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Genetic Testing Essays and Research Papers

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Title: genetic testing

Total Pages: 2 Words: 560 Bibliography: 2 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Essay

I am requesting writer Christinepizan if possible. This is a position paper on the pros and cons of genetic testing. Please take the position that genetic cloning may be OK for therapeutic purposes only and that it needs to be regulated to prevent other unauthorized use. Please clearly state supporting arguments for genetic cloning.
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Essay Instructions: What is the one thing that concerns you most about genetic testing in the work place?


Please read:

Genetic Testing and the Future of Disability Insurance: Thinking about Discrimination in the Genetic Age

Paul Steven Miller. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Boston: Summer 2007. Vol. 35, Iss. 2; pg. 47, 6 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

[...] over a century ago, Darwin's revolutionary theories on natural selection and the evolution of species sparked many wonderful scientific advances and led to a greater understanding of mankind's place in the natural world.3 Unfortunately, dreadful misapplications of his brilliant concept of "survival of the fittest" also prospered.4 Plugged into the social, religious, cultural, and historical milieu of the time, Darwin's scientific theories found less scientific and more destructive applications.5 Bigoted notions of the underlying causes of class, social, and biological differences attributed "undesirable" characteristics to heredity. Three generations of imbeciles are enough.22 Years later in 1979, researchers determined that Carrie Buck, her sister, Doris, who was also sterilized, and her daughter, Vivian, all possessed standard intelligence.23 According to one report, this brand of pseudoscience permitted the forcible sterilization of 60,000 Americans in the 40 years after Buck v Bell.24 Genetic Discrimination in the Workplace As the science of genetics explodes and the technology becomes more accessible, the issue of how society protects its workers from the misuse of genetic information becomes more important.n The facts of the case are simple.53 The EEOC alleged that Burlington Northern, or BNSF, subjected its employees to surreptitious genetic testing.

Please write a five page paper answering this question and hand it in by the end of this module.

Of course, make your argument out in terms of utilitarian and deontological considerations.

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Title: Genetic testing and Insurance

Total Pages: 2 Words: 658 References: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Specific: Essay paper no quotations or parenthetical citations or footnotes needed. Talk about two or three key points in the Article. Article details provided below. Key point: should insurance companies be allowed to use genetc testing to determine eligibility for insurance and/or to set premiums; Key point: Privacy of individuals, discrimation and ethics as related to protecting access to health insurance. Talk about the Principle of Utmost Good Faith and how parties to an insurane contract are hed to a higher standard of honesty than parties to a non-insurance contact. Is it ethical or breach of contract for that party? Or is it Innocent mispresentation of material fact? What if the party is ingnorant of their family history or simply not aware of details. Briefly mention the purposed of acquiring insurance.

Genetic Testing and Insurance, Insurance is a business that depends on predicting health risks and setting premiums to account for them and so insurers are very likely to be interested in genetic testing for indivdulas. The question is whether and under what conditions genetic testing out to be allowed.
Setting premiums by predicting risk, the insurance business attemps to set premiums at levels that allow payment for all legitimate claims with money left over every year as profit. To do this, insurance companies do their best to understand the cossts they will bear if they agree to cover individuals wo will make up the group whose risks are pooled. Health disability and life insurance offer protectionfrom the real costs of health care, premature death, and dsability by collecting premiums from may people but paying large claims on only a few. Premiums are set using informatin about individual's health, lifestyle, family history, and diagnostis tests for everything frm drug screening and heart monitoring to HIV tests. Genetic testing may add to the predictive infrmation available to insurers, but at what costs both to them and to those they insure. Genetic testing is expensive and in most cases can only provide limited information about the risk of disease since ther are so many factors; genetic and otherwise that determine who will get sick and when. And it can be used to determine access to insurance or to justify increased premiums, which may result in necessary coverage being denied to individual and their familes.
Protecting accessto health insurance, because of the importance of heath isurance almost half the states and a recent federal law now bar large health insurers from using genetic testing to discriminate against individual because they may develop a disease in the future. The argument is that health insurance is so important that it should be treated as a community resource, with individuals' risk shared across the pool of all who are covered. It makes sense to treat health insurance in this way because of the special nature of health care. Bu what abut life and disability insurance? Lilfe and disability insurance ca be seen as optionals as comparted to health insurance, ad so we might be more willing to treat them differently. But if genetic testing were used to deny insurance or to set very high premiums for death or disability caused by the predicted disease< ten it hardly makes sense to buy coverage> the irony is that insurance would be denied for jsut he possibility that insurance is meant to cover the likelihood of premature death or disability

Singled out by science, even so, using genetic testing t distinguish individulas might make sense if it were really able to single outthos truly at greater genetic risk. In fact we all carry some assortment of genetic defencts, but for most of us science has yet to discover our paticular defects or test to identify them. Since genetic tests are available for only a fraction of the diseases that likely have at least a genetic component, it is unfair to single out those people affected by the few diseases for which we now can test. Until a critical mass of genetic information has been discovered and test to asses it have been developed, it is unfair to allow the inequitable use of genetic testing to decide who whould have access to insurance ans what its cost should be.

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Title: The ethics and legal considerations of genetic testing

Total Pages: 7 Words: 2030 Works Cited: 7 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Hi, I’m a diagnostic radiography student. this is a medico-legal and ethics paper, so please kindly write the essay related to healthcare. Pls cover all types of genetic testing and please do not cite from wikipedia. Thank you!!

Genetic testing:

-preimplantation genetic diagnosis (see the side bar, Screening Embryos for Disease)
-prenatal diagnostic testing (an example related to my profession is prenatal ultrasound screening for Downs syndrom)
-newborn screening
-carrier screening, which involves identifying unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene for a disease that requires two copies for the disease to be expressed
-Genealogical DNA test (for genetic genealogy purposes)
-presymptomatic testing for predicting adult-onset disorders such as Huntington's disease
-presymptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult-onset cancers and Alzheimer's disease
-confirmational diagnosis of a symptomatic individual
-forensic/identity testing

Pls address the ethical aspects followed by the legal aspects with regards to Singapore Law pls.

Pls cover the following:

1) Ethical theories: Deontological (Kant's dutiful person model), Consequentialism (Mill's utilitarian Man model), Virtue (Gilligan's Caring and Love model)

2) Prima-faci principles for healthcare providers: autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, justice (these four are compulsory), paternalism, fidelity, veracity (these 3 are optional)

3) Virtues like respect for others, nonmalevolence, benevolence, fairness & empathy

below is a framework on ethical decision making from my notes. thank you!!

Step 1: identify the ethical issue

Step 2: Clarify personal & professional values
-professional code of ethics
-interpretation & position reflect underlying value system

Step 3: Clarify influencing factors or barriers
-gather information from professional literature
-prima facia (minimum first 4)

Step 4: Define guiding principles
-follow professional code of ethics whenever possible

Step 5: Analyze alternatives
-usually at least 2 course of action will develop
-analyse each argument for and against each action plus their outcomes
-check for validity of the arguments

Step 6: Find common ground
-dilemmas may lead to disputes
-communication is important
-strategies may include: collaboration, compromise, accommodation, coercion, avoidance

Step 7: Decide & Act
-ideal is personal value is consistent with others
-be consistent to legal and professional standards
-being aware of the guiding principles behind the decision will justify your decision

Step 8: Assess outcomes
-evaluate both the process & outcomes
-learn from the experience and improve your approach towards them

Conclusion:-the code gives a framework to direct, coordinate and assist in the day to
day challenges
-at all times abide by the code, respect patient's autonomy & dignity of the

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