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Title: Disabilities and Other Learner Characteristics

Total Pages: 2 Words: 632 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: None Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: You are to write 2-page paper. Read the article below and summarize the article. Do Not Use Outside Sources!

Disabilities and Other Learner Characteristics
When I was reviewing submissions for our new issue I was glad to see that among the top candidates for publication were several about the characteristics of learners. (Aspiring authors might like to know that when selecting articles for publication, editors and reviewers give an especially sympathetic eye to well-grounded research about learners and learner characteristics.) There have been many calls over the years for more research on learners and learning, and although the situation may be improving as regards the
quantity of submissions, the quality of many studies falls short of what is acceptable for publication—and so the call for good research in this part of the field bears repetition. On the subject of quality, the most common problems concern the representativeness of the sample of learners about whom data is gathered as well as the persistent problem (that I acknowledge I seem to mention frequently) of failure by researchers to ground their study in an adequate review of previous research. Selecting the articles for this issue occurred, by coincidence, right after the publication of some comments I made in a previous issue on the subject of learner support. In the editorial in the American Journal of Distance Education
17 (3) I wrote,
In a good learner support system there should also be provision—perhaps in the person of contracted specialists—even if only on a part-time, on-call basis for support for certain “at-risk” groups. These are groups for whom identifiable conditions can be expected to cause stress beyond that experienced
by the general population. Examples include students with visual, auditory, or other disabilities, inmates of correctional institutions, persons with diagnosed learning disabilities or inadequate study skills, and members of the armed forces. Other specialists might also provide advice regarding career development, particularly as it is related to the selection of courses within the educational program. (143)

Two articles in this issue take up the subject of “students with visual or auditory or other disabilities.” First, Kinash, Crichton, and Kim-Rupnow report their analysis of the literature of the past three years about online teaching for persons with disabilities. In the rationale that they present for “distance delivery” as away to “level the playing field” for students with disabilities, they point out how this approach succeeds because of “planned redundancy of modes,” a concept I have long advocated as a central principle in setting up all programs and designing all courses, not only out of consideration of students with disabilities, but for all students. It’s not only the disabled who benefit from what in the latest jargon is called “universal design.”
All students have different preferences and strengths, and we all tend to become more different as we grow older and acquire more experiences. I have long thought how silly it is to put a group of individuals into a room and call them a “class.”One of the great advantages of distance education is—exactly as Kinash, Crichton, and Kim-Rupnow say—that it provides (or let me emphasis provide) a range of different combinations of resources and experiences (far beyond what is possible in a classroom), to meet the different needs of a variety of learners and learning styles. As regards the disabled, however, it is surely a matter of concern that of the (small) total of forty-three publications located on online learning and disability, most were found in the literature of disability studies, not distance education. In light of that finding, it seems that repeating once again the call for grounding more research about learners in the framework of the literature and theory of distance education does not seem misplaced. Another article directly related to the disabled is Edmonds’s discussion of the legal obligations and issues involved in meeting the needs of this population and some of the technical standards that should be applied in meeting minimal accessibility requirements. One particularly telling observation in this article is where the author distinguishes between first and second generation accessibility and proposes that although “first generation” accessibility (such as ensuring html structure does not impede visually disabled students) is in the hands of courseware developers or Web designers, the responsibility for “second generation” accessibility is in the hands of the faculty member creating the course. Edmonds does not go far to elaborate on the implications of this, but it is a challenging point, and readers might want to follow up the article with some reflection of the status in their own particular cases. As a professor who turned out one of his courses with a substantial component of audio on CD-ROM, it certainly has given me something to consider. Moving from the focus on the disabled to a more general discussion of student characteristics, DeTure adds to the literature in a relatively well established area of research, which is that of cognitive style. Of course the context of the investigation is new (i.e., online delivery), but the test, the Embedded Figures Test, is the oldest and best-validated measure of cognitive style. The results of this new study, as is so often the case, are not unidirectional, and there are still more questions than answers. The research does at least add some further insights into the nature of the problem of learner × treatment interactions. In other words, it adds to the formulation of questions, conjectures, and hypotheses regarding the characteristics of each possible (and affordable) instructional treatment, including communications technique, that best assists each different type of learner and cognitive style. A long time ago I theorized that there is a wide range of solutions to this question, with many possible degrees of teacher-learner dialogue and course structure from which the learner should be able to select a personally appropriate mixture depending on his/her degree of learner autonomy (a characteristic that even in 1972 I related to the cognitive style of field dependence/independence). Among the mix of variables that make up the “instructional treatment” are those of the instructor, including the instructor’s tolerance for the exercise of control by the learner. Instructor characteristics are the focus of the fourth article in this issue, a study of teaching styles reported by Dupin-Bryant. Obviously we are a long way from the day that our providing agencies will allow students to choose instructional treatments depending on an analysis of their learning styles, let alone be able to choose from among different teacher styles. The ultimate goal, however, should remain in focus—and here we can return to, and express it in terms introduced by, Kinash, Crichton, and Kim-Rupnow—to find the universal design that has a redundancy of instructional responses that will allow every learner to be successful, whatever that person’s individual experience, ability, or learning style.

