Essay Instructions: The code I selected was the coed of ethicss for cosmetology. Chapter 477 florida statutes
sellect a Professional Code (such as the Code of Professional Responsibility for Lawyers or the Code of Ethics for the Education Profession) that is of particular interest to you. Write a critique of the code.
A. Introduction- Explain your knowledge of this business profession. What experiences or interests have drawn you to this arena? What do you hope to gain from undertaking this critique? (One good paragraph)
B. What moral issues are prevalent in this profession? Identify several. (One to two pages)
C. What moral principles appear to be reflected in the code? (One to two pages)
1. Some examples of moral principles may be honesty, fairness, justice,
2. Examples of exactly how these principles are reflected in the code
would be very appropriate.
D. Are these moral principles adequate for this particular profession? Why or why not? (One to two pages)
E. What level does the code represent? (basic, currently attainable, etc.?) Explain. (One good paragraph)
F. What have you learned, if anything, from undertaking this assignment, which might be useful to you in whatever business or profession you ultimately select? (One good paragraph)
Tips on Codes Paper
1. SPC has collections of codes of ethics on reserve at our libraries, and a master collection (the most complete) at the Ethics Dept. office on the St. Petersburg/Gibbs campus. There is also a link to many codes of ethics from our department website www.appliedethicsinstitute.org
2. You can also go to the website of the national organization for your profession and see if they have the latest code of ethics there. (Nurses - American Nursing Association, Teachers - National Education Association, etc.)
3. If you can't find your code of ethics at any of these places try a search via a search engine.
4. I'll repeat an important one. Don't try to answer these questions without reading the material about codes of ethics in Chapter 19. It's not too hard to tell the difference between papers from students who have read the material and papers from students who have not.
5. Don't try to turn this into a long, flowing essay. Think of it as answers and put the question number (A, B, C, etc.) beside the answers.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Please let me know if the information below is difficult to follow because I can email the word document which clearly separates the information below.
Essay: Personal statement detailing my life and the obstacles I've faced and overcome. Describing what college can offer me and what I can offer the school.
Currently a senior cosmetology student at Carver Center for the Arts and Technology in Towson, Maryland. Live in Randallstown, Maryland.
Applying to Spelman College, a historically black women’s college in Atlanta, Georgia and University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Majoring in Sociology and minoring in Psychology.
Most important thing to me in life is family and my reputation. And I believe that all the obstacles and adversity that you encounter and how you overcome them, molds you into the person you are.
On November 8, 1990 I was born at 11pm. I remember when my younger brother was born, I was 5 years old. I remember when I was dressed in the same outfits as my younger brother and sister. We were like triplets. We would all just lay together during thounderstorms because we all felt safe when we were together. I felt comfort when I was with them. I clearl remember my 8th grade graduation, I never thought that day would come. My fonder memories developed as I was older. My Junior Prom was one of the most memorable days of my life. I was so happy that my entire family was there doing my makeup, helping me get dressed, taking pictures and video taping the entire occasion. I looked so pretty and was extremely happy. On my 16th birthday I was surpised with my favorite singer, Trey Songz. He was so friendly and spent a couple hours talking to me at my aunt's house. I always look forward to Christmas, not for the gifts, but because my entire family comes together just laughing and enjoying the company of each other.
Obstacles and success
My mom lost custody of me when I was 12 Years old. She later died from an accidentally drug overdose shortly after my 8th grade graduation.
I never had someone to tell me everyday that they loved me, just because. This created a feeling of loneliness in the world. I feel like part of me is missing and don’t know where I want to be in life.
Having to live with my uncle after my aunt and uncle became my guardian. He was very difficult to live with. He eventually put me out and I had to move in with my grandmother.
Despite everything I’ve gone through I’ve managed to overcome adversity. I’ve managed to maintain good grades and received a car for my performance. I have also found a group of friends who are there for me and who I can share my thoughts and feelings with. I’ve also realized that even though I’ve had a rocky beginning, I do have a wonderful family who support me and help me in every endeavor. I’ve been given the opportunity to travel and help others. I’ve maintained a job throughout most of high school and have been offered an internship with the Department of Juvenile Service in Baltimore City giving me an opportunity to acquire experience in my field of interest. My aunt Joanne became my guardian during the difficult years of my life and became both an aunt and mom to me. And my older cousins were positive female influences on me, preparing me for jobs, college and life. Showing me that despite all that I’ve been through I can prevail over these obstacles. I have developed a kind of independence which has given me the ability to venture out on my own and gain positive experiences. And I have become grateful for the little things like witnessing historical moments and just having the chance to apply to college.
Gpa the way it is
My GPA is not at the standards that I have set for myself because in the ninth and tenth grade year i was going through a tough time, with the death of my mom and coming into a new environment. Also it was a big change and emotionally I was not ready. And college was not a priority to me at that point in my life. Then in the eleventh grade I realized I must go further and achieve more in order to grow and become educated in this world. Essentially, without education you will fail. And failing life is not an option for me.
