generally evaluated as follows:
? Is each required element addressed with clarity and depth?
? Do the various concepts discussed reflect an accurate understanding, interpretation and application of ethical theory and principles?
Organization and Presentation:
? Is the essay well organized and engaging to the reader?
? Are ideas expressed clearly in writing?
? Does the essay meet acceptable writing standards for graduate work?
? Is the paper formatted according to the style prescribed in the 6th edition APA manual?
? Are references cited appropriately within the body of the paper and the reference list?
ETHICAL PLATFORM CHECKLIST
Here is a checklist to help you evaluate your paper in relation to the grading criteria.
___ Is the paper written in accepted APA format?
? 1 inch margins, body double spaced with paragraph indents
? Cover sheet
? Title at the top of the first page
? Running header and page numbers
? Proper use of APA section headers
? APA style references within the body of the paper and an APA style reference list
NOTE: Papers that do not substantively comply with APA format will be returned unread. This is a graduate level standard.
___ Have you avoided plagiarism? Any time you use someone else?s words verbatim or even closely paraphrased, you must cite your source. For example, if you use a source that suggests a particularly effective interpretation of a particular ethical principle, cite that source in your discussion. Direct quotes should be in parentheses and the page number included in the citation (author, date, page).
___ Have you carefully proofread the paper for misspelled words, grammatical errors and clarity of presentation? Try reading the paper out loud, or have a friend read the paper and serve as editor.
The Department of Nursing requires that current American Psychological Association (APA) standards for style be used. This is an important aspect of scholarly writing and you are strongly advised to follow the style manual carefully. These details can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You should to obtain a current edition of this manual for reference. The APA manual (6th edition) is available through the Regis University Bookstore and can be purchased on line. APA websites are also useful.
Books used for my class are:
1. Meeting the Ethical Challenges of leadership Casting light on shadow by Craig E Johnson 4th edition
2. Ethical issues in modern medicine, contemporary readings in bioethics by Bonnie Steinbock, John D Arras and Alex John London 7th edition
Who Am I
Who am I? I am the product of my environment, a credit to my Irish heritage, a compassionate caring
person who enjoys life to the fullest. I am a woman of character and integrity, a mother a friend, a sister, a counselor at times, a good listener, a follower of Jesus Christ, a missionary, a teacher and a nurse. I am a strong leader with a type A personality. Hard work is my motto and idle hands are as my mother used to say ?the devils workplace?.
1. Where were you born and what is your nationality & heritage?
I was born and raised in Ireland in a small village of approximately 100 families, where everybody knew everybody?s business. I am Irish. My heritage is part of the old traditional friendly, loving and caring
group of people. I immigrated to the US on December 31st 1977.
2. Describe how you were raised and your family life. (schools attended, religious preferences, profession, etc.)
I was raised in a traditional Irish home, and am number five of eight children. The house was a small two bedroom home with no running water and an outside latrine. We lived on a small farm that was handed down from generation to generation over a period of 125 years. My family life was difficult growing up as my father was a violent alcoholic and a wife abuser. My mother was a loving, gentle caring
person. She instilled in us a love of life, a strong penchant for responsibility at an early age and a need to work hard, get a good education and strive to do the best in life.
She wanted all the things she did not have in her life to be ours and she would say ?nothing is impossible with God; you can do all things through and with him?. Our family was staunch Roman Catholic and we were encouraged to attend church on Sundays and all holy days of obligation. My dad was an engineer and worked on the bridges and roads in our county in the midlands of Ireland in the county of Longford. I attended the local catholic schools from primary school through college. I choose nursing as my profession at the early age of seven while attending to my grandfather?s diabetic ulcers. (The nurse from our clinic taught me how to dress his wounds) This procedure instilled in me a desire to learn more about how and what a nurse was and does. I was intrigued and admired and respected her. She was an upstanding member of our community and everybody loved her.
