Total Pages: 4 Words: 1007 Bibliography: 4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I WANT ORIENTED TO DO MY PAPER
Assignment 5: ?Communication Dilemma?Getting Credit? (Reeves Chapter 7)
Based on the case, your experiences, and the course materials so far, write a four to five(4?5) page paper that answers the following:
1. Propose some lessons we can learn from gender communication in business.
2. Compare and contrast Robert?s and Claudia?s styles of communication. Speculate on how their communication styles impacted their handling of the situation.
3. If you were in Robert?s shoes, describe how you would deal with the situation with Claudia. Describe what you would do if you were Claudia.
4. State whether you agree, as some people assert, that women are better at communication than men. Please defend your response with examples and address any bias that may exist.
5. Analyze some research findings on gender communication around the world.
6. Include two sources outside the textbooks in your report.
The format of the paper is to be as follows:
Typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman font (size 12), one-inch margins on all sides, APA format.
Use headers for each of the subjects being covered, followed by your response.
In addition to the four to five (4?5) pages required, a title page and a reference page are to be included. The title page is to contain the title of the assignment, your name, the instructor?s name, the course title, and the date.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: We took observations (which will be provided), and from the data, you have to introduce, describe, and analyze the data.
This should not be a narrative or opinion paper. Do not make assumptions or inferences that you cannot adequetly support from the data or course material.
From the observations we chose 2 themes and a research question. Below is the patterns & themes, research question, and observations. We will also provide an outline, which the paper must follow. We are also going to fax over 2 sources that should be used in this paper.
In order to observe gender relationships our group wanted to split our observations between two social settings, such as the bar and the student center. Four of us went to Pete's Bar/Scarlet Pub in New Brunswick on Thursday, January 29, 2004 at eleven o'clock p.m. and three of us went to the College Avenue Student Center at one o' clock in the afternoon on Friday, January 30th. When we entered the bar, we each dispersed to separate parts of the bar in order to observe different aspects of gender relationships. We either focused on specific people and relationships or the entire bar as one social setting. At the student center the three group members dispersed themselves throughout the food court observing specific gender relationships.
-i observed at the bar
How does one person's behavior affect another person's behavior?
(for the preanalysis)
-for the analysis section, which is more specific...make inferences and connections dealing with gender, such as are gendered male/female relationships influenced by their freinds nonverbal communication, such as eye contact and touch?
-be careful not to assume quantitative methodology
1. Nonverbal communication (touch, eye contact) is a factor that begins a conversation between male and female.
2. Individuals are heavily influenced by other freinds behavior and their reactions when they are in the presence of the other gender.
One theme I found to be a pattern throughout the gender observations was that nonverbal communication, such as eye contact and touch, are factors that begin a conversation between males and females. For example, when observing a male and female who were not together at the bar, on opposite sides of the bar, eye contact, which I noticed was done by males initiated the meeting between the male and female. It seemed that conversation between the male and female started with a touch or a gaze and then led to verbal communication. Another instance I noticed was that in order for someone to get served at the bar they needed to first make eye contact with the bar tender, whether it was a male or a female. Eye contact was the initiating factor.
The other theme I noticed was that individuals are heavily influenced by their freinds behaviors and their reactions when they are in the presence of the other gender. In one instance there was a male and female couple who was having a drink together and seemed to be enjoying each others company very much; they were having a conversation. A few moments later when one of the male's buddies came in to the bar and approached the couple, the male who was with the female instantly moved his chair away from the female and took his arm, which was around her, and put it at his side. Was this the male trying to act single like his friend that just came into the bar? Did he not want to seem too interested in the female? Which form of communication, verbal or nonverbal, takes precedence with significance for the female to understand? Does the male's nonverbal behavior with his body speak louder than his verbal communication with the female before his friend walked in?
After I found these two themes, nonverbal communication seems to be an influence and relevant factor in gendered relationships. I would like to research nonverbal communication in gendered relationships, its significance, meaning and portrayal.