Past and present School and outside activities
· Black awareness – Senior Year 09/08 - current; talk about present issues in the world
· Soil Ecology, collecting leaves, planting trees with you – Freshman Year; spreading environmental awareness and learning about our habitat
· Mind ministry –Junior/Senior Year 12/07 – 12/08; dance to inspirational music to let of movement reflect our feelings
· Youth ministry –Junior/Senior Year 12/07 – 12/08; lead the church in ministry to reach out to the community
· Basketball – Junior Year 09/07 – 05/08
· cosmetology - Throughout high school 09/05 - current
· Freshman Year: English 9, American Government, Algebra II, Biology, Spanish I, PE Fitness/Gym, Cosmetology
· Sophomore Year: English 10, Literacy 10, World History, Geometry, Earth/Space Science, Cosmetology
· Junior Year: English 11, US History, Trigonometry w/ Algebra, Software & Comp Apps I, Art Seminar, Health 11/12, Cosmetology III
· Senior Year: English 12, Ecology, Technology, Italian, Cosmetology 4, Theatre, EPI
10/07 – 05/08 Shampoo Technician, Look At Me Now Salon
Color, shampoo and/or condition hair to meet customer needs. Perform other necessary tasks as directed by the Salon Supervisor. Possess advanced knowledge of styling services and retail products and high level of familiarity with hair and scalp treatments. Maintain inventory of products and equipment.
01/06 – 12/07 Teacher Assistant, A Bright Future Early Development Center
Plan and implement developmental programs. Prepare learning materials and assist with the indoor and outdoor supervision of children. Maintain a safe, clean and appealing environment. Prepare snacks and lunches. Maintain schedule for naps and play time.
11/06 – 01/07 Cashier, McDonalds
Ensure that each customer receives outstanding service by providing a friendly environment, which includes greeting and acknowledging every customer, maintaining outstanding standards, solid product knowledge and all other aspects of customer service. Maintain an awareness of all promotions and advertisements. Accurately and efficiently use registers.
Department of Juvenile Service- Senior Year 12/08- present
Shadowing a case worker. Involves the following responsibilities:
Supervision and guidance of juveniles residing in DJS facility and within the program, by observing and interacting with juveniles.
Assisting them with appropriate alternative behaviors as needed.
Implement programs to improve the living environment of troubled children.
My goals are to help the young and the old with family and social issues. To help people make the right choice and decisions, show everyone that life has a meaning, and be a role model and a hero to people that think they have no where to go. So I can feel good knowing that they are okay. This will be done through the education that you can give to me and my personal experience.
· At daycare centers helping teachers prepare curriculum and students with daily actvities.
· At soup kitchens preparing meals to needy families. Allowed me to give back and see the lives of people who have encountered hard times and out of work with disabilities. I became saddened by the kids who were impoverished and parents couldn’t afford to provide housing, clothes, or education.
Expected participation in College
· Sociology Club: The fundamental purpose of the Sociology Club is to provide a forum for sociology student majors, minors, faculty, and students interested in sociology. This forum offers an exchange in dialogue on related issues, interaction and networking, information on internships, employment, volunteer work, research, leadership and community service projects.
· Social Work Society: The mission of ESTEEM is to promote self-esteem among the women of the campus. We would like to have programs and interactive events that will creatively express self-value, self-acceptance, and self-worth.
· Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.: The purpose is to cultivate and encourage high scholastic and ethical standards and to promote unity and friendship among college women. Also of priority is the effort to increase the social stature of women and to maintain an interest in college life and service to mankind.
· Betterment of Brothers and Sister.
· Plan to study abroad to Kenya to have the opportunity to experience diverse culture. While at the same time being part of the fight against AIDS in Africa, poverty, and help provide human rights to children and women.
"We must become the change we want to see in the world" -mahatma gandhi
"An investment in knowledge pays the best interest" -Benjamin franklin
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: I would like to do a research (Dissertation) about costmetic. (Starting my own business).
a) The purpose
b) Why it is important.
2. Review of the literature-This will include the opinions of those already published.
3. Methodology: how you go about answering the research question in your paper is your methodology. It is your strategy for discovering the answer systematically. Define terms, review of the literature, describe the setting, time pbserved, survey if interviews who, etc, and indicate the focus of your observation.
4. Bibliotraphy-see the example on the Web site : http://aabss.org/journal2003/Mefleh.htm.
Please do a research and use this information for my business ideal. I would like to have my own business and export to Southeast Asia. I would like to know the possibility.
Please make sure you Include all infomation as follow :
Paper Assignment : This paper will form the beginning portion of your MBA project. The assignment should be 10 to 12 pages (typed, double-spaced, 12-pt font- Times New Roman). It should be written in the third person and include the following:
a. The purpose.
b. Why it is important.
2. Review of the literature?This will NOT include your opinion, but rather, the opinions of those already published. An example of the review of the literature will be available at the following Web site written by me at the Journal, fall 2001: http://iba-website.org/
3. Methodology: how you go about answering the research question in your paper is your methodology. It is your strategy for discovering the answer systematically. Define terms, review of the literature, describe the setting, time observed, survey of interviews?who, etc, and indicate the focus of your observation.