3. Explain your views toward these elements of culture: work, dress, hygiene, courtship, gender and status.
We did not have a traditional dress other than wearing tweeds and a special type of knitted sweater called an ?Aran Sweater ?This sweater had a type of cable knit that depending on the clan you belonged to, depicted for example that she was from the ?Keegan clan?. One of the reasons for this specific cable was that prior to the era of DNA (the Irish were fishermen and relied on the sea for their food,) if a fisherman washed onto shore his sweater would denote what clan he was from, if the body was too decomposed to identify him.
Our work ethics were instilled in us by our parents. This reflects on how I look at life and others, and how I live my life. Our textbook states that ?knowing who you are is never simple, it is an ongoing process that can never fully capture the ever-emerging person.? (Martin, 2010 p. 36)I am still emerging as the textbook states. The motto in our home was to ?spare the rod and spoil the child?. We all had our chores and they had to be completed prior to leaving for school each day. Hygiene as I was growing up was a little more difficult as we did not have running water. We had a basin of water and soap (lye) and washed ourselves each day prior to going to school. Saturday night the aluminum bath was brought in and water was heated on the stove, boys went first in the bath tub, then the girls. Another saying my mother had was ?cleanliness is next to Godliness?. We were not allowed to leave the house for any event before we were inspected head to toe and behind our ears to see if we were clean. Clean underwear was a must before we left the house.
Gender in the traditional Irish home was like many traditional cultures that are the men come first. We had to look after the men and boys first then the girls could be taken care
of. Courtship was under the strict morals of the catholic doctrine. The parish priest Father Pat ruled our community with an iron fist. He would walk the grounds of the local schools on weekend nights with his blackthorn stick and we were all aware that boys and girls were not allowed to be alone. If we were caught we would have to pay the wrath of Father Pat and that was a good beating with his stick.
He would also announce from the pulpit that he caught so and so doing things that they should not do. The birds and the bee?s stories were taught to us by our peers as sex was a taboo word in our homes. The rosary was recited every night in our home as we were growing up.
4. Briefly describe a typical day from morning to night in terms of the cultural values that govern your actions. Write a minimum of 10 actions that you do in a typical day.
I work nights so a typical day for me when I work the night shift is to get up around two thirty in the afternoon and brush my teeth wash my face and hands and as I now live alone I come down and spend about 30 minutes on a quiet time reflection with God. I then talk with my daughter via phone as she lives about 30 minutes away from home. I catch up with my errands, clean my house, do my laundry, prepare my work clothes and sit down and work on any of my readings and or homework so I can prepare any outlines for papers that need to be turned in that day. I typically spend one day a week preparing the weekly food so I have time to spend on recreational activities, family time and chores or school work on the remaining days.
I eat my meal around 1700 and take my shower and then I head off to work which is about 30 minutes from my house and start work at 1900 hours. When I am not working, my day starts out again with a quiet time and reflection with God. I take some time out to meet with my family and perhaps prepare a meal for them. We enjoy playing board games and are very competitive as a family. Family is a very important component in our traditional Irish homes.
4. Provide some characteristics of your culture from one or more of the following:Transmitted from generation to generation; cumulative and historical
An Irish family gathering is composed of friends playing the Uileann pipes (a form of bagpipe) and regardless of the fact that we have a musical note or not, we all chime in. We often sit down around a jigsaw puzzle and work as a team to complete the puzzle. Music is usually in the background. The elders will tell stories to the children and that often keeps the children intrigued for a long period of time. A game of football or soccer will be played in the backyard if it is a good day otherwise the men and boys in the family will be cheering on the soccer match on the television.
5. What rules in your home do you follow unconsciously?
I usually have a strict adherence to my faith and unconsciously have my quiet time each morning. I also keep a close relationship with my family and friends.
7. Relate a folktale, song, work of art, proverb or something similar about your personal culture.
Always remember to forget
The troubles that passed away.
But never forget to remember
The blessings that come each day.
May misfortune follow you the rest of your life, and never catch up.
May those who love us love us,
And those that don?t love us,
May God turn their hearts,
And if he doesn?t turn their hearts,
May he turn their ankles?
So we will know them by their limping.