Observations of gender at a bar
-Male bartenders tended to women quickly
-Male bartenders didn't charge females the whole amount if they didn't have the money
-Females stood in close groups of two or plus
-Males were alone or encircle by females
-Males observed while holding their drinks
-Males hung around the bar
-Females walked to the bathroom together
-Males went alone to the bathroom
-Males drank beer
-Females had mixed drinks
-Males and females walked in separately or in the same sex groups and left with the opposite sex at the end of the night
-Males touched females bodies "innocently", such as putting their arms around the females waist while females tried to pass them in the crowd
-One specific heterosexual relationship captured my eyes: the male was overprotective of the female, if the female looked a certain way or at another guy the male was annoyed and made sure that the rest of the bar knew that they were together by placing his hands all over her body
-I overheard the female tell the male she had to go to the bathroom and that she would be right back but the male insisted that he follow her to the bathroom
-The female was throwing her body all over her male friend while he was standing there watching her like prey and groping her on occasion
-The male consistently pulled out money to buy himself and his female friend drinks, when the male came back with the drinks the female gave him a kiss
-The male was wearing dark baggy jeans with a sweater; the female was wearing dark tight jeans with a black tank top revealing some skin
Gender and Communication Observations
While observing interpersonal interactions between males and females, I knew that the inductive research I was performing would lead to many ideas about gender and communication. My group and I witnessed several interesting encounters at a typical college bar in New Brunswick?
- There was a group of three guys waiting to be served some drinks at the bar. One of the guys ordered and paid for the drinks, and they simultaneously drank their shots, followed by a round of mixed drinks to chase with. A girl was politely trying to push her way through the crowd, until these three guys stood in her way, as if to start a conversation with her. As she was walking towards them, one of the guys had mentioned that he found her attractive. The actual quote was, ?Damn bro, she?s bangin?. That same guy moved just enough for her to squeeze by while rubbing up against her. Of course, it seemed like an accident. He smiled as if to show interest or attraction. The girl smiled back. The girl then said something about how crowded it was. This was her way of initiating conversation, in a friendly and joking manner. The guy laughed and nodded, to show agreement. It seemed that this interaction might have progressed, if it wasn?t for one of his friends spilling a drink on the girl. The vodka and cranberry juice spilled all over her white suede jacket. Needless to say, she was rather agitated at this point of the interaction. He offered to help her clean it up, but she did not want his help. She abruptly exited the interaction, leaving him rather disappointed in the outcome, while leaving his friends with something to laugh about for the remainder of the evening.
Kathleen Monique Carter
Interpersonal Communication Theory
Feb 7, 2004
The Bar/Gender Communication
I actually never really bothered paying attention to how gender communication played out at the bar. After my research, I was quite fascinated by how the idea of flirting was depicted in particular ways. I placed myself in a comfortable area, with a clear visual path to observe the individuals in the bar. I managed to not look so obvious that I was collecting data, by placing all the information gathered inside my phone as if I was sending a text message. I figured that carrying a pen and pad, would totally give away that I was possibly up to something.
After carefully looking around, I noticed two men and two women standing at opposite sides of the bar. Both the women seemed to be girlfriends hanging out for the night and the gentlemen seemed to be good buddies. What attracted me to these sets of friends was the obvious flirting that was going on. The men spoke to each other and chuckled while smiling at the women. Once both the women realized that they were being admired they both rolled their eyes and turned away. It's was actually quite funny. The men seemed to be disappointed due to the women dismissing them. Being in a bar and basically having nothing else to do but dance and drink, the men decided to purchase some drinks. I couldn't help but notice that both men took out a knot of money. As soon as the men took out the money, the women turned their heads so quickly; you would have thought they broke their necks. After seeing the money, the two women, whom seem initially uninterested, seemed to be suddenly intrigued. They began to start smiling at the men and attempted to dance directly in front of the men. Finally one of the women reached over one of the men, as if she was going to place an order at the bar. Being naive, the men offered to buy the women two drinks. The two sets of friends conversed only until the girls were done with their drinks. After getting their drinks paid for and obviously not enjoying the company, both women began to dance in front of two other men. The two "new" men had their eyes on the women the whole night; therefore they already knew the games that the two women were playing. They completely laughed at the women and walked away, because the women were simply blocking their view from the rest of the crowd. It was extremely hilarious.