4. Bibliography?see the example on the Web site: http://aabss.org/journal2003/Mefleh.htm
A copy of the MBA Project Handbook that describes what is expected of students in preparing for the project class (MGT 610C/EXE696) can be obtained from the following Web site: http://www3.nu.edu/schools/SBIM/syllabiList.html
Here is the source:
Dr. Alex P. Pacheco
Strategic Personal Marketing Plan
By Nuttawipha Burk
School of Business for Information Management
29 Palms, Ca
22 October 2004
With global commerce in a shakeout phase, it is difficult to find a business to begin that offers an excellent chance of success, but yet has a relatively low start-up cost. Cosmetics is one possibility, and, despite the competition in the industry, offers several advantages, especially for a young businessperson in the Pacific Rim nations. Cosmetics is an ever-changing field, so that there are always new products and services to offer. In addition, cosmetics is an industry that has historically survived economic upheavals very well, making it relatively attractive to financing companies. It demands a skill set that combines both the organizational (planning, accounting) and the interpersonal (sales and service), but I have experience in both of those areas. There are, to be sure, threats to such a venture, but in relation to the low entry fee, the growing popularity of Western-style cosmetics in Asia, and the skill set I bring to the venture, it seems to be the best possible choice right now.
The industry I have decided to get involved in is the cosmetic and toiletries business. I have always had an interest in opening my own business offering a product that is affordable, and of good quality. The current products that are available to the consumer have a lot of room for improvement; most of the products are poor quality and mass produced, or just too expensive for what you are actually getting. There are a couple of exceptions in the industry, Bath and Body Works and the Body Shop are what I would consider modeling my business after.
A report that came out in 2002 from Wilson Select talks about how new product development in several markets is expected to drive margin growth for the cosmetic and toiletries industry in the future. The reason why the future is improving in the quality of products is that there are ingredients that were never used because the benefits were never known until recently. They are referring to these products as having multi benefits when it comes to the effectiveness of the product. (Wilson Select Overview of the U.S. cosmetics and toiletries market, 1997).
The company the Body Shop has an understanding on what it means to change to fit the customer?s needs, and take advantage of the research that is available with current technology. The company was founded by entrepreneur Anita Roddick who, in 1976, started retailing homemade products with minimal packaging. By 1982, there were Body Shop stores opening at the rate of two per month. Now, the Body Shop is operating in 50 countries with over 1,900 outlets spanning 25 languages and 12 time zones. The consumer trust in the product is also very strong. The pursuit of being innovative and able to conform to the needs of their customers has enabled the Body Shop to grow since they
opened in 1976 (Biesada, 2004).
The Bath and Body Works company has 1,600 stores throughout the U.S. the company sells natural body and hair care products as well as personal care products and fragrances. They also have a line of aromatherapy and at-home spa treatments. The success of this company is due to the consistant quality products at an affordable price. The constant changing of product lines is similar to The Body Shop, they are not afraid to try something new. (Biesada, 2004).
Companies like Wal-Mart, grocery stores and other large retailers are a threat to some of the smaller toiletry businesses. They buy large amounts of product for a minimal price, and usually poor quality, and then sell it at for a very inexpensive price. Teenagers have become a new target for color cosmetic companies and products are being launched specifically for preteens. People are also interested in products that have natural ingredients in them. The push for products that are not tested on animals is also on several of consumer?s minds. The cost to effectively Market multifunctional products utilizing new ingredients and the need to generate greater return on investment has led personal hygiene companies to consolidate their range of brands-getting rid of smaller or slow-selling lines, and focus on their biggest names. This prompted manufacturers not normally involved in the category to develop brand extensions into the area. This ?mega brand? strategy depends on conveying a similar image to existing products under the same brand name. However, with customer loyalty to products diminishing, the company providing a product must be equally worried about the quality they are offering to the public. ( Koser, 2001).
It is difficult to believe that cosmetics will fail to thrive, in Asia or anywhere else. A report three years ago form AsiaInfo Services noted that even Chinese herbal medicine cosmetics were gaining market share, however small at that point, because of their all-natural character, which appeals to buyers globally (Green cosmetics, 2001).
Two years ago, China displayed a booming cosmetics market, as evidenced by visitors to Cosmoprof Asia, a trade show held at the Hong Kong Convention Center in November, 2002. A report in a trade journals, Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Asia, noted that cosmetics ?clearly acts as an effective tool for creating business ties between Asia and the rest of the world (2003),? making an investment in a Body Shop or similar company a perfect one for the coming decade.
Manufacturers would arguably not have been interested in exhibiting if they were not sure that the market for cosmetics in Asia will expand in the coming years. That show hosted a total of 750 exhibitors from 33 countries. The show attracted 35,071 visitors, which was a 13% increase over 2001. It also demonstrated a very vibrant market for cosmetics from European companies selling to the Asian market. ?We have had a very good response in terms of companies coming from the US, and there has also been very good performance from Spain, Italy and France. These countries are participating at this show more and more,? according to Laura Zaccagnini, marketing director of Cosmoprof Asia (Quoted in Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Asia, 2003). As examples of how growth had expanded in Asia, the Korean market grew by 10 to 13% in 2002, with the Chinese mainland growing at 7 to 8%; that market was expected to grow 13-15% by 2010, reaching US $9.76bn. Zaccagnini did note that the Chinese expansion was greater than in most other Asian nations (Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Asia, 2003), possibly because of the pent-up demand. However, the entire Pacific Rim was seen as a growth area.
