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Disaster Relief Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Disaster Relief College Essay Examples

Title: Domestic Disaster Relief

Total Pages: 2 Words: 673 References: 3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 5121 et seq.), authorizes the President to make a wide range of federal aid available to states that are stricken by a natural or man-made disaster. It provides statutory authority for employing the U.S. armed forces for domestic disaster relief. Read both the Congressional Report, "The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues" and Lowenberg testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee, "The Insurrection Act Rider and State Control of the National Guard."

Under the Constitution, states retain the primary responsibility and authority to provide for civil order and the protection of their citizens’ lives and property. Likewise, states retain control over their militia (National Guard) forces. Many see the passage of the 2007 National Defense Authorization Act (Public Law 109-364) as an unnecessary expansion of authority by empowering the president to go over a governor’s head and call up National Guard troops to aid a state in time of natural disasters or other public emergencies.

Assess both the constitutional and statutory authorities and limitations relevant to the employment of the armed forces to provide disaster relief and law enforcement assistance. Be sure to address the limitation placed on Department of Defense (DoD) forces by the Congress during times of disaster (Posse Comitatus Act). Is there a distinction between state's national guard forces and federal DoD forces? How do you see the impact of the 2007 National Defense Authorization Act on local disaster mitigation and response? Conclude your assessment with your own critique of whether the passage of the Act skirts the US Constitution.

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Title: International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Total Pages: 2 Words: 638 Works Cited: 2 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: After reading the Bello article, critically analyze how international policies and laws are helping to shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction. Compare and contrast the roles and responsibilities of the World Bank and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in international relief and reconstruction efforts. Discuss how laws and policies of international humanitarian law, human rights, and refugee law are impacting the global disaster relief and reconstruction efforts of the World Bank and the International Committee of the Red Cross.

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Title: Political Economy of Africa

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1067 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Both Galvan and de Waal are concerned with "re-localizing" responsibility for African economic development on the village/local level. How do their suggestions for implementing such a plan for economic development (based on local level) differ in respect to international agencies, the state, and African citizens? Do these differences matter in regards to your own understanding of the requirements fo political development?

Both authors, specific cases from each, are important sources for your essay.

Books: Alex de Waal, Famine Crimes Politics & The Disaster Relief Industry in Africa Chapters 1,5,7,8,9,11

Dennis C. Galvan, The State Must Be Our Master of Fire

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Title: Managing Homeland Security

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1204 Sources: 4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: I’m Requesting for "FreelanceWriter" to write this essay Thank you.

Below are 5 questions in parenthesis with some of the texts book answers below. Please use your experience to write an essay, APA style from the 5 answers to the questions using your experience. Thank you

1. (Explain the four phases of emergency planning (i.e. mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery) in detail. Practically speaking, which phases do you think most emergency managers spend time thinking about? Which phases should they spend the most time thinking about? How, if at all, has 9-11 changed where the emphases should lie?)


Mitigation is the cornerstone of emergency management. It's the continuing effort to lessen the impact disasters have on people and property. Mitigation is defined as "sustained action that reduces or eliminates long-term risk to people and property from natural hazards and their effects." ----
Through effective mitigation practices we can ensure that fewer people and communities become victims of natural disasters. Mitigation can take many forms. It can involve such actions as:----

•promoting sound land use planning based on known hazards
•Buying flood insurance to protect your belongings
•Relocating or elevating structures out of the floodplain
•Securing shelves and hot water heaters to walls
•Developing, adopting and enforcing building codes and standards
•Engineering roads and bridges to withstand earthquakes
•Using fire-retardent materials in new construction
•Developing and implementing a plan in your business or community to reduce your susceptibility to hazards-----

Mitigation links include:---
•FEMA Mitigation Division
•Protect Your Property, Home or Business From Disaster ---
•National Flood Insurance Program ----

Preparedness takes the form of plans or procedures designed to save lives and to minimize damage when an emergency occurs. Planning, training, and disaster drills are the essential

elements of preparedness. These activities ensure that when a disaster strikes, emergency managers will be able to provide the best response possible. Disasters are caused by gale force winds, floods, releases of deadly chemicals, fire, ice, earthquakes and other natural and man-made hazards. When disaster strikes, the best protection is knowing what to do. Preparedness links include:---

•Preparedness --

Response & Recovery---
Response is defined as the actions taken to save lives and prevent further damage in a disaster or emergency situation. Response is putting preparedness plans into action. Response activities may include damage assessment, search and rescue, fire fighting, and sheltering victims.---

