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Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Tools and Facilities in Iranian Education System
Globalization has deeply changed indicators of education system
; including important indicators such as educational tools and facilities. Educational technologies make teachers able to learn various styles of learning and make learning interesting for learners and have converted teachers’ role from provider of knowledge to a guide. The main goal of this research is to realize the degree of globalization in Tools and Facilities of Iranian education system
.. Findings suggest that Tools and Facilities of Iranian education system
is far from globalized, post modern education
Tools and Facilities , actually matches traditional, stagnant and modernity Tools and Facilities
By analyzing the reasons for weaknesses of this indicator in Iranian education system
, one can outline factors like the high population sheltered by this education system
that caused the high budget needed to equip those schools with technology. From the other side, aged instructors and principals resist due to their own incapability to utilize technology. Based on the essence and mission, education system
should coordinate itself in different aspects of transformation, so that does not become an expired institute.
Tools and Facilities, Globalization, Postmodernism, Iran, tradition
Nowadays, the role of Information and Communication Systems
in simplifying the flow of information and preparing the path for decision making is clear to almost everyone. Development of the availability of communicating in the shortest time has conquered the time and has led to some new circumstances or so-called “Globalization (Shahi et al., 2008).
According to Ginkel, these changes were rooted underground about half a century ago (Ginkel, 2002). One the other hand, Madison regards globalization as an advanced human dynamic (Madison, 2001). Alberto believes that modernity has come to an end and a new era has begun in which the world has completely changed and is approaching to become a whole unit (Alberto, 2001). Based on Charlton and Andreas’s beliefs, globalization is an aspect of a bigger phenomenon, i.e. modernism, which defines the society with increasingly growing properties of communication complexities (Charlton and Andreas, 2006). All these stand for a reality known as globalization. Globalization, which requires freedom of action, results in variations in factors including monitoring, hierarchical relations, and management-oriented in education
management. This matter implies that although globalization does not belong to any doctrines, it is somehow aligned with post-modernity basics and principles. In the contemporary world, post modernism principles are becoming widespread and have led to new debates in political and cultural as well as literal aspects including learning and education
(Farmihani, 2010). It seems that Jacques Derrida’s deconstructive attitudes have stimulated evolutions in education
(Derrida, 1974). As evidence suggests, education system
have also benefited from globalization consequences. Referring to the fact that the year 2002 was named as “Human Globalization” by UNESCO, Ginkel believes that the whole education system
plays an important role in this matter (Ginkel, 2002). The globalization process is significantly affecting the economic and commercial life of nations. With increasing global competition and the rapidly advancing technologies, the business organizations and business models as well as management systems
and practices are undergoing continuous change. To cope up with these changes, the management education
is also being restructured and refocused (Mushtaq, 2004).
. The availability of accessing Internet networks for students has made classrooms’ walls more transparent and penetrable which brings along the possibility of infinite and multipurpose relationships to learners and has resulted in the notion of Global Village.
Besides, easy and flexible access to Internet and thereafter knowledge causes learners to select the desired method from the experience available to him and thereby, seek learning anywhere at any time. Yet, it seems that Iranian education system
with the prospect of loyalty to employing traditional educational tools and facilities has withdrawn the possibility of exploiting the needed potentials. While using contemporary technologies and innovations for global education system
leads to target meaningful learning and traditional approaches and those that are teacher-oriented are replaced with pervasive ones. Problem solving ability and high level skills of thinking, data analysis, time management and the capability to prioritize skills in information cyberspace and a globalized society based on information is developed and this is subject to the fact that students and teachers should be able to effectively utilize technologies. This research seeks analyzing the effects of globalization on educational tools and facilities in Iranian education system
and find out its comparative globalization degree for the purpose of which, the researcher pays attention to the globalized educational tools and facilities.
Material and methods
In the current research, two methods of surveying and document analysis are utilized.
2.1 Statistical Society: The statistical society for the current survey is all the teachers and principals of primary, middle, and high schools for all the four districts of Ahwaz city, Iran during 2010, this includes 7465 individuals.
2.2 Sampling Method : The desired sample was chosen for the implementation of the survey with questionnaire, by the help of a sample size determination table (Morgan & Krejcie) with the help of a stratified random sampling proportional with the population of the society that is 357 individuals. The stratified number of sample was evaluated by this formula:
n: Total volume of the sample
N: Total number of statistical society of the research
Ni: Population of the class
ni: Volume of the sample
2.3 Research Tools: According to the topic of this research, and due to the novelty of the subject, no data collection tool was available. In order to compile the questionnaire, the researcher initially performed a qualitative study and then, using that, a proper questionnaire was compiled for the quantitative aspect of the survey.
Data collection tools include demographic information check list, the questionnaire made by the researcher for globalized education system
and document analysis.
Reliability of Research Tools: According to Cronbach's alpha, the resulted coefficient for the questionnaire with 30 subjects and 71 indices is ?=90.
2.4 Data Analysis: Quantitative data were analyzed by the help of SPSS 16 application in the two descriptive and illative levels. In the descriptive part, frequency, mean value, percentage, and standard deviation were used whereas, from the illative aspect, mono-variable T-test and independent variable T-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression were utilized. Data obtained from the documents is analyzed by the help of inductive content analysis.
From the attitudes of scientists like Foucault and Derrida, Farmahini, and Jiroux, one can perceive some features for the globalization of education
Tools and Facilities in post modern system
among which the most important are:
Audio and visual equipment in teaching particularly the Internet and computers and equipping schools with laboratories.
The availability of excursions.
The possibility of changing the decoration of the class.