While the current project is specifically a Body Shop franchise, the wealth of interest in Thai cosmetic products shown at Cosmoprof Asia is a good indicator of the substantial interest in cosmetics in Thailand. ?The Bangkok Herb Company was looking for a distributor for its new breast enlargement skincare product, Beauty Breast Lotion, which contains dimethicone, isopropyl palmitate, soya extract, ginseng extract and horsetail extract? (Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Asia, 2003), something which might be an item added to the Body Shop merchandise for the Thai market.
A spokesman for another company noted that ?Asian women want to be 20% slimmer than the average woman. They particularly want slimmer faces, they do not want the chubby cheeks that Asians have which gives the impression that they are fatter than they really are. The Japanese spend three times more on beauty products than US women,? (Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Asia, 2003). Body Shop cosmetics products and the accompanying cosmetic application instruction will be an added advantage in marketing to this need in the Thai marketplace.
The potential for growth in the Pacific Rim nations was noted by Soap Perfumery & Cosmetics as early as 1993. At the time, the publication noted, ?Body Shop expects to boost its 25 outlets in the region to 150 via its local franchise agent, concentrating on Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand? (Soap Perfumery & Cosmetics, 1993).
My idea of a successful business for myself would be a product that could be compared to the products that are offered at Bath and Body Works and The Body Shop. Finding my own niche in the cosmetic and toiletry industry will be the biggest challenge that I will have to overcome.
The cosmetic industry is saturated by many types of businesses that are not very successful because of their lack of creativity. I believe that I have a very good idea on how to introduce my product to the market. The most important part other than name recognition is the ability to catch the consumer?s eye and peek their interest into what kind of new product I have to offer. The advantages that I have in the creativity side of the business would do with my personal experience with products, and what other people think about different products. My main target would be toward women consumers, most women would want a product they could leave in their bathrooms and use at their convenience, but also not having to worry about how it will affect the look of the area that they have taken so much time in decorating. The products would be lotion dispensers, soap dispensers and the containers that they come in. There are items that could be more creative by using different color variations, and would be in the bathtub or shower. These are not as noticeable to people walking into the restroom. I have to be able to find products color schemes that are versatile with the different styles that are used in home decorating today.
My strengths for entering this business are a lifelong interest in beauty and achieving it through the most gentle and cost-effective means possible. I have studied the subject on my own; I also plan to take some basic cosmetology courses, either online or if I can locate some available to non-degree students, at a college of cosmetology. I have an excellent history of financial education; my current job requires that I keep accounts both to comply with government demands and to allow the business to know where it stands financially so that it can plan accordingly. I also have a good sense when it comes to networking, I have been researching some of the most popular brands of body lotions and soaps, and noticed that most of them are not manufactured by the company that is marketing them to the public. I think that proper networking and research on who is making quality products, and finding a vender with a good track record of customer satisfaction would be crucial in getting a positive consumer reaction. Networking is invaluable when you do not miss opportunities that are available just from people talking about your product. Some of the smaller stores are involved in fairs and events that you can get your product introduced to the public without the burden of the larger brand names to compete with. In addition, I think I have a variety of personal strengths that will help me succeed when I start my new business. I am not intimidated by the chance that my business might fail. I know that I will work very hard to make my business successful, and if the business is not successful, I know that I would have done everything possible to make the business succeed. I am not afraid or intimidated if things in my business have to change. I will be able to adapt to different situations that may happen when the business starts to grow.
The best way I have found to get any information about different makers of products is the internet. Information about the production of the product as well as the ingredients is openly available on the internet. The ingredients are very important to research on the internet because if you have a vendor that uses cheap ingredients to cut corners your product will not be successful. Another thing to worry about is if the ingredients that are used can cause allergic reactions with customers. The internet does have its drawbacks because a large amount of information that is available cannot be used because it outdated. There is still plenty of information available that I have found that I will be able to use. There are some manufactures that offer free samples of their product, which for me would be perfect because I can give people samples and see what they prefer and why.
I have passed the word around to friends about my idea of starting my own businesses too see what their reaction would be, and it has been positive. When I ask them why they think it would be a good idea, everyone I have talked to says that I am very persistent and I do not give up once I have made up my mind to do something. I am very proud that people think that I am persistent and will not give up, and they do not see this goal as something that is unreachable for me. This also helps motivate me because I do not always realize the good qualities that I possess that would help me succeed with opening my own business.
The part of my future business that I will have to improve on is my ability to compete. The market in toiletries and cosmetics is flooded with product not only from the United States but also all over the world. My idea is to market my product in the U.S. as well as other countries. In Thailand, where I am from, there is a great demand for anything that is made in the U.S. because there are very few things in the retail market available to people from the U.S. Consumers will spend as much money in Thailand for anything made in the U.S. as Americans spend on things from Italy, France and England. I also have friends that would be willing to work for me and sell my product; this would make it easy for me to keep my business going because it will probably take along time to gain a strong consumer following in the U.S.
The things that I will have to change when running my own business will be my time management. Time management with my regular work schedule, family life and running a successful business will be a challenge for me. Time management is sometimes a problem for me now because I take on too many responsibilities at once. This can be very self destructive for me because I get burned out and have a hard time concentrating and prioritizing the things that are the most important that need to get done first. So I should make sure that I have a plan in action every time I add something to my schedule. Furthermore, I have not run a business on my own before, and it may well be more demanding than I anticipate, although I do anticipate at least a year of 18-hour days.
