Bailey, S.J., Wilkerson, D.P., DiMenna, F.J. And Jones, a.M. (2009). Influence of repeated sprint training on pulmonary O2 uptake and muscle deoxygenation kinetics in humans. School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom.
Hannukainen, J., Nuutila, P., Ronald, B., Kaprio, J., Kujala, U.M., Janatuinen, T., Heinonen, O.J., Kapanen, J., Viljanen, T., Haaparanta, M., Ronnemaa, T., Parkkola, R., Knuuti, J. And Kalliokoski, K.K. (2007). Increased physical activity decreases hepatic free fatty acid uptake: a study in human monozygotic twins. The Physiological Society.
Hochli D, Schneiter T, Ferretti G, Howald H, Classen H, Moia C, Atchou G, Belleri M, Veicsteinas a, Hoppeler H (1995) Loss of oxidative capacity after an extreme endurance run: The Paris-Dakar Foot-race. International Journal of Sports Medicine 16:343-6.
Jones, a.M., Wilkerson, D.P., Berger, N.J. And Fulford, J. (2007). Influence of endurance training on muscle [PCr] kinetics during high-intensity exercise. School of Sport and Health Sciences, St. Luke's Campus, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
Klein, S., Coyle, E.F. And Wolfe, R.R. (1994). Fat metabolism during low-intensity exercise in endurance-trained and untrained men. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch. American Physiological Society. AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol 267, Issue 6
Loat CER, Rhodes EC (1993) Relationship between the lactate and ventilatory thresholds during prolonged exercise. Sports Medicine 15:104-15.
McArdle WD, Katch FI, and Katch VL (1996a) Dynamics of pulmonary ventilation. In Exercise Physiology. Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. (4th ed). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp 248-265.
McArdle WD, Katch FI, and Katch VL (1996b) Fuctional capacity of the cardiovascular system. In Exercise Physiology. Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. (4th ed). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp 298-312.
McArdle WD, Katch FI, and Katch VL (1996c) Energy expenditure during walking, jogging, running, and swimming. In Exercise Physiology. Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. (4th ed). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp 168-186.
Morgan DW (1992) Economy of running: A multidisciplinary perspective symposium. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24:454-489.
Starling, R.D., Trappe, T.A., Parcell, a.C., Kerr C.G., Fink, J. And Costill, D.L. (1996). Effects of diet on muscle triglyceride and endurance performance. Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Taylor AW and Bachman L (1999) the effects of endurance training on muscle fibre types and enzyme activities. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 24:41-53.
1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998
2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.
3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.
4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
5. Rodas G, Ventura JL, Cadefau JA, Cusso R, and Parra, JA Short Training Programme For The Rapid Improvement Of Both Aerobic And Anaerobic Metabolism. Eur Jour of ApPhysiology, (82), 480-486, 2000.
6. Sale DG, MacDougall JD, Jacobs I. And Garner S. Interaction Between Concurrent Strength And Endurance Training. Jourof Ap Physiology (68)1, 260-270, 1990.
7. Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M, Hirai Y, Ogita F, Miyachi M, and Yamamoto K. Effects Of Moderate-Intensity Endurance And High-Intensity Intermittent Training On Anaerobic Capacity And VO2max. Med and Sci in Sports and Exercise, (28), 1327-1330. 1997.
8. Terbizan DJ, and Dolezal, BA. Combining Both Cardiovascular And Resistance Training In The Same Workout Is Both Effective And A Member-Pleasing Time Saver. June 1999. Fitness World. Online. http://www.fitnessworld.com/info/info_pages/library/strength/resist0699.html Accessed November, 2002.
It is clear that Shackleton's ego helped contribute to the problems that the crew experienced. Prior to leaving South Georgia Island, whalers warned Shackleton of the problems with ice and suggested that he stall his expedition, but he left for the South Pole anyway. Many people have suggested that, had he not done so, they would not have encountered the problem with the pack ice. However, that position ignores the inherently dangerous conditions surrounding travel in the Antarctic. Ice floes are difficult to detect, so there is no reasons to suspect that Shackleton intentionally risked encountering pack ice, but, instead the theoretical danger of some type of disaster, which already pervaded the entire mission.