Recovery is defined as the actions taken to return the community to normal following a disaster. Repairing, replacing, or rebuilding property are examples of recovery.----
Local and State governments share the responsibility for protecting their citizens from disasters, and for helping them to recover when a disaster strikes. In some cases, a disaster is beyond the capabilities of the State and local government to respond.---

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Public Law 93-288, as amended (the Stafford Act) was enacted to support State and local governments and their citizens when disasters overwhelm them. The Disaster Process and Disaster Aid Programs explains the disaster declaration process and provides an overview of available assistance.--

There are individual assistance programs (an overview of individual assistance programs) that assist people and businesses following a disaster and help you get back on your feet. Public Assistance Programs provides supplemental federal disaster grant assistance to help state and local governments and certain private non-profit organizations rebuild.--

The four phases of emergency planning are mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
There are seven categories that makeups the Mitigation phase. The Federal assistance programs,
there are numerous federal programs available to assist local officials in the mitigation
phase of their emergency management plans. Specialize training programs provided by the
Federal Emergency Management Agency, the U.S. Fire Administration, the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, the Departments of Justice, Health and Human Services and Defense and Energy.
Many of these programs are provided free of charge or for limited cost, to local government
officials. Second the Mitigation phase deals with U.S. Homeland Security Advisory Thomas Ridge,
the Director of the Office of Homeland Security, set forth a national system of advising all levels of government-federal, state, and local as well as the American people of the risk of terrorist threats. A color corded system low green, guarded blue, elevated yellow, high orange and severe red. This alerting system spells out “protective measures” suited to each warning category.--

The Third category is Threat assessment, to asses the threat of terrorist acts by individuals or groups within their jurisdiction, cities and counties must work with state and federal agencies---

Building design and physical structures, Municipal and county building codes, Nonstructural
safety measures, Pedestrian and vehicular evacuation routes.---

The fourth category deal with Building design and physical structures to improve public safety. Certain types of construction are more likely to withstand a terrorist attack than others. High-quality sprinkler systems and new fireproof roofing materials can reduce the chance of fire. The selected placement of steel and concrete barriers around public buildings is frequently used to restrict vehicular access.----

2 ( Explain in detail the process of risk analysis? In light of the readings and your own experience, how would you define risk? How would you weigh it? If you were the city manager or police chief in a small town with limited resources, how much effort would you put into risk analysis? Would you simply "eyeball" risk and give it your best guess, or would you be inclined to conduct an actual assessment? )
The four parts of risk assessment. The particular procedure necessary for such an analysis of local law enforcement jurisdictions can be readily accomplished by dividing the risk assessment process into four individual arts: (1) external general, (2) external specific, (3) internal general, and (4) internal specific. The first three categories generally measure the acquired risk; the last measures the institutional ability to minimize that same risk. Overall, the risk ascribed by this analysis is weighted not only by the terrorist’s operational abilities but also by those of the local agency. The categories are as follows:--

External general- The first variables are of a general nature that is not related to any specific circumstances within the jurisdiction. They refer to external factors that can create a climate conducive for contemporary guerrilla activity in the world and may lead to the injection of the activity into a local jurisdiction if relevant targets exist. (Factor are Geopolitical, Economic, Ideological, and Guerrilla).----

External specific- These are events in the world that have a specific relationship to the jurisdiction in question. These variables focus on question regarding the general environment and its conduciveness to immediate guerrilla group formation and operations. Weather: Is the current weather conducive to supporting a campaign of terrorism likely to hinder a counter terrorist operation? Population demographics: and Target access viability: are roads and airfields available and rivers navigable? ----

Internal general- These are the events within a jurisdiction that have a general relationship to the formation of terrorist groups within the area. Increased activism, New local organization, Initiating violence, Increased ordnance and Politically motivated intelligence gathering .---

Internal specific- These are the variables that represent the counter terrorist ability specific to the jurisdiction’s resources. Expertise: what is the level of training in the areas necessary for the creation of an effective crisis management operation? A survey of all personnel regarding their relevant knowledge must be conducted. Training, Preparation and Liaison---

3 (How important to a community or an agency is an emergency plan? If you were crafting or revising such a plan for your own agency or community, what components would you make sure were present in the plan and why? What would you do to ensure knowledge of the plan's provisions?)