My challenge will be finding the physical, mental and emotional resources to meet that demand for a long period of time. I might try to look at the aspect of getting someone to help me with my business if it gets to hard to manage my self. This would be a good alternative than stressing myself out over to many tasks, and would also be a good sign hiring someone to help because it would mean my business is growing.
My opportunities, however, are so great that they warrant taking the risk. While the market alone, as described above, supports the idea that this is an excellent opportunity for me, the general tenor of the industry is also practically palpable in its offer of a bright future. An industry report in Soap Perfumery & Cosmetics in 2000 noted that there was ?plenty of opportunity for innovation and expansion. Increasingly, consumer demand is driving the industry, with companies seeking to meet, rather than dictate, market needs, with a particular sensitivity to local diversity.? That is specifically what I intend to do as a Body Shop: meet the market needs for cosmetics and skin care in Thailand.
The threats to my success are the usual ones: lack of independent business experience, and, notably, lack of abundant start-up cash. One threat that probably does not exist in cosmetics is the economic climate; in all economic climates, people want and need, for personal or business purposes, to look and feel good, and cosmetics provides a relatively inexpensive means to do that, affordable to many even when the economy is declining. The fact that I am starting from the bottom with very little money will make it difficult for me to create a business and succeed. The other problem I face are the cost it will take to market such products, with the competition is already in all of the large department stores. I will have to start in the U.S. with privately owned businesses and specialty stores, most of these stores do not have any ties with big name brands. With the ingredients of the products changing, the manufacturing costs are becoming more expensive because the vendors using the newer ingredients know they can charge more money than the product is actually worth. This threatens my future business even more because money will be an issue when I start my company, and this could possibly take more money than expected.
Should I fail to succeed in a career as a Body Shop owner, I will be able to fall back on skills I have already honed in financial control, with the goal of moving into a position as Controller in a major corporation. I am close to finishing my Master?s Degree, which will be helpful if that should become my career path; frankly, it will be helpful in securing the financing and other assistance I would need to open a Body Shop. However, even the research to open a shop will help me if my career path is detoured and I chose, instead, to seek fulfillment in a corporation?s financial departments. Having a broad understanding of how business operates generally is always valuable; having more specific experience with small business, globally responsible for employing more people, it is thought, than large corporations, should also serve to make me a more attractive candidate for high corporate achievement in finance.
Things that I should avoid in my business are, getting into the habit of only selling things that only I prefer. I should always look at the new products offered by my competitors and see why they are marketing these items, and what kind of a consumer groups they are targeting. This is very important to do because it is easy to say that you do not like something, but that does not mean that there is not a strong consumer base to support different products that I may not like. Therefore, keeping an open mind to other people?s opinions is a very important quality to have. I must also continue to do research about the different products that are available to the public. I must also Research on what new fragrances that are offered from vendors that manufacture my product.
The good opportunities that I am facing are the ability I have to try to find my own niche in the market and having a lot of fun doing it. I will be able to go oversees to Thailand and start selling my product on a very small scale. Since I grew up in Thailand, it will be easy for me to understand the way the general consumer will react to my products. I will also have a new outlook on things and not have to fit my product into any specific mold that many other companies are forced to do because the people with new ideas are not always the ones that own the company.
The newest trends that are currently on the market are anti aging products. These products are the future in the industry because they are made with ingredients that are not as harsh on the skin as the traditional products that are on the market. Not everyone can use the older generation of products that are still being used. People with sensitive skin or allergic reactions cannot use these products, which opens up an opportunity to create a product for them. Older products also caused premature aging of the skin because of the ingredients that are used are mixed with harsh chemicals. People?s lifestyles have changed where they want the same type of quality that they had before without the after affects of the harsh ingredients.
Many things have to be done in order to be successful in starting my new business. I will have to be able to target the right consumer groups with quality products. I must also be willing to change my product line with new trends that are available to the consumer. This is what I believe I will be able to do as long as I stay focused, and do not expect to be successful overnight. The more I continue to look at products that are currently available in stores I realize how flooded the market is with toiletry items. If I expect to succeed, I must be persistent and willing to change my product for the consumer.
The Body Shop. (2004) Where we come from. Retrieved October 2, 2004, from
Bath & Body Works, Inc. (nd). Retrieved October 2, 2004, from
Biesada, A. (2004) Hoovers Online. The Body Shop International PLC.
Retrieved October 1, 2004, from http://www.hoovers.com,body-shopmetics
WilsonSelect (2002) Overview of the U.S. cosmetics and toiletries market. Retrieved
October 2, 2004, from http://datel144.nu.edu:2263/WebZ/FSFETCH?fetchtype
Koser, G. (2001) Skin Deep. Retrived October 1, 2004, from http://www.globalcosmetic.com/articles/91668.html
Catching the wave. Soap Perfumery & Cosmetics, May 1.
Close encounters. (2003) Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Asia, March 1.
Symonds, Peter. (1998) Thailand: A bonanza for international investors. World Socialist Web site. Retrieved 20 October 2004, from http://www.wsws.org/news/1998/mar1998/thai-m26.shtml
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 6 Words: 2557 Sources: 6 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Read the two articles below. Using the notes along with any other information you may want to research discuss: The Effects of Chemistry and Biology on the Christian Mind.
What statements are made that would move you away from God?
What statements are made that would move you closer to God?
What could we suspect in what is said?