Overall, I realized that both men and women communicate in diverse ways when attracted to other people. Women try not to seem as if their not interested, unless their getting something in return. In the case of these particular women, they tried to play hard to get, but in reality, money grabbed them. Men often attempt to display their attraction willingly, instead of playing hard to get. Once their rejected, they'll carry on with their night. Men don't seem to flaunt their bodies in front of women, but women use their bodies as bate, in order to have an enjoyable night (these particular women). I basically thought these sets of friends were interesting in the since that they did all their flirting completely non verbally until they approached each other.
Observing a group of 4 girls and 2 guys standing close to them in the middle of the bar
4 girls dressed in tank tops
2 guys in baggy clothing and wearing their jackets
2 of the girls drinking mixed drinks, 1 girl drinking a glass of wine and 1 girl drinking beer
2 guys were drinking beer
girls dancing with eachother
guys were leaning against wall and watching the girls and other people at bar
girls constantly talking to eachother
guys made little conversation with each other
1 girl hugged and kissed another girl that walked by
one guy tries to talk to one of the girls- she smiles and then looks away towards her friend
another group of 3 guys and 1 girl meets up with the group of 4 girls
the 2 guys start to play the video game that is next to them for a couple of minutes
2 guys go to bar to get beers and stay near the bar
Setting: College Avenue Student Center, Food Court
Girl is talking animatedly to a guy about her plans for her upcoming birthday. She is describing the size of the bar using her hands. The guy disagrees saying the bar is around 1600 sq. feet. The girl asks him how big that is compared to the student center. She asks him again how big the bar is compared to a class room. The guy seems annoyed and says that he cannot describe. The girl initiates a lot of questions about the people she should invite. The guy offers 3 names. The girl's facial expressions show that she does not approve of his suggestions. The girl playfully hits the guy's arm and asks him what he thinks of her friend Sharon. The girl's eyes widen and she smiles broadly while she waits for his answer. The guy's face is expressionless and he says that she's okay. The girl asks the guy what he thinks of the restaurant Nova Terra. She does not wait for him to respond and gives him a lively description of how much she likes it, using a lot of facial expressions and hand gestures. She stresses on words like "totally awesome" and "so cool". The girl abruptly interrupts the girl and tells her he wants to get some food.
The guy returns with his food tells the girl how much he hates his classes this semester. Girl nods her head vigorously and says that she "totally agrees" too. The guy moves the topic to his spring break plans and tells her that he is going to Jamaica with his roommates. The girl's face becomes animated again as she tells him that she knew someone who went there.
First Comm Minutes-Devin Digby
I watch an interaction between 2 Rutgers students at the Rutgers student
center on a Friday afternoon at 1:30pm. It is the busy lunch hour and it is
a very busy afternoon, with no tables open. The two individuals are a white
male and white female. They are fully dressed, meaning they still have their
jackets and hats on. There are books placed to the side of the table leaving
the table space between them open. His hands are folded on the table in
front of them as he leans forward on them like a brace. There is no food
or drink on the table between them, or any empty dirty plates or cups. The
first thing that sticks out about them is that his knees constantly bounce.
His knees continuously bounce as he folds and unfold his hands in no
apparent pattern on the table in front of them. When either of them talks
they appear to lean slightly forward as to talk so no one else can hear. I
can?t hear what they?re saying. Im sitting to the side of them, whereas he
is facing me and her back and left side of her face and body are what im
facing. I can?t really see her face clearly at all times. She makes eye
contact consistently when she speaks to him, whereas when he speaks to her,
despite leaning forward slightly he appears to scan the room, while making
very little eye contact. I don?t know if he knows what im up too, being im
trying to be as inconspicuous as possible, but he appears to look in my
direction often. He appears to be very nervous, fidgety almost bored. She
flicks a lighter she?s been playing with in her right hand a few times
before placing her hand back under the table onto the knee of her crossed
legs. She continues to flick and play with the lighter under the table.
