Total Pages: 4 Words: 1316 Works Cited: 3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Title (Do Condoms Prevent Teen Pregnency) writing from a persvavise/argumental point of view essay with no more than three references. I am a sixth grade middle school student and I firmly believe that the use of condoms do prevent unwanted pregnancies. This paper is to address the issues of condoms and unwanted pregnancies only. This paper must have some statsand charts as well as my personal opinions on this subject. I can also e-mail the material that I have already written if you want me to. Just let me know.
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Essay Instructions: Because of the AIDS crisis the College Administration at Camden County College has decided to install condom dispensers in all of the rest rooms.
Assume the following:
that this decision has created a major controversy on campus,
that you currently commute to the College.
Write an essay in which you argue for or against the College Administration's decision. In your argument you must cite at least two sources; include a Works Cited page. Use the format for citing that is common in your major.
Commentary on topic 2
Because you are writing your first argument, you should check the course URL for the following: the form of an argumentative thesis, the parts of an argument, and the use of citations. For the citations, you will need to follow the go to the Purdue OWL.
Remember, the issue here is not AIDS or the effectiveness of condoms. The issue is the College Administration’s decision to install the dispensers. Assume that a vending company much like the companies that install soft drink and snack dispensers at school would install these dispensers. Also, don’t forget that you must assume that the college is Camden County College
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Total Pages: 2 Words: 625 Sources: 4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Assume the role of a new public health worker who has been asked to rework the existing intervention plan for a given public health outcome (encourage teenagers that are sexually active to use condoms), you remember the presentation on the Theory of Reasoned Action or Theory of Planned Behavior and the discussion of these theories in Edberg.
Using these models, identify a specific public health outcome and create a new plan that uses the theory of planned behavior to anticipate the best ways to maximize the desired outcomes. Prepare an explanation of the revision and be sure include both theories in the discussion.
I want a short introduction and a good thesis statement. I would e-mail and fax you some resources in a few hours. I can be reach best by e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
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Essay Instructions: we will pay a lot more for this order.!!!
This is for a human services course. This paper was going to have a case study of an African American woman living with AIDS. She had to stop due to illness and death in her family. Disregard the information pertaining to the case study.
HIV/AIDS and African American Women
c. African American women
d. Psychological trauma and Depression
This section will explore the historical presence of HIV/AIDS in the United States. The historical significance of this disease is important when looking statistics of the high rate of HIV/AIDS cases among African American women (Henry Kaiser Foundation, 2003, Fears, 2005, Minority Women’s Health, 2006). The paper will focus on the psychological stress and high depression rates among African American women when dealing with this disease.
a. Family background
b. Socio-economic background
c. Behaviors (psychological, sexual, etc.)
d. Coping mechanisms
e. Support systems
Dr. Gilbert and Wright collected a series of articles where African American women were interviewed concerning their lives with AIDS (Gilbert and Wright, 2002). The beginning of the questionnaire encompassed general demographic questions such as age, work status, income level, etc. The remaining questions addressed specifically what it is like to live with HIV/AIDS, how has her life changed with this disease and what mechanisms does she use to survive. Owens’s research interviewed African American women and focused on family support and other support systems for women living with AIDS. This article will be used to further explain some of the issues around this target population (Owens, 2003). Roses’s book, Longing to Tell: Black Women Talk about Sexuality and Intimacy (Rose, 1994), deals with the voices of African American women dealing with sexuality and intimacy. This book talks candidly about the subject and dispels myths about African American women that may have some bearing on how they look at their bodies.
III. Race, Class and Gender Implications
a. Historical overview
b. Health care stereotypes
c. Health care access
d. Socio-economic implications
Much of the literature argues that the disproportionately high numbers of new AIDS cases among African American women are those from low-income urban areas. This section will show these statistics and expound upon some of the reasons why this population deals with the prevalence of this disease at such high rates. Quality health care, culturally insensitive intervention programs and the lack of research on African American women with AIDS are all factors that will be explored in this section.
a. Summarization of introduction
b. Discussion of case study participant as it relates to research
c. Further Implications – health care professionals
This section will reiterate that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been extremely difficult in the lives of African American women. They have the highest new cases of this disease than any other population. This section will use the case study participant’s voice to understand what it is like to deal with this harsh disease. The psychological and emotional difficulties and resilience of this woman are strong indicators that society ostracizes those with this disease and family is very important.
This section will reveal that it is important to understand how individuals live with this disease. Much of the literature focuses on intervention and prevention programs (Huff and Kline, 1999). Archie-Booker, Cevero and Langone discuss the importance of these programs, but stress these programs need to be culturally relevant in order that African American women can benefit (Archie-booker, Cervero, and Langone, 1999). Hines and Graves’s research sheds light on not only how much work has to be done, but the psychological state of many individuals concerning their health and wellness (Hines and Graves, 1998). It is equally important to assist those facing this disease on a psychological level. Their quality of life is important. One article, “In Search of How People Change,” was informative because it focused on changing addictive behaviors. After one has this disease, what behaviors must they change and/or improve upon to sustain their psychological well being (Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C., & Norcross, J., 1992). Health care professionals and other professionals dealing with this population should understand the importance of helping others live with a disease that carries very harsh stigmas. Dr. Cole, writing for The Black Women’s Health Imperative (Cole, 2005) has strongly encouraged all black women to get involved in the politics of this disease. There clearly exist stigmas about the disease and even stronger negative stereotypes about the politics of Black women’s lives.
Archie-Booker, D., Cervero, R. and Langone, C. (1999). The Politics of Planning Culturally Relevant AIDS Prevention Education For African American Women. Adult Education Quarterly