How does this article(s) influence you?
What can we learn from science in these areas that are beneficial? What might our concerns be as Christians? What are the limitations of science and Christianity,
The Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life
Most people have chosen to write their essay about how chemistry has played an important role in everyday life. I have chosen to ask, how doesn't it play a role in everyday life? The simple fact is that chemistry plays an important role in every person's daily activities from the moment we're born.
So what role does chemistry really play in everyday life? Well, this involvement usually begins first thing each morning. Most people wake up to an alarm or radio. These common household items contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. These batteries contain positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode consists of a carbon rod surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese dioxide. The negative electrode is made of zinc. Chemistry plays an important role in the discovery and understanding of materials contained in these and many other common household items. Things like household cleaners and water purification systems are vitally dependent on chemistry. Without chemistry something as simple as scrubbing a toilet without fear of severe burns or small explosions might not be possible.
Next, though it isn't widely known, chemistry is also heavily involved with the manufacturing of things such as makeup and soap. Each time you bathe you are witnessing chemistry at work. Chemicals such as cetyl alcohol and propylene glycol are typical ingredients in the soap used to wash your hair and skin. Without chemistry, these materials (or combinations of these materials) might be hazardous or might not exist. The chemical coloring agents used in makeup and nail polish would not be possible without an understanding of the chemicals involved.
Almost anything you do during the course of a normal day involves chemistry in some way. The gas and tires in cars we drive, the makeup we put on our faces, the soaps and cleaners used every day, burning wood or other fossil fuels, chemistry is all around you each and every day. The associations are practically limitless. So, as you go about your daily activities, remember to thank chemistry. As my teacher always says, remember, "CHEMISTRY IS LIFE!"
"The Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life." 123HelpMe.com. 17 Feb 2012
Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God
Henry F. Schaefer III
Dr. "Fritz" Schaefer is the Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry and the director of the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry at the University of Georgia. He has been nominated for the Nobel Prize and was recently cited as the third most quoted chemist in the world. "The significance and joy in my science comes in the occasional moments of discovering something new and saying to myself, 'So that's how God did it!' My goal is to understand a little corner of God's plan." --U.S. News & World Report, Dec. 23, 1991.
(This article is a transcript of a lecture Dr. Schaefer presented at the University of colorado in the spring of 1994, sponsored by Christian Leadership and other campus ministries. Over 500 students and professors were present.)
Stephen Hawking's bestseller A Brief History of Time is the most popular book about cosmology ever written. The questions cosmology addresses are scientifically and theologically profound. Hawking's book covers both of these implications.
Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole--it's structure, origin and development. I won't answer all the questions Hawking raises concerning cosmology, but I will try to make comments on many of them. I caution here that you should not confuse cosmology with cosmetology, the art of beautifying the hair, skin, and nails!
Here are some of the questions cosmology seeks to answer (As elsewhere in this lecture, I borrow heavily from astrophysicist Hugh Ross' excellent books The Fingerprint of God and The Creator and the Cosmos.):
1. Is the universe finite or infinite in extent and content?
2. Is it eternal or does it have a beginning?
3. Was it created? If not, how did it get here? If so, how was this creation accomplished and what can we learn about the agent and events of creation?
4. Who or what governs the laws and constants of physics? Are such laws the product of chance or have they been designed? How do they relate to the support and development of life?
5. Is there any knowable existence beyond the known dimensions of the universe?
6. Is the universe running down irreversibly or will it bounce back?
Let me begin with five traditional arguments for the existence of God. It may seem an unlikely starting point for this topic, but I think you'll see as time goes on that these arguments keep coming up. I'm not going to comment right away on whether these arguments are valid or not, but I will state them because throughout astrophysical literature these arguments are often referred to:
1. The cosmological argument: the effect of the universe's existence must have a suitable cause.
2. The teleological argument: the design of the universe implies a purpose or direction behind it.
3. The rational argument: the operation of the universe, according to order and natural law, implies a mind behind it.
4. The ontological argument: man's ideas of God (his God-consciousness) implies a God who imprinted such a consciousness.
5. The moral argument: man's built-in sense of right and wrong can be accounted for only by an innate awareness of a code of law--an awareness implanted by a higher being.
The Big Bang
The idea that the universe had a specific time of origin has been philosophically resisted by some very distinguished scientists. We could begin with Arthur Eddington, who experimentally confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity in 1919. He stated a dozen years later: "Philosophically, the notion of a beginning to the present order is repugnant to me and I should like to find a genuine loophole." He later said, "We must allow evolution an infinite amount of time to get started."
Albert Einstein's reaction to the consequences of his own general theory of relativity appear to acknowledge the threat of an encounter with God. Through the equations of general relativity, we can trace the origin of the universe backward in time to some sort of a beginning. However, before publishing his cosmological inferences, Einstein introduced a cosmological constant, a "fudge factor," to yield a static model for the universe. Einstein later considered this to be the greatest blunder of his scientific career.
Einstein ultimately gave grudging acceptance to what he called "the necessity for a beginning" and eventually to "the presence of a superior reasoning power." But he never did accept the reality of a personal God.
Why such resistance to the idea of a definite beginning of the universe? It goes right back to that first argument, the cosmological argument: (a) Everything that begins to exist must have a cause; (b) If the universe began to exist, then (c) the universe must have a cause. You can see the direction in which this argument is flowing--a direction of discomfort to some physicists.