Moreover, while Shackelton was known to seek the glory and recognition that exploration brought to him, he was not foolishly attached to that design. It is worth noting that he did not try to get his crew to reach Antarctica with the life boats, but instead had them head toward Elephant Island. He could have foolishly tried to get them to continue on their original mission, which would have ensured their deaths, but he did not.
Therefore, in many ways it can be said that Shackleton's ego saved the men. When the boat became stuck in the pack ice, it appears that Shackleton's goal for the mission immediately transitioned to survival for his crew. When the boat began sinking, he ordered the crew to abandon ship and they were able to use lifeboats to get to Elephant Island in April 1916. From there, Shackleton left the island and went to South Georgia Island in pursuit of a ship to rescue the abandoned men. It took months for him to attain financing for another ship to retrieve the men, but he refused to abandon that mission.
Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246
Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.
Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.
Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
Cottey, a. 2004. NATO: globalization or redundancy? Contemporary Security Policy, 25:3, 391- 408.
Croft, S., et al. 2000. NATO's triple challenge. International Affairs 76, 3. 495-519.
Duffield, J. 1994-5. NATO's Functions after the Cold War. Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 109, No. 5. pp. 763-787.
Forster, a. And William Wallace. 2001. What is NATO for? Survival, 43:4, 107-122.
Frederking, B. 2003. Constructing Post-Cold War Collective Security. American Political Science Review.
Gordon, P.H.2001-02. NATO after 11 September. Survival, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 89-106. The International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Hall, Peter a. And Rosemary C.R. Taylor. 2006. Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms. Political Science Department, Harvard University.
Hans J.M. 1978. Politics Among Nations. Alfred Knopf, New York.
Helsing, J. 2000. Fitting in: NATO's split personality in the post cold war security environment. E-merge - a Student Journal of International Affairs, Volume 1.
Hopf, T. 1998. The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory. International Security, Vol. 23, No. 1. pp. 171-200.
Hyland, WG. 1990. The Cold War is over. Random House, New York.
Kapstein, E.B. And Michael Mastanduno. 1999. Unipolar Politics: Realism and State Strategies After the Cold War. Columbia University Press, New York.
Katzenstein, P.J. 1996. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. Columbia University Press, New York.
Kissinger, H. 1995. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, London.
Lebow, R.N. And Thomas Risse-Kappen. 1996. International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War. Columbia University Press, New York.
Lepgold, J.1998. NATO's Post-Cold War Collective Action Problem. International Security, Vol. 23, No. 1., pp. 78-106.
McCalla, R.B. 1996. NATO's Persistence after the Cold War. International Organization, Vol. 50, No. 3. pp. 445-475.
Mearsheimer, J.J. 1994-5. The False Promise of International Institutions. International Security, Vol. 19, No. 3. pp. 5-49.
Mershon International Studies Review, Vol. 41, No. 1., pp. 1-32.
Nye, J. 2005. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. Pearson, New York.
Reinert, ES. 2006. Institutionalism Ancient, Old and New a Historical Perspective on Institutions and Uneven Development. United Nations University.
Ruggie, J.G. 1998. What Makes the World Hang Together? Neo-Utilitarianism and the Social Constructivist Challenge. International Organization, Vol. 52, No. 4, International Organization at Fifty: Exploration and Contestation in the Study of World Politics., pp. 855-885.
Scharpf, F.W. 2000. Institutions in Comparative Policy Research. Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
Schweller, R.L. David Priess.1997. A Tale of Two Realisms: Expanding the Institutions Debate.
Sjursen, H. 2004. On the identity of NATO. International Affairs 80, 4.
Sznyi, I. 1997. The False Promise of an Institution: Can Cooperation between OSCE and NATO Be a Cure? Center for International Security and Arms Control.
Van Ham, P. 2001. Security and culture or, why NATO won't last. Social Dialogue, vol 32, no 4. Netherlands Institute of International Relations "Clingendael.."
Wallace, W. 2000. From the Atlantic to the Bug, from the Arctic to the Tigris? The Transformation of the EU and NATO. International Affairs 76, 3. 475-493.
Walt, S.M. 1998. International Relations: One World, Many Theories. Foreign Policy.
Waltz, K. 1979. Theory of International Politics. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Wendt, a. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 2., pp. 391-425.
Williams, MC. And Iver B. Neumann. 2000. From Alliance to Security Community: NATO, Russia, and the Power of Identity. Millennium: Journal of International Studies.