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Title: macroeconomics

Total Pages: 7 Words: 2506 Sources: 7 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: We will pay $175.00 for this order!!

im taking macroeconomics and we are using text book "Macroeconomics by mcconnell brue flynn 18th edition"
and these are the specification the proffessor gave us

Term Paper: This is to be a research paper, not an essay. It must take as it topic one subject from one chapter of the textbook. It must state a research question, present the findings of research conducted (including the citation of sources), and list the sources at end. It should be 5 to 10 pages, cite 5 to 10 sources. It must cite at least 3 sources from professional or academic journals retrieved from the online library resources. A sample can be viewed from the term paper announcement on our course website. Use the MLA style. Any term paper containing material without proper citation will receive a score of zero (0). All term papers must be typed.

heres chapters summary

chapter 1
Limits, Alternatives, and Choices

In this chapter you will learn:
The definition of economics and the features of the economic perspective.
The role of economic theory in economics.
The distinction between microeconomics and macroeconomics.
The categories of scarce resources and the nature of the economizing problem.
About production possibilities analysis, increasing opportunity costs, and economic growth.

chapter 2
The Market System and the Circular Flow

In this chapter you will learn:
The difference between a command system and a market system.
The main characteristics of the market system.
How the market system decides what to produce, how to produce it, and who obtains it.
How the market system adjusts to change and promotes progress.
The mechanics of the circular flow model.

chapter 3
Demand, Supply and Market Equilibrium

In this chapter you will learn:
What demand is and what affects it.
What supply is and what affects it.
How supply and demand together determine market equilibrium.
How changes in supply and demand affect equilibrium prices and quantities.
What government-set prices are and how they can cause product surpluses and shortages.

chapter 4
The U.S. Economy: Private and Public Sectors

In this chapter you will learn:
Important facts about U.S. households and U.S. businesses.
Why the corporate form of business organization dominates sales and profits.
The problem that arises when corporate owners (principals) and their managers (agents) have different interests.
About the economic role of government in the economy.
The categories of government spending and the sources of government revenues.

chapter 5
The United States in the Global Economy

In this chapter you will learn:
Some key facts about U.S. international trade.
About comparative advantage, specialization, and international trade.
How exchange rates are determined in currency markets.
How and why government sometimes interferes with free international trade.
The role played by free-trade zones and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in promoting international trade.

chapter 6
Measuring Domestic Output and National Income

In this chapter you will learn:
How gross domestic product (GDP) is defined and measured.
The relationships among GDP, net domestic product, national income, personal income, and disposable income.
The nature and function of a GDP price index.
The difference between nominal GDP and real GDP.
Some limitations of the GDP measure.

chapter 7
Introduction to Economic Growth and Instability

In this chapter you will learn:
How economic growth is measured and why it is important.
About the business cycle and its primary phases.
How unemployment and inflation are measured.
About the types of unemployment and inflation and their various economic impacts.

chapter 8
Basic Macroeconomic Relationships

In this chapter you will learn:
How changes in income affect consumption (and saving).
About factors other than income that can affect consumption.
How changes in real interest rates affect investment.
About factors other than the real interest rate that can affect investment.
Why changes in investment increase or decrease real GDP by a multiple amount.

chapter 9
The Aggregate Expenditures Model

In this chapter you will learn:
How economists combine consumption and investment to depict an aggregate expenditures schedule for a private closed economy.
The three characteristics of the equilibrium level of real GDP in a private closed economy: aggregate expenditures = output; saving = investment; and no unplanned changes in inventories.
How changes in equilibrium real GDP can occur and how those changes relate to the multiplier.
How economists integrate the international sector (exports and imports) and the public sector (government expenditures and taxes) into the aggregate expenditures model.
About the nature and causes of "recessionary expenditure gaps" and "inflationary expenditure gaps."

chapter 10
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply

In this chapter you will learn:
About aggregate demand (AD) and the factors that cause it to change.
About aggregate supply (AS) and the factors that cause it to change.
How AD and AS determine an economy's equilibrium price level and level of real GDP.
How the AD-AS model explains periods of demand-pull inflation, cost-push inflation, and recession.

chapter 11
Fiscal Policy, Deficits, and Debt

In this chapter you will learn:
The purposes, tools, and limitations of fiscal policy.
The role of built-in stabilizers in moderating business cycles.
How the standardized budget reveals the status of U.S. fiscal policy.
About the size, composition, and consequences of the U.S. public debt.
Why there is a long-run fiscal imbalance in the Social Security system.