In 1946, George Gamow, a Russian-born scientist, proposed that the primeval fireball, the "big bang," was an intense concentration of pure energy. It was the source of all the matter that now exists in the universe. The theory predicts that all the galaxies in the universe should be rushing away from each other at high speeds as a result of that initial big bang. A dictionary definition of the hot big bang theory is "the entire physical universe, all the matter and energy and even the four dimensions of time and space, burst forth from a state of infinite or near infinite density, temperature, and pressure."
The 1965 observation of the microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson from the Bell Telephone laboratories convinced most scientists of the validity of the big bang theory. Further observations reported in 1992 have moved the big bang theory from a consensus view to the nearly unanimous view among cosmologists: there was an origin to the universe approximately 15 billion years ago.
About the 1992 observations, which were from the COBE (the NASA satellite Cosmic Background Explorer), there was a story on the front page of virtually every newspaper in the world. The thing that the London Times, New York Times, etc. seemed to pick up on was a statement by George Smoot, the team leader from the Lawrence-Berkeley Laboratory. He said, "It's like looking at God." Obviously, this captured the public's attention.
A somewhat more sober assessment of the findings was given by Frederick Burnham, a science-historian. He said, "These findings, now available, make the idea that God created the universe a more respectable hypothesis today than at any time in the last 100 years."
Not everyone was ecstatic about these observations that revealed the so-called "big bang ripples." Certainly, those who had argued so strongly and passionately for a steady-state model of the universe didn't like the interpretation of these results at all--primarily two persons, Fred Hoyle, the British astronomer, and Jeffrey Burbidge, a very distinguished astrophysicist at the University of California at San Diego.
We can begin to get into the philosophical implications of these observations when we assess Burbidge's statement (made during a radio discussion with Hugh Ross) on these things. Burbidge discounts the new experiment. He is a strong advocate still today, in the face of overwhelming evidence, of the steady-state theory. He says these new experiments come from "the first church of Christ of the big bang." I can tell you that my former colleague George Smoot, at the Lawrence-Berkeley Laboratory, took strong exception to this statement. He absolutely insisted his observations were in no way colored by any religious presuppositions.
Burbidge does say something that is true, however. He favors the steady-state hypothesis and claims his view supports Hinduism and not Christianity. That is correct, because a steady-state theory of the universe, were it to be true, would provide some support for the endless cycles taught by Hinduism. The big bang theory is significant evidence against Hinduism.
Hugh Ross, an astrophysicist, has written very persuasively on this topic. He again brings us into the philosophical implications. Ross says that, by definition,
Time is that dimension in which cause and effect phenomena take place. . . . If time's beginning is concurrent with the beginning of the universe, as the space-time theorem says, then the cause of the universe must be some entity operating in a time dimension completely independent of and pre-existent to the time dimension of the cosmos. This conclusion is powerfully important to our understanding of who God is and who or what God isn't. It tells us that the creator is transcendent, operating beyond the dimensional limits of the universe. It tells us that God is not the universe itself, nor is God contained within the universe.
These are two very popular views, which brings us to something very significant metaphysically or philosophically. If the big bang theory is true, then we can conclude God is not the same as the universe (a popular view) and God is not con-tained within the universe (another popular view).
Stephen Hawking has said, in his writings, "the actual point of creation lies outside the scope of presently known laws of physics," and a less well-known but very distinguished cosmologist, Professor Alan Guth from MIT, says the "instant of creation remains unexplained."
I want to quote from a book that I don't recommend. It is by a brilliant physicist, Leon Lederman, a Nobel Prize winner. It is called The God Particle and although the title sounds very appealing, the good information is all in the first paragraph. The rest of it is just a case for the building of the SSC, the Super Conducting-Super Collider, which we now know is not going to be built. Therefore the book is a bit of a Rip Van-Winkle sort of experience! But the first paragraph is wonderful; it's a great summary of what I have said so far:
In the very beginning, there was a void, a curious form of vacuum, a nothingness containing no space, no time, no matter, no light, no sound. Yet the laws of nature were in place and this curious vacuum held potential. A story logically begins at the beginning, but this story is about the universe and unfortunately there are no data for the very beginnings--none, zero. We don't know anything about the universe until it reaches the mature age of a billion of a trillionth of a second. That is, some very short time after creation in the big bang. When you read or hear anything about the birth of the universe, someone is making it up--we are in the realm of philosophy. Only God knows what happened at the very beginning.
That is about all that Lederman has to say about God--in the first paragraph--and that's the end of it. The thing that has made Hawking's book so popular is that he is talking about God from beginning to end.
Hawking is probably the most famous living scientist. His book, A Brief History of Time, is available in paperback and I strongly recommend it. It has sold in excess of 10 million copies, and I think he sold about five million before the paperback version. For a book to sell so many copies is almost unheard of in the history of science writing.
There has been a film made about the book. The film is also good. There has even been a book made about the film. Hawking has a wonderful sense of humor. He writes in the introduction of the second book, "This is the book of the film of the book. I don't know if they are planning a film of the book of the film of the book."