The emergency plans of cities and counties should include preparedness procedures for all types of likely disasters. These plans should detail the technical expertise that might be needed in the event of a terrorist attack, required resources, and the proper procedures to request assistance from neighboring jurisdictions as well as higher levels of government. Increasing emphasis must be placed on the interaction of local, state, and federal officials . Cities and counties with sites that might be prime targets of terrorists such as nuclear power plants and busy ports, should include these sites in local emergency plan. Early-warning public notification systems, a key feature of a local government’s response to an emergency is prompt notification of the public (citywide sirens). Training for local government employees is very essential for preparedness. --

4 (What role, if any, should emergency managers play in ensuring emergency medical care for a mass-casualty incident? In other words, what can emergency managers and disaster planners do to facilitate such care? In what ways may public safety agencies or infrastructure agencies (such as the utility companies or public works) play a role in effectively responding to mass casualties?)

Public officials in the jurisdiction where a natural or man-made disaster occurs should establish a clearinghouse to coordinate assistance to victims and their families. The Federal Emergency Management Agency, state governments, Red Cross, and other nonprofit organizations frequently offer this type of assistance. By providing a centralized location for assistance information, a local government will be able to speed up the process of restoring order after a disaster. ---

Local government officials may need to make arrangements for temporary morgues. Local mortuaries must also be put on alert to handle the additional deaths from mass-casualty---
After a disaster, citizens expect local public officials to restore public infrastructure (sewer water lines electricity est.…) in a timely manner. City and country officials should take prompt action to merit citizens’ trust in this regard.---

Because a terrorist bombing can cause a large number of seriously injured persons, prehospital care systems play a critical role in managing the emergency medical response to this kind of mass casualty event. The quality of prehospital emergency medical response will affect the quality of all subsequent clinical care activities, and it may directly affect patient mortality and morbidity rates. The complexity and scope of a mass casualty event caused by an explosion requires that prehospital emergency medical care systems address the following issues:---

•Recognition of specific hazards associated with a terrorist bombing, such as secondary devices, environmental hazards (e.g., toxins, fires) and structural instability. --

•Effective communication with acute care medical resources and emergency management resources. --

•Expedient patient triage to match available resources with patient needs.---

In the United States, the majority of emergency medical service (EMS) systems are organized and coordinated at the local level. Nationwide, this results in an incredibly diverse prehospital emergency medical care system that is often markedly different in operational and clinical approaches among jurisdictions. According to the Institute of Medicine, EMS systems are challenged by the following key issues: insufficient coordination, response time disparities, inconsistent quality of care, lack of disaster readiness, divided professional identity, and limited evidence base for the profession.--

5(What makes for a good emergency manager or disaster planner? What personal attributes would contribute to the success of such an official? Also, what kind of resources and support must be available to multiply the effectiveness of the emergency management function in an agency or community? To what degree do you think those resources are available to the emergency management profession today? )

Emergency manager are Committed to Helping Make Families and Communities Safer From the Ravages of Natural Hazards and Terrorist attack--

Emergency manager Mission, protects communities by coordinating and integrating all activities necessary to build, sustain, and improve the capability to mitigate against, prepare for, respond to, and recover from threatened or actual natural disasters, acts of terrorism, or other man-made disasters.--

Those individuals and departments assigned emergency responsibilities will participate in developing and maintaining current Standard Operating Procedures and checklists for the support of the EOC. Elements of these procedures include:---

•Provision to support, maintain, staff, direct and control University resources during the time of a major disaster. --

•Specific emergency actions that will be assumed by staff and designated successors during emergency situations. --

•Circumstances under which successor emergency authorities would become effective, and when they would be terminated. --

•Current department personnel notification/recall rosters procedures and the means to implement. This should include a communication system to implement call-out rosters for personnel assigned to the EOC, support functions and field response team. ---

Establishment of a system for communication to the EOC, Public Safety dispatch and Physical Plant dispatch/work order control center, and to manage organizational resources, response field personnel and maintain contact with the EOC during emergencies. --

•Developing mutual aid and other support agreements with appropriate local and state agencies, vendors, and "sister" departments within the CSU system. ---

•Reporting of damage assessment information (casualties, damage observations, evacuation status, radiation levels, chemical exposure, etc.) to the EOC during an emergency.

•Support of cleanup and recovery operations following disasters.

•Training of assigned response staff and campus volunteers to augment the performing of emergency functions.

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