Result from questionnaire:
As it is observed from the table (1), the average and the standard deviation of educational tools and facilities in Iran are 2.385 and 0.745 respectively. The results from the mono-group T-test demonstrate that there is a significant difference between the current situation of educational tools and facilities in Iran and its current optimal global situation (t356=-2.264; P=0.001) or in other words, the situation is lower than the optimal level.
In order to study the impacts of demographic characteristics of test subjects on their attitudes towards the level of globalization, we compare them according to these factors respectively.
A) Educational tools and facilities are different at various teaching age group.
The results from (table 2) the mono-variable analysis of variance illustrate that the impact of subjects’ teaching age group on their viewpoints is not significant regarding educational tools and facilities (P<0.05; F(2.535)=2.648).
B) The situation for the current educational tools and facilities is similar from the points of views of teacher and principals with different education
The results from ( table 3 )the mono-variable analysis of variance illustrate that the impact of subjects’ education
level is not significant on educational tools and facilities (P<0.05; F(3.345)=0.225).
C) Educational tools and facilities in Iran are different according to different subjects’ administrative position.
Table4: The influence of subjects’ administrative position on educational tools and facilities is not significant (P<0.05; F(3.354)=1.433).
D) Educational Tools and Facilities in Iran are Different Based on Gender Differences in Schools.
The results from the independent group T-test ( table 5) express that there is no significant difference between educational tools and facilities of two groups of men and women (t355=0.148; P=0.882).
Results of the analysis on educational tools and facilities in a globalized and postmodern education system
indicated that using audio and visual equipment, specially computer and the Internet and laboratories play an important role in in-depth learning and availability of excursions and change of class formation pursuant to change of subject are of great significance.
Talking about Information Technology, Scrimshaw and McCormick in their article entitled ‘Information and Communications Technology’ consider pervasive interactions which are unique to postmodernism. These interactions provide the availability of infinite, multi-purpose relations for learners whose continuity assists in the formation of small and numerous societies in a school (McCormick and Scrimshaw., 2001)
Communicational innovations affect both the process and consequences in schools and direct information freeways from universities to schools. Internet brings along unique opportunities for practicing a new type of democracy in which every culture and human units are able to advocate and disseminate their attitudes and critics and this makes schools as wide as the globe with every human being inside it; whereas, in modern era, information was handled by governments. In a globalized education system
, governments possess little chance to refine tastes and by the help of the internet, frames of the classroom are becoming more and more transparent and permeable Farmihani, 2003).
Special features of modern classrooms such as particular position of instructors, blackboard, and row structure of students in the form of regular benches and desks implied that instructors are the owners of knowledge and students are learners and this was not aligned with globalization perspectives like deconstruction, creativity-oriented, etc. The formation and decoration of classrooms should be defined by the subject.
As it was observed from table 1, there is noticeable gap between the current situation of using educational tools and facilities with the desired situation of them in a globalized, post-modern, education system
In other words, the situation is lower than the desired situation. These findings is compatible with Mahdi Azad’s(2010) findings by electronic government analysis of education system
in Ahwaz which was placed as in the second step (full-fledged) among five stages offered by United Nations research. By analyzing the reasons for weaknesses of this indicator in Iranian education system
, one can outline factors like the high population sheltered by this education system
that caused the high budget needed to equip those schools with technology. From the other side, aged instructors and principals resist due to their own incapability to utilize technology, however, since young staff are keen to employ innovation and are indeed capable, and students are trained by out-of-school institutes, schools have become forced to employ technology. Budgets and actions have been undertaken in this regard, but weaknesses in strategic management have resulted in dissatisfactory results of this indicator. Factors such as employing inefficient staff as responsible for computer sites and laboratories even despite the investments have caused intense weaknesses.
Formation of classroom as row aligned was a big technical step from the traditional form. Each row simplified the process of controlling each student at a time and all students at the same time by giving a specific place to each student. This has led to bringing up obedient, norm-centered, and introvert individuals which is one of the other weakness indicators.
On the other hand, a globalized education system
seeks developing extrovert and creative individuals. In this system
, the formation of a classroom is flexible and changes according to the needs of each subject and avoids any form in which instructors stands at the peak and hierarchical relationship between students and instructors are evaded as well.
A proper general and formal education system
requires an interdisciplinary, interactional, cultural-educational approach in building educational environments and formation and equipment supply and needs to abide by technical, engineering principles and standards, climate variations and urban planning principles and according to needs and following age, gender and physical requirements of educators; this provides a proper formal school. However, unfortunately, the existing education system
is facing limitations in resources and facilities and technical labor which is one of the other challenges and is a major cause of the gap with a proper system
(Secretariat of Higher Education
Based on the essence and mission,education system
should coordinate itself in different aspects so that does not become an expired institute;in particular, in the age where innovation sphere leads to new capacities at times. Legal legislation system
should possess mental preparation and ability necessities to be updated not to question formal education system
’s efficiency. Dullness in taking proper actions is a challenge threatening this system
(Secretariat of Higher Education
, 2010)In order to further the analysis of educational tools and facilities, demographic properties of subjects of the test were investigated. The results of a one-way variance analysis (table 2) demonstrated that the teaching age group in which instructors are working could not have an impact on applying educational tools and facilities and led to no improvement.
Results from the one-way variance analysis (table 3) and (table 4) indicated that education
level and rank of subjects could not have any influence on applying educational tools and facilities, either. Besides, results of the independent-group T-test (table 2-3-5) presented that based on the two divisions of men and women; the state of educational tools and facilities is evaluated inefficient. For demonstrating this, it can be said that the many consensus clarify the deep gap between the current situation of educational tools and facilities and its desired state and it can also be noted that the centralized system
of Iranian schools and lack of instructors’ accessibility to educational facilities have affected their scientific capabilities significantly and denies any kind of creativity.
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