Excerpt From Essay:

Essay Instructions: For this assignment, imagine that you are the director of a child care facility for children ages 3 to 5. As part of a staff development night, you are going to create a PowerPoint presentation to educate your staff on three common disabilities and their characteristics found in this age group. You will also discuss the importance of family involvement in children with disabilities and how your staff members can partner with parents to facilitate family involvement in your center.

You PowerPoint presentation should be a minimum of seven slides, which includes a title slide and reference slide. Click on the resources icon below for the assignment template.

Be sure to include the following information in your presentation:

Discuss three disabilities common in children ages 3- 5 and their characteristics.
Discuss the importance of family involvement in educational settings for children with disabilities.
Discuss how Early Childhood Professionals can partner with families to facilitate family involvement.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Disability Support Measures

Total Pages: 2 Words: 680 Sources: 0 Citation Style: Harvard Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Please ask jowriter63 or Cathii to complete this research. Please do not pass it to Jordan Crystall. Thank you.

Bear in mind that not all disabilities are pre-existing from birth or childhood, but can be acquired through illness or accident (such as a back injury). In the following situations, what measures might a good employer consider to enable a member of staff return to their work following such an event?

• A checkout operator who has insulin dependent diabetes wishes to return to work following the amputation of her leg.

• A telephone switchboard operator is due to return to work following a stroke. This has left him without the use of his right hand and arm – which is his dominant side.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Technology for Individuals with Disabilities

Total Pages: 8 Words: 2563 References: 7 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: References should be cited within the body of your paper and then listed as a Reference page at the end of the paper. References can be books, articles, websites,etc. PLEASE INCLUDE REFERENCE PAGE. At least 5/6 quotes on a page.

Minimum of five pages and maximum of 10 pages. Reference page does not count as a page. MUST BE WRITTEN IN MS WORD.

The following is the research proposal that I turned in to be approved.
Title – Technology for Individuals with Disabilities

Personal Statement of paper
I want to learn about what types of technology are available for individuals with disabilities, from in the past to present to any future developing areas.

I Technology for Individuals with Disabilities
A. Introduction
1. What is a disability
2. Different areas of disabilities

B. History of technology for individuals with disabilities
1. 20 years ago to now

C. Physical disabilities
1. Current technology
2. Current Problems with technology in this area.

D. Mental disabilities
1. Current technology
2. Current Problems with technology in this area.

E. Other disabilities
1. Current technology
2. Current Problems with technology in this area.

F. Future of technology for individuals with disabilities
1. Tomorrow through 10 years from now.

G. Conclusion
1. Summary of technology for individuals with disabilities then, now, future.

I am really interested in this area partially due because this is the area of where I currently teach, but also because I am a firm believer that everyone should be treated the same. In such, if a “normal” person is able to search the internet, then any individual with any type of disability should be able to do the same as well….with adaptations if necessary.

Excerpt From Essay:

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