Her other hand is twirling and teasing her hair as she speaks to him. He
smiles, she laughs and leans back and swings her hair away from her face,
where she adjusts her earring, then surveys the surroundings of the student
center. He leans forward to talk and looks at me and appears to talk in a
hushed tone. His knees continue to bounce. There is a lull in the
conversation as the two of them look around the student center, including at
me. I get a drink and when I return she is on her cellular, digging around
in her purse, which I had not noticed before. As she does this he organizes
and shuffles his books and paper work. She talks and laughs frequently while
on the cell phone and she speaks much louder, whereas now I can hear her
whole conversation, unlike where I couldn?t hear a word before between the
two of them. He scans the student center waiting for her to finish. She
puts up her hand holding up 1 finger giving him what I assume to be the 1
minute sign. When she gets off the phone she puts it back in her purse leans
across the table and kisses the Air in front of him. I notice for the first
time that his knees are no longer fidgety and bouncing. She sits back in
her chair and reaches in the purse again. He is gathering his paperwork
that was off to the side of the table. She pulls out lip gloss and applies
it. He puts his stuff into his book bag. He sits back up and reaches
across the table grabbing her hand and smiles before he leans over the
table, half standing and kisses her. He then sits back and wipes his lips
and shows her his hand, with what I imagine is her gloss. His phone rings
and he reaches in his jacket pulls it out and answers it. He leans back in
the chair and she stands to leave. She does a fake euro type kiss in front
of him kissing air on both sides of his face, wave?s goodbye, turns and
Student Center 1 p.m.
Our group met at the Student Center on Friday the 30th to observe various interactions in the Food Court. I sat in front of Gerlanda's Pizza and observed a college-age Caucasian couple interacting. They were very affectionate, with the male initiating most of the physical interaction. They were loud, engaging in numerous small arguments that seemed to be routine in their relationship. The male continuously tried to feed his girlfriend his food and she would playfully refuse each time. At one point I was able to overhear a small portion of their conversation; the girl said "Brian, stop!" and he replied, "You know I'm just kidding, Grace, I am always just kidding." She almost appeared angry, slightly smiling as she scolded him but continuing to look serious. He kept smiling, apologizing in a joking manner. They continued to eat and talk, with the male continuing to initiate physical contact, always in the form of a kiss or slight arm touch and these caresses were always favorably received.
I observed the couple for about fifteen minutes before they left the Student Center. I noticed that the male tended to be more dominant verbally and physically, yet as soon as he felt he had overstepped his boundaries he was quick to try and remedy the situation. He seemed very protective of his girlfriend and very conscious of showing others that she was "his" - as evidenced by all the affection he gave to her. Their communication tended to be initiated by her but they were both constantly talking the whole time, both becoming animated over certain subjects and both appearing to control the conversation at various times.
Customer will provide all sources and instructions needed to complete this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: You are a auditor coming into a hospital to do a review write a paper on how communication techniques such as gender communication, body communication, communiation styles, dealing with thinkers, realtors, directors, and intuitors are shown. You must also answer the question of how persuasive communication is tied into leadership
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Assignment:
Building on your two previous assignments you are to turn into me 7 annotated summaries of scholarly (primary) research articles relevant to your paper topic. Specifically each annotation should contain the following: (1) The author(s)? rationale that led him or her or them to the hypothesis and/or research questions. Succinctly summarize the literature and theoretical framework guiding each study; (2) List each hypothesis and/or research question; (3) summarize the method used in each study, which includes: (a) participant description, (b) research procedure?how was data collected? And (c) instrumentation?how were the variables measured or manipulated? (4) Describe how the authors addressed each hypothesis/research question (that you listed above)--were they supported/confirmed or not? You should look at the discussion section for that information (5) Mention any striking/relevant conclusions and/or implications from the study results that the authors discuss/highlight. You will find this information in the discussion section as well. (6) Finally, end your annotation by discussing the relevance of each study to your paper project. Specifically, how does each study contribute to your paper?s logic and argumentation? What are you taking from each study to help support your hypothesis or research question? How will you use this study in your paper? (or at least how do you think you?ll use this study at this point?)
