Total Pages: 2 Words: 597 Works Cited: 2 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Revise the paper below and give be sure to include an explanation of the topic, possible viewpoints on the topic selected position on the topic, and appropriate evidence to support both your position and that of your possible opponents. Avoid errors by providing my argument in a logically defensible form.
Currently, depending on what state they live in, a teenager can get their permit as early as age 15, and can obtain a limited license as early as age 16. For example, you can get your permit at age 15 in the state of Georgia and get a limited drivers license by the age of 16. In New York City, however, you have to be 16 years of age before you can get your permit and 17 before you can get a limited license. By having the ability to get their license at such a young age, it decreases the demands on the parents for transportation to work, sports programs in which they participate. It also allows students the ability to participate in community service and or volunteer work which they need to do to apply for college and potentially for their future career. In the current economy, most families must have both parents working in order to meet all the financial needs of the family. With this comes less and less time that parents are available to transport their children to these various venues as they would have done in the past. If the driving age was raised to 18 this would potentially put a significant burden on these parents and as well as limit experiences and opportunities that these teenagers currently are afforded by being able to drive themselves places. The burden is less for those living in New York City however, because there is significant public transportation available to still allow teenagers to get around independently compared to Georgia where public transporation is limited at best, where it even exists.
The arguments on this topic range from the extreme conservative viewpoint where they believe that teenagers should be 18 years old before they can drive alone period, to the more liberal viewpoint where they believe 16 year olds should have full privileges and don't believe that there is any difference between a 16 and an 18 year old driver. There are varying kinds of evidenced used to argue this point. The more conservative viewpoint utilizes alot of statistical information to prove their point including driving statistics from the DMV and insurance companies comparing individuals under the age of 18 to those 18+. They look at the cost of accidents including medical expenses, lost work, property damage, quality of life loss and other related costs. They also look at research from National Institutes of Health regarding brain development and maturity at age 16+ and then 18+. They utilize this information to argue that there is a significant difference in the maturity level at these ages that warrants consideration of restricting the driving privileges. Some of the statistical information used includes the following: "The National Teen Driving Statistics says: 1. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers; 2. 16-yr-olds have higher crash rates than drivers of any other age; 3. 16-year-olds are three times more likely to die in a motor vehicle crash than the average of all drivers". (http://www.rmiia.org...) "A recent report by AAA estimates the cost of crashes involving 15-17 year olds to be $34 billion annually in medical expenses, lost work, property damage, quality of life loss and other related costs in 2006. In 2006, 974,000 crashes occurred in 2006 involving drivers ages 15 to 17 according to the analysis conducted by the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation for AAA." (http://aaanewsroom.net..) "New findings from brain researchers at the National Institutes of Health explain for the first time why efforts to protect the youngest drivers usually fail. A 16-year-old's "the executive branch" of the brain is generally far less developed than those of teens just a little older - the part that weighs risks, makes judgments and controls impulsive behavior. Scientists at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland have found that this vital area develops through the teenage years and isn't fully mature until age 25. That is why brain and auto safety experts think that most teenagers are just too immature to handle today's cars and roadway risk as they tend to treat cars more like toys or video games." http://www.usatoday.com... The more conservative viewpoint accepts the statistics as complete fact with no room for interpretation and do not take into consideration anything but the statistical facts.
The more liberal viewpoint utilizes the same statistics but interprets it with a different perspective so as to show how it proves just the opposite or doesn't prove the point at all. They will argue that it is better to be given the ability to perform a potentially dangerous task in a time, at age 16, when one is more likely to be in a nurturing environment under supervision and care and able to develop skills rather than first being given such a legal ability, at age 18, which is the most reckless and stressful time of a young adults life. A time when most leave home for the first time to live alone, generally going off to college. Being allowed to drive for the first time in their lives at this point with all the temptations of social life, drinking and partying and having never been given the responsibility of driving before makes them more likely to make poor driving and risky decisions. They will argue that there are problems with these statistics in that we do not know if in a society where driving is only first permitted at the age of 18 that the same statistics regarding crashes and damages would not merely shift forward several years. They think it is likely that it is the first years of driving rather than the specific years of 16-18 in which people are most likely to get into crashes. They will argue that allowing 16 year olds to have cars provides many benefits to their lives including helping them to establish basic credit history through their first cars. Students are completing hundreds of hours of community service, putting a demand on the parents for transportation is damaging and limits the youth and students ability to participate in the community..In many areas public transport does not exist and students are limited in their access to activities and events which are needed to keep them competitive for college and scholarships. They will argue that there will always be a cost associated with letting untrained drivers on to the road no matter what their age. They will also argue that letting a bunch of drunk college students get their hands behind the wheels for the first time is even more dangerous than allowing for earlier training. They want it to be proven that 18 is a better age than 16 in any meaningful, concrete and non arbitrary way. The more liberal viewpoint utilizes different reasoning when interpreting the same statistical information that the more conservative viewpoint interprets.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: I NEED THE PAPER BY 6 TONGIHT IF THAT IS POSSIBLE. ITS A SHORT PAPER ON THE ECONOMIC FACTORS OF WHY THE DRIVING AGE SHOULD BE 16 AND NOT RAISED TO 18. INCLUDING THE MONEY ASPECT AND THE TRANSPORTATION OF GETTING TO WORK. I NEED THREE SOURCES. BOOKS, MAGAZINES, OR NEWSPAPERS. NO INTERNET WEBSITES!!!!