Money and Banking

In this chapter you will learn:
About the functions of money and the components of the U.S. money supply.
What "backs" the money supply, making us willing to accept it as payment.
The makeup of the Federal Reserve and the U.S. banking system.
The functions and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve.

chapter 13
Money Creation

In this chapter you will learn:
Why the U.S. banking system is called a "fractional reserve" system.
The distinction between a bank's actual reserves and its required reserves.
How a bank can create money through granting loans.
About the multiple expansion of loans and money by the entire banking system.
What the monetary multiplier is and how to calculate it.

chaper 14
Interest Rates and Monetary Policy

In this chapter you will learn:
How the equilibrium interest rate is determined in the market for money.
The goals and tools of monetary policy.
About the Federal funds rate and how the Fed controls it.
The mechanisms by which monetary policy affects GDP and the price level.
The effectiveness of monetary policy and its shortcomings.

Extending the Analysis of Aggregate Supply

In this chapter you will learn:
About the relationship between short-run aggregate supply and long-run aggregate supply.
How to apply the "extended" (short-run/long-run) AD-AS model to inflation, recessions, and unemployment.
About the short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment (the Phillips Curve).
Why there is no long-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.
The relationship between tax rates, tax revenues, and aggregate supply.

chapter 16
Economic Growth

In this chapter you will learn:
About the general ingredients of economic growth and how they relate to production possibilities analysis and long-run aggregate supply.
About "growth accounting" and the specific sources of U.S. economic growth.
Why U.S. productivity growth has accelerated since the mid-1990s.
About differing perspectives on whether growth is desirable and sustainable.

chapter 17
Disputes over Macro Theory and Policy

In this chapter you will learn:
The differences between the historical Keynesian and classical macro perspectives.
About alternative perspectives on the causes of macroeconomic instability, including the views of mainstream economists, monetarist, real-business cycle advocates, and proponents of coordination failures.
What the equation of exchange is and how it relates to "monetarism."
Why new classical economists believe the economy will "self-correct" from aggregate demand and aggregate supply shocks.
The variations of the debate over "rules" versus "discretion" in conducting stabilization policy.

chapter 18
Extensions of Demand and Supply Analysis

In this chapter you will learn:
About price elasticity of demand and how it can be applied.
The usefulness of the total revenue test for price elasticity of demand.
About price elasticity of supply and how it can be applied.
About cross elasticity of demand and income elasticity of demand.
About consumer surplus, producer surplus, and efficiency losses.

chapter 19
Consumer Behavior and Utility Maximization

In this chapter you will learn:
About total utility, marginal utility, and the law of diminishing marginal utility.
How rational consumers compare marginal utility-to-price ratios for products in purchasing combinations of products that maximize their utility.
How a demand curve can be derived by observing the outcomes of price changes in the utility-maximization model.
How the utility-maximization model helps highlight the income and substitution effects of a price change.
About budget lines, indifference curves, utility maximization, and demand derivation in the indifference curve model of consumer behavior. (Appendix)

chapter 20
The Costs of Production

In this chapter you will learn:
Why economic costs include both explicit (revealed and expressed) costs and implicit (present but not obvious) costs.
How the law of diminishing returns relates to a firm's short-run production costs.
The distinctions between fixed and variable costs and among total, average, and marginal costs.
The link between a firm's size and its average costs in the long run.

chapter 21
Pure Competition

In this chapter you will learn:
The names and main characteristics of the four basic market models.
The conditions required for purely competitive markets.
How purely competitive firms maximize profits or minimize losses.
Why the marginal-cost curve and supply curve of competitive firms are identical.
How industry entry and exit produce economic efficiency.
The differences between constant-cost, increasing-cost, and decreasing-cost industries.
How long-run competitive equilibrium results in economic efficiency.