I want to begin by saying something about Stephen Hawking's scientific research. Hawking has made his reputation by investigating, in great detail, one particular set of problems: the singularity and horizons around black holes and at the beginning of time. Now, everyone is sure if you encountered a black hole, it would be the last thing you ever encountered--and that is correct! A black hole is a massive system so centrally condensed that the force of gravity prevents everything within it, even light, from escaping.
Hawking's first major work was published with Roger Penrose, a physicist very famous in his own right, and George Ellis, during the period 1968-1970. They demonstrated that every solution to the equations of general relativity guarantees the existence of a singular boundary for space and time in the past. This is now known as the "singularity theorem," and is a tremendously important finding.
Later, working by himself, in 1974, he began to formulate ideas about the quantum evaporation of exploding black holes, the now famous "Hawking radiation." These are all tremendously important scientific works.
The work most referred to in A Brief History of Time is also the most speculative: the 1984 work with James Hartle, a professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara. Using an elegant vacuum fluctuation model, they were able to provide a mathematical rationalization for the entire universe popping into existence at the beginning of time. This is also called the "universe as a wave function." I need to emphasize that they were using very simple models. Now, while such mathematical exercises are highly speculative, they may eventually lead us to a deeper understanding of this creation event.
Hawking is certainly the most famous physicist in history who has not won the Nobel Prize. This has puzzled people. They automatically assume he has won the Nobel Prize. He has not yet. This is because the Swedish Royal Academy demands that an award-winning discovery must be supported by verifiable experimental or observational evidence. Hawking's work, to date, remains unproved. The mathematics of his theory, however, are certainly beautiful and elegant. Science is just beginning to verify the existence of black holes, let alone verify "Hawking radiation" or any of his more radical theoretical proposals.
My opinion is that within the next year or two we will have firm evidence for the existence of black holes. Unfortunately, I think the person who will get the Nobel Prize will be the observa-tionalist who comes up with its data. So I think Hawking may not get the Nobel Prize soon, even though he's the world's most famous scientist.
Even if some aspects of Hawking's research turn out to be wrong, he will have had a profound impact on the history of scientific thought. Einstein was wrong about all matter of things, especially quantum mechanics, and we still recognize him as one of the three great geniuses of physics.
A Brief History of Time says a lot about God. God is mentioned in this book from beginning to end. So let us try to put Hawking's opinions about God in some sort of a context. The context is that Stephen Hawking made up his mind about God long before he became a cosmologist.
The principle influence in his early life was his mother, Isabel. Isabel Hawking was a member of the Communist Party in England in the 1930's, and her son has carried a good bit of that intellectual baggage right through his life.
By the time he was 13, Hawking's hero was the atheist philosopher and mathematician, Bertrand Russell. At the same age, two of Hawking's friends became Christians as a result of the 1955 Billy Graham London campaign. According to his 1992 biographers, Hawking stood apart from these encounters with "a certain amused detachment." There is nothing in A Brief History of Time that deviates in a significant way from the religious views of the 13-year old Stephen Hawking.
The most important event of his life occurred on December 31, 1962. He met his future wife, Jane Wilde, at a New Year's Eve party. One month later, he was diagnosed with a terrible disease, ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was given two years to live at that time. That was 32 years ago. I have had three friends die of this disease. It's a horrible disease. They lasted two, three, and five years, respectively. By anyone's estimation, Stephen Hawking is a medical miracle.
At this point in his life, 1962, Stephen was by all accounts an average-performing graduate student at Cambridge University. Let me quote from his biographers, White and Gribbon, on this point:
There is little doubt that Jane Wilde's appearance on the scene was a major turning-point in Stephen Hawking's life. The two of them began to see a lot more of one another and a strong relationship developed. It was finding Jane that enabled him to break out of his depression and regenerate some belief in his life and work. For Hawking, his engagement to Jane was probably the most important thing that ever happened to him. It changed his life, gave him something to live for and made him determined to live. Without the help that Jane gave him, he would almost certainly not have been able to carry on or had the will to do so.
They married in July of 1965. Hawking himself has said that "what really made a difference was that I got engaged to a woman named Jane Wilde. This gave me something to live for."
Jane Hawking is an interesting person in her own right. I think she decided early on to get into an academic discipline as far as possible from her husband. She has a doctorate in Medieval Portuguese Literature!
Jane Hawking is a Christian. She made the statement in 1986, "Without my faith in God, I wouldn't have been able to live in this situation;" namely, the deteriorating health of her husband. "I would not have been able to marry Stephen in the first place because I wouldn't have had the optimism to carry me through and I wouldn't have been able to carry on with it."
The reason the book has sold 10 million copies, i.e., the reason for Hawking's success as a popularizer of science, is that he addresses the problems of meaning and purpose that concern all thinking people. The book overlaps with Christian belief and it does so deliberately, but graciously and without rancor. It is an important book that needs to be treated with respect and attention.
There is no reason to agree with everything put forth in A Brief History of Time and you will see that I have some areas of disagreement. It has been said that this is the most widely unread book in the history of literature. I first prepared this material for a lecture in December 1992, because I was asked by a friend in Australia to come and speak on it. He told me, "A great many people in Sydney have purchased this book. Some claim to have read it." So I encourage you to be one of those who have actually read A Brief History of Time.
Schaefer, H. F., (1988). Stephen Hawking, the big bang, and God. Bantam Books. Retrieved Feb 12, 2012 http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html
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