I would like to use HopHead for this assignment. Need 1 page answers for each of the following questions in essay form with one citation per question. Please separate essay answers among questions.
1. Both Gardner and Csikszentmihalyi view creativity
as an attribute that is manifested by individuals over a relatively long and productive career, and they are reluctant to ascribe it to someone who produces only a single noteworthy achievement and then, suddenly and inexplicably, retires from further creative work of any kind. (Indeed both theorists point out that most creative people seem to have a will or need to create and thus continue producing in their creative field whether they enjoy financial or critical success or not.) Does this seem a fair and reasonable observation? Or in your view do those who cease to be productive after an initial triumphant success also merit being called creative? Please support your answer by citing at least one example or counter-example.
2. According to Csikszentmihalyi’s research, most people find the periods during which they are most actively creative to be very positive and self-rewarding. Respondents have described these flow episodes as almost trancelike and euphoric periods in which awareness crystallizes, distractions are blotted out, fears of failure melt away, and self-consciousness seems to disappear. How do these descriptions compare with the accounts of peak creativity
reported by Nietzsche, Coleridge, or any other of the commentators on the creative process that we have studied?
3. According to Howard Gardner’s theory of “multiple intelligences,” persons who are creative in one domain can often be mediocre (or even deficient) in others. He cites the example of Albert Einstein, who was prodigious in math and physics (and very capable in music and writing), but who was a habitual loner and mental voyager who lacked good interpersonal skills. What is your view? Do you think people who are highly creative in the domain of science or mathematics (or who have strong logical-spatial imaginations) tend to less capable in other domains (e.g., interpersonal, civic leadership, etc.)? Please support your answer with at least two examples or counter-examples.
4. According to Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of “flow,” when a person is working at peak creativity
, he or she becomes rapt in a state of keen attention during which work seems effortless and the minutes and hours seem to glide by. How does this claim compare with Poincaré’s theory that creative breakthroughs typically occur in a sequence of stages and over an extended period of time and usually involve both conscious and unconscious mental activity?
5. Briefly summarize the main principles and assumptions of evolutionary psychology and give an example of how EP explains a particular human activity or skill (e.g., language acquisition, mapping and visual imagination, violent behavior, ideas of beauty, etc.).
6. Briefly explain what neuroscience has learned about the structure or function of various parts of the brain as they relate to logical ability, mathematical proficiency, or musical aptitude.
7. Complex games like chess and poker might be considered “creative” because they offer many opportunities for risky, unconventional, or even counter-intuitive play (e.g., “sacrifices” in chess; bluffing in poker). Since computer programs like Deep Blue, Fritz, and Rybka (world-class chess engines) and Poky (a less powerful but still capable poker program) can play these games at an advanced level and use daring and often unexpected (and even unpredictable and highly original) strategies while doing so, is it fair to call these programs “creative”?
8. Do you think cognitive science and AI can eventually provide a basically accurate and useful model of how the creative mind works? Or will the creative process always remain to a certain extent mysterious and impervious to science? Discuss, and be sure to include an example to support or illustrate your view.
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1. University of Southern California. "Enhance Your Well-Being Through Creativity." Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/assist/article/enhance-your-well-being-through-creativity/
2. "Friedrich Nietzsche and his philosophy of the Superman." Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/philosophy/nietzsche_philosophy.html
3. "Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man." Museum of Science. Retrieved Aug 8, 208 at http://www.mos.org/leonardo/bio.html
4. Chamberlin, J. (1998). Reaching-flow? To optimize work and play. APA Online. Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/monitor/jul98/joy.html
5. Cosmides, L. & Tooby. J. (1997). Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer. Center for Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/primer.html
6. Shearer, B. (2002). Neuroscience and Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:7uVMlUjRhuwJ:www.tc.umn.edu/~athe0007/BNEsig/papers/NeuroscienceAndMultipleIntelligences.pdf+neuroscience+logical+ability&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us&client=firefox-a
7. Hamilton, S. & Garber, L. (1997). Deep Blue's Hardware-Software Synergy. Computer. Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=620823
8. Poincare, H. (1999). A Description of His Own Creativity. Wayne State University. Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/crtvyw99/poincare.htm