chapter 22
Pure Monopoly

In this chapter you will learn:
The characteristics of pure monopoly.
How a pure monopoly sets its profit-maximizing output and price.
About the economic effects of monopoly.
Why a monopolist might prefer to charge different prices in different markets.

chapter 23
Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly

In this chapter you will learn:
The characteristics of monopolistic competition.
Why monopolistic competitors earn only a normal profit in the long run.
The characteristics of oligopoly.
How game theory relates to oligopoly.
Why the demand curve of an oligopolist may be kinked.
The incentives and obstacles to collusion among oligopolists.
The potential positive and negative effects of advertising.

chapter 24
Technology, R&D, and Efficiency

In this chapter you will learn:
The differences between an invention, an innovation, and technological diffusion.
How entrepreneurs and other innovators further technological advance.
How a firm determines its optimal amount of research and development (R&D).
Why firms can benefit from their innovation even though rivals have an incentive to imitate it.
About the role of market structure in promoting technological advance.
How technological advance enhances productive and allocative efficiency.

chapter 25
The Demand for Resources

In this chapter you will learn:
The significance of resource pricing.
How the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm's demand for that resource.
The factors that increase or decrease resource demand.
The determinants of elasticity of resource demand.
How a competitive firm selects its optimal combination of resources.

chapter 26
Wage Determination

In this chapter you will learn:
Why labor productivity and real hourly compensation track so closely over time.
How wage rates and employment levels are determined in competitive labor markets.
How monopsony (a market with a single employer) can reduce wages below competitive levels.
How unions can increase wage rates.
The major causes of wage differentials.
The types, benefits, and costs of "pay-for-performance" plans.

chapter 27
Rent, Interest, and Profit

In this chapter you will learn:
The nature of economic rent and how it is determined.
About the loanable funds theory of interest rates.
How interest rates vary based on risk, maturity, loan size, and taxability.
Why economic profits occur, and how profits, along with losses, allocate resources among alternative uses.
The share of U.S. earnings received by each of the factors of production.

chapter 28
Government and Market Failure

In this chapter you will learn:
How public goods are distinguished from private goods.
The method for determining the optimal quantity of a public good.
The basics of cost-benefit analysis.
About externalities (spillover costs and benefits) and the methods to remedy them.
How information failures can justify government interventions in some markets.

chapter 29
Public Choice Theory and the Economics of Taxation

In this chapter you will learn:
The difficulties of conveying economic preferences through majority voting.
About "government failure" and why it occurs.
The different tax philosophies and ways to distribute a nation's tax burden.
The principles relating to tax shifting, tax incidence, and efficiency losses from taxes.

chapter 30
Antitrust Policy and Regulation

In this chapter you will learn:
The core elements of the major antitrust (antimonopoly) laws in the United States.
Some of the key issues relating to the interpretation and application of antitrust laws.
The economic principles and difficulties relating to the setting of prices (rates) charged by so-called natural monopolies.
The nature of "social regulation," its benefits and costs, and its optimal level.

chapter 31
Agriculture: Economics and Policy

In this chapter you will learn:
Why agricultural prices and farm income are unstable.
Why huge numbers of labor resources have exited U.S. agriculture during the past several decades.
The rationale for farm subsidies and the economics and politics of price supports (price floors).
Major criticisms of the price-support system in agriculture.
The main elements of existing Federal farm policy.

chapter 32
Income Inequality and Poverty

In this chapter you will learn:
How income inequality in the United States is measured and described.
The extent and sources of income inequality.
How income inequality has changed since 1970.
The economic arguments for and against income inequality.
How poverty is measured and its incidence by age, gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics.
The major components of the income-maintenance program in the United States.

chapter 33
The Economics of Health Care

In this chapter you will learn:
Important facts about rising health care costs in the United States.
The economic implications of rising health care costs.
The problem of limited access to health care for those without insurance.
The demand and supply factors explaining rising health care costs.
The types of potential reforms of the U.S. health care system.
How recent legislation has altered the U.S. health care system.