8. How has your cultural values been determined by historical events?
Ireland during the 60?s was still in a state of unrest. The rebel factions of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the British counterparts were still causing trouble. The catholic/protestant political and religious viewpoints were very strong. The Protestants were considered the elite, landowners (they threw us off our lands during the British take over) Today in Ireland this old adage no longer rings through but it continues to affect our lives in a way that can be distrusting of others who would attempt to control our family life or our worldviews. Our tradition and our heritage, one of friendship and hospitality, is why the Irish culture is renowned around the world and people have traveled to our country to see what makes us a nation of friendly compassionate people.
9. What customs and traditions do you observe in your culture?
St Patrick?s Day is a holiday and we honor him for bringing Christianity to our pagan land. Although a lot of celebrations surround food and drink, the family all join together to enjoy our freedom and our love of music and good Irish food. Christmas time is similar to that of the US except that we place a candle in the window to light the Christ child in. this signifies that there will always be room in our inn.
10. What influences or guides your behavior? (Your ethics)
Ethics as stated in our textbook on Intercultural Communication In Contexts is defined as ?principles of conduct that help govern the behaviour of individuals and groups? (Martin, 2010 p. 32). My upbringing instilled in me a love of music, song and dance and a penchant to give back a little of what I had that others are less fortunate to have in todays world. My work as a missionary was also a product of the stories of the Boer War in Africa that my grandfather told us as children sitting at his feet during the storytelling times. He taught us about the missionaries who helped them through the difficult times and the terrible fevers and diseases that the soldiers suffered during their time away from their families and friends. I always dreamed that one day I would be a person that would govern the behaviour of others in a foreign land. God was faithful and today I travel back and forth helping those less fortunate than myself in the continent of Africa. Last year I helped open a school of nursing in Northern Kenya called the ?Nzoia College of Nursing?.
11. Other behaviors you may have culturally learned:
I learned that we must take responsibility for our actions and or pay the consequences for our actions or inactions that would hurt others.
a. How do you deal with conflict?
Conflict is a part of our lives. I deal with it by being upfront and honest; I like to speak the truth in a loving way but yet letting the perpetrator know that the action is inappropriate. I use the bible as a guide as Matthew18:15-17 dictates to us how to deal with conflict. ?If your brother or sister sins go and point out their fault, just between the two of you. If they listen to you, you have won them over. But if they will not listen...? (New International Version, NIV)
As a leader and a Nursing Administrator, we deal with conflict on a daily basis. My first step is to listen to the person or persons that created the conflict and hear both sides of the story. I then approach them and ask what they would have done differently if they had to do it all over again? I try to get them to work out their problems mutually and if that is not possible I will talk with them separately and attempt to resolve the problem. If that does not work then I would use the chain of command to resolve the conflict.
b. How close do you allow friends to be in your space (i.e., personal bubble)
That depends on the level of our friendship. Is he or she an acquaintance, colleague or close friend? Our Irish culture is one of acceptance and friendship. We are loyal to our true friends and employers. Personally, I am a very private person and this assignment proved to be a little out of my comfort zone. In our home growing up we were thought to keep our skeletons behind closed doors. In other words we did not air our dirty linen in public. My mother was a victim of domestic violence and we as children were traumatized by it. We did not tell our friends because that would bring shame and dishonor to our family. After many years of counseling, I was able to let people into my personal space, however if they violated or betrayed my trust, a wall would go up and that person would never be allowed in my personal confidence or space again. He or she would not be ostracized from my life but would not be privy to my personal confidences. I would then maintain them on the level of an acquaintance.
In conclusion, who am I? I am part of a close knit family, dedicated to my friends and family. My faith defines my morals and ethics in life. I am a hard worker a woman of character and integrity. I am a mother, sister teacher, counselor, nurse, leader and a good listener. I am a traditional Irish woman who upholds her heritage and is loved by many for my dedication to my work and the mission fields of Africa.
I am not afraid of hard work and am an overachiever and competitive who loves life, music and family. I am the product of my early environment. I am who God made me to be. I am a woman of strong morals and integrity. My character is the same at home and out in the community
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