This assignment is designed to help you obtain important information from each study so that you are better prepared to start writing you papers.
Use APA formatting when citing each article. First cite the article and below that place your summary. Remember to you 1?margins and you can single space for this assignment. Finally, use 3rd person in your summary of the article?s first 5 points. For the 6th element (how you want/plan to use each study results for your paper) you can use first person. I do suggest that you bold each of the 5 sections headers so that it is easy to read.
Below is a list of 15 references and the topic of focus, choose 7 of the references below and create an annotated bibliography.
1. My topic of interest focuses on the communication competence between college athletes and their coaches. Since concussions are becoming more prevalent in high contact sports, more people are becoming increasing concerned regards to this topic. All Division 1 college athletes participate in concussion education. While these programs are well utilized, there remains significant concern about players underreporting concussions and concussion symptoms. This may be due to a ?hero complex? or communication deficits and may be dependent on race, ethnicity or gender. The research question of interest is, ?After completing a concussion awareness program, what is the incidence of injury, specifically concussion, underreporting among Division 1 College athletes and is there a difference in number of concussions underreported by male athletes verses female athletes?? Therefore, my first communication topic of interest is interpersonal communication between coaches and players specific to concussion reporting. Secondly, and more specifically, examining distinctions by gender in college athletes related to concussion reporting.
2. Key ideas/concepts used in subject search are concussion, concussion symptoms, college athletes, underreporting, concussion awareness, communication between coaches and players, communication differences by gender between coaches and players, gender, hero complex, high risk behaviors in college athletes and gender high risk behaviors among athletes, and gender communication differences.
3. From ComAbstracts:
Angelini, James R., (2008). Television sports and athlete sex: Looking at the differences in watching male and female athletes. Journal of Broadcasting and Eletronic Media, 52(1).
Docheff, Dennis M, (2011). Dealing with differences: a coach?s perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(8), 33-35,39.
Jowett, Sophia, (2011). Relationship interdependence and satisfaction with important outcomes in coach?athlete dyads, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29(3), 287-301.
Sullivan, Philip, (2004). Communication differences between male and female team sport athletes. Communication Reports, 17 (2 Summer), 121-128.
Anshel, Mark, (2009). Racial and gender differences on sources of acute stress and coping style among competitive athletes, The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 159.
Joesaar, Helen, Hein, Vello, Hagger, Martin S., (2011). Peer influence on young athletes? need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(5), 500-508.
Kaut, K.P., DePompei, R., Kerr, J., and Congeni, J., (2003). Reports of head injury and symptom knowledge among college athletes: Implications for assessment and education intervention. Clinical Sports Medicine, 13(4), 213-221.
McCrea, Micheal, Hammeke, Thomas, Olsen, Gary, Leo, Peter, and Guskiewicz, Kevin, (2003). Unreported concussion in high school football players. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(1), 12-17.
From UM Library:
Habif, Stephanie, Van Raalte, Judy L, Cornelius, Allen, (2001). Athletes' attitudes toward and preferences for male and female coaches, Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 10(1), 73.
Haselwood, Denise M., Joyner, A. Barry, Burke, Kevin L, Geyerman, Chris B., et al, (2005). Female athletes' perceptions of head coaches' communication competence. Journal of Sport Behavior, 28(3), 216-230.
Kassing, Jeffery W., Infante, Dominic A., (1999). Aggressive communication in coach-athlete relationship. Communication Research Reports, 16(2), 110-120.
Kenow, Laura, Williams, Jean M., (1999). Coach-athlete compatibility and athlete's perception of coaching behaviors. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 251-259.
McDermott, Erin, (2011). Same-sex and mixed-sex sport teams: how the social environment relates to sources of social support and perceived competence. Journal of Sport Behavior, 34(1), 98.
Movahed, M. Reza, (2008). Differences according to gender in reporting physical symptoms during echocardiographic screening in healthy teenage athletes. Cardiology in the Young, 18(3), 303.
Rosca, Vlad, (2010). The coach-athlete communication process. Towards a better human resources management in sport. Management Research and Practice, 2(3), 275.
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