chapter 34
Labor Market Institutions & Issues: Unionism, Discrimination, Immigration

In this chapter you will learn:
Who belongs to U.S. unions; the basics of collective bargaining; why unions are in decline; and the effects of unions on wages, efficiency, and productivity.
The types and costs of discrimination, economic theories of discrimination, and current antidiscrimination issues.
The extent and effects of U.S. immigration.

chapter 35
International Trade

In this chapter you will learn:
The graphical model of comparative advantage, specialization, and the gains from trade.
How differences between world prices and domestic prices prompt exports and imports.
How economists analyze the economic effects of tariffs and quotas.
The rebuttals to the most frequently presented arguments for protectionism.
About the assistance provided workers under the Trade Adjustment Act of 2002.
How the offshoring of U.S. jobs relates to the growing international trade in services.

chapter 36
Exchange Rates, the Balance of Payments, and Trade Deficits

In this chapter you will learn:
How currencies of different nations are exchanged when international transactions take place.
About the balance sheet the United States uses to account for the international payments it makes and receives.
How exchange rates are determined in currency markets.
The difference between flexible exchange rates and fixed exchange rates.
The causes and consequences of recent record-high U.S. trade deficits.

i will send you tests we have taken so far and the summary too by email

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Lean Philosophy on Quality Improvement and Cost Reduction in Health Care PLEASE NOTE ITS A HEALTH CARE ECONOMIC PAPER

Total Pages: 15 Words: 3801 References: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper


Please include a summary page of about one-half a page write-up and brief outline


Considers the audience, purpose, and the circumstances surrounding the writing assignment(s). Shows superior understanding of context, audience, and purpose that is extremely appropriate for the assignment(s).

Articulates and supports a main idea(s) that is consistent with context and purpose. Highly original main idea(s) is clearly articulated and strongly supported by predominantly current and relevant evidence that may be researched based. Main idea(s) is exceedingly consistent with context and purpose.

Uses logical sequencing including introduction, transitions between paragraphs, and summary/ conclusion to develop main idea(s) and content. Uses highly logical sequencing including introduction, transitions between paragraphs, and summary/ conclusion to fully develop main idea(s) and content.

Incorporates use of and identifies sources and/or research, according to APA and/or instructor guidelines. Demonstrates superior judgment in selection, incorporation, and identification of entirely appropriate quality and quantity of sources and/or research that fully meet or exceed established guidelines.

Word Usage/
Uses wording, grammar, spelling and punctuation accurately and correctly. Uses highly effective wording; demonstrates virtually error-free grammar, spelling and punctuation.

these are some resources you can use to assist with this

Typical journals from which you may choose include those outlined by the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Health Economics Core Library Recommendations, 2011 found at this site: , and duplicated here:
Core Health Economics Journals
A Note to the Reader The following is a list of journal in general, domestic health economics. Journals marked with a single asterisk (*) are considered to be leading medical journals that contain articles on health policy and should be considered as core to all health-related libraries.
Journal Title
Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research
American Journal of Managed Care
American Journal of Public Health
Annals of Internal Medicine*
Applied Health Economics & Health Policy
Developments in Health Economics and Public Policy
Forum for Health Economics and Policy
Harvard Business Review
Health Affairs

Health Economics
Health Economics Policy and Law
Health Services Research
International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
Journal of Health Care Finance
Journal of Health Economics
Journal of Health Policy Politics and Law
Journal of Human Resources
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Medical Care: Official Journal of the Medical Care Section, APHA
Medical Care Research and Review (MCRR)
Medicare & Medicaid Research Review (MMRR)
Milbank Quarterly
New England Journal of Medicine*
Quarterly Journal of Economics
RAND Journal of Economics
Social Science and Medicine
Value in Health
** Although this journal is now defunct?it was replaced by Medicare & Medicaid Research Review?articles from 1998-2008 can be accessed and searched at 4 Research Paper Details 6/21/12

In addition to those noted above, these journals are useful as well: Health Care Financial Management; The Journal of Nursing Administration; Nursing Economics; Health Care Supervisor; Nursing Management; Nursing & Health Care; Nursing Administration Quarterly; American Journal of Nursing; Health Care Management Review; Health Care Management Quarterly; Topics in Health Care Financing.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Lessons for Public Policy

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1557 Works Cited: 4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Read James W. Henderson, “Lessons for public policy”, In Health economics and policy (3rd ed.) (pp. 452-457). Mason, OH: South-Western College Publishing (faxed to over). For each economic concept, Henderson lists one or more economic lesson for public policy. These lessons are both positive and normative, and are not meant to be a definitive solution to issues in health care. Pick one economic lesson that you agree with and one that you do not agree with and write a 4-5 page double-spaced essay providing your insight into your agreement or disagreement. Justify the position that you take with each economic lesson. You must supplement the reading(s) with additional research and materials that will support your position.
There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: below

Total Pages: 2 Words: 735 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

The election of a new governor brings many changes to any state capital, including the shuffling of a variety of appointed positions. In most cases, political appointees have contributed a great deal to the governor’s election bid and have expertise in a specific area related to the appointed post.

Joe Barritz was in that position when he became assistant agricultural commissioner in January 2006. He was instrumental in getting the governor elected, especially through his fundraising efforts. Joe’s family owned thousands of acres in the state and had been farming and ranching since the 1930s. Joe earned a bachelor’s degree in agricultural economics and policy and a law degree from one of the state’s top institutions. He worked as an attorney in the state’s capital city for over 18 years and represented a range of clients, most of whom were involved in agriculture. Thus, he had many characteristics that made him a strong candidate for assistant commissioner. After about 6 months on the job, Joe had lunch with a couple of friends he had known for many years. During the June lunch, they had a casual conversation about the fact that Joe never did have a true “celebration” after being named assistant agricultural commissioner. His friends decided to talk with others about the possibility of holding that celebration in a few months. Before long, 8 of Joe’s friends were busy planning to hold a reception in his honor on October 5. Two of these friends were currently employed as lobbyists. One represented the beef industry association and the other worked for the cotton industry council. They asked Joe if they could hold the celebration at his lake home in the capital city. Joe talked with the commission’s ethic officer about the party and learned that these types of parties, between closed friends were common for newly appointed and elected officials. The ethic officer told Joe that the reception and location were fine, but only if his lobbyist friends paid for the reception with personal funds. The state’s ethic rules did not allow a standing government official to take any type of gift, including corporate dollars, that might influence his decision making. Joe communicated this information to his friends.

During the next few months, Joe was involved in a number of issues that could potentially help or harm agriculture-based industries. Various reports and policy statements within the Agricultural Commission were being used to tailor state legislation and regulatory proposals. The beef and cotton councils were actively supporting a proposal that would provide tax breaks to farmers and ranchers. Opinions on the Agricultural Commission were mixed on the proposal, but Joe was expected to deliver a report to a legislative committee on the commission’s preferences. His presentation was scheduled for October 17.

On October 5, nearly 60 of Joe’s friends gathered at the catered reception to congratulate him on his achievements. Most were good friends and acquaintances, so the mood and conversation were relatively light that evening. A college football game between 2 big rivals drew most people to the big-screen TV. By midnight, the guests were gone. Back at the office the following week, Joe began working on his presentation for the legislative committee, Through a series of economic analysis, long meetings and electronic discussions, he decided to support the tax benefits for farmers and ranchers. News reporters carried information from his presentation.

It was not long before some reporters made a ”connection” between the reception in Joe’s honor and his stand on the tax break for agricultural industries. AN investigation quickly ensued, including reports that the beef and cotton industry associations had not only been present but also financially supported the reception on October 5. The small company used to plan and cater the party indicated that checks from the cotton industry council and beef industry association were used to cover some of the expenses. A relationship between the “gift” of the reception and Joe’s presentation to the legislative committee would be a breach of this oath of office and state ethical rules.

If you were Joe, what would you do ?


Excerpt From Essay:

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