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Essay Instructions: I need a contreversial research paper that asks a question, and has a six page answer. Why we need to raise the driving age from 16 to 18 in America?
MLA, I need a clear thesis statement, transitions, support and evidence for the thesis, some counter arguments where necessary.
I need 8 sentences per paragraph with at least two in text citations in each. At least two paraphrases in the paper. maybe one long quote somewhere.
A total of at least 8 sources in the works cited page.
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Essay Instructions: This is a masters level program Evaluation Program. Please assign expert who is familiar with this process. This is basically a literature review based on a Life Skills Program for a non profit organization.
Using your selected program (3-4 pages):
1. Describe the motivation/goal of the evaluation. Simply stated, what is/are the ?big question(s)? your evaluation hopes to answer? My evaluation in general is about the new Like Skills program taught by the the new faith family Center which is run under the Capital City Rescue Mission in Albany NY. The following directions should provide much clarification. i am open to suggestions as to what "The Big Questions" my evaluation should answer about the Life Skills program. Details about what kinds of articales can be used for this review and what should be avoided are below. I completed a Lit review but it was Horrible and not in the manner the assignment was requested which is why I am coming to you for help. Some of the information in my review may be helpful. You can use my chosen articles but is you find ones that are better I encourage you to use those.
2. Has the program (or type of program) been evaluated before? Have there been evaluations of similar or related programs (such as a similar research question in a different field)? If so, provide a brief description and citation. If not, try to find relevant evaluations that may provide reference, assistance, or more information on your topic. A minimum of 3-5 citations is ideal. Summarize previous knowledge on the topic in a smooth flowing narrative. Do not describe each article independently, this is NOT an annotated bibliography.
You may also wish to discuss various challenges in how to measure the success of this program.
In a nutshell, the literature review provides the background and framework to support the conceptual model that is the foundation for the research design. So, if you are proposing to introduce a graduated driving age, for example, with increasing motorist privilege as a child passes through a given number of months of safe driving with no incidents, then the literature review would need some information that helps the reader understand why this proposed experiment is expected to yield a better driver outcome than whatever is currently in place. This would include a review of what other states do that is comparable regarding accidents.
The source of the literature should be the highest level of evidence available, beginning with reports of experimental research in blind peer reviewed journals within the field/discipline applicable to the topic area.
Obviously, there are many areas of research where there is no experimental data, so you go to the next step, quasi-experimental, professional reports or other correlational studies published in comparable journals. You can get quite a bit of this online via the Marist online collection.
Using Wikipedia or other source lacking in professional peer review is to be avoided. Using newspaper or magazine articles to highlight civic issues is fine, but is not a good source of support for a conceptual model.
In structure, a lit review follows an introduction to the topic and its importance in today's world. It begins with broad strokes to define the problem and provide the context of the problem broadly. Then, the review is like a funnel, become more and more focused on the issues to be studied until it funnels down into the conceptual model and hypotheses to be evaluated.
If this were a lit review for a thesis or dissertation or journal article, you would have to be very thorough and exhaustive in finding all the relevant literature, both that which supports your conceptual model and that which doesn?t.
"" For the purpose of this assignment in the context of this course, I expect you to find at least 3 reports from respected and distinct (blind peer reviewed preferred) journals that describe similar or analogous research or analyses"
""Do not review each article independently, but instead create a narrative around the main points supported ? or refuted ? by the existing research. A particular article may only provide one main sentence or point in your literature review.""
Hints on How to Conduct Your Literature Review:
1. Go to Google Scholar ? or a like search engine.
2. Start by entering broad topic search items, such as ?auto safety?
3. Peruse a few articles relevant to your topic
4. Search the Marist online resources for full-text versions of the article, and download promising ones
5. If in your first search most of the information is dated, consider focusing on articles that have been published in the last five years or so (Google Scholar allows you to sort by date, for example)
6. Narrow your search for more specific articles, such as ?graduated driving age? or ?driver safety + New York State? - look to articles that you are finding for other key search words; note what sources or authors are publishing in this area
7. You should find many sources ? so weigh the more respected journals and organizations more heavily
8. If you have trouble tracking down full-text versions of articles of interest to you, reach out to a Marist librarian, or contact your professor for extra help
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