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Genetic Screening in the Workplace," Retrieved July 31, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v4n2/genes.html
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According to Immanuel Kant's Deontological ethical theory, only acts done from duty are morally worthy. Those dutiful, morally worthy acts are the hallmark of the "Dutiful Person" who rationally acts on principles of Universal Law. Moral worth is not based on intended or actual results; rather, moral worth is based on a "maxim" -- "a principle that one believes to be a rational principle of conduct" (Duncan, p. 2). Relying ultimately on Universal Law as the yardstick of morally worthy conduct, if the Dutiful Person cannot will a maxim to be within Universal Law, then the Dutiful Person will not act (Duncan, p. 5). Applying the "Dutiful Person" standard, the question of whether a particular type of genetic testing should be used depends only on whether it is morally worthy conduct within Universal Law.
In sharp contrast to the "Dutiful Person" is John Stuart Mills' "Utilitarian Man" of "Consequentialism." Consequentialism maintains that "whether an act is morally right depends only on consequences" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003); therefore, applying the "Utilitarian Man" standard, the morality of any type of genetics testing is judged only by its results.
Yet another philosophical ethical/moral theory is Carol Gilligan's feminist "Caring and Love" model, which asserts "that traditional moral theories, principles, practices, and policies are deficient to the degree they lack, ignore, trivialize, or demean values and virtues culturally associated with women" (Stanford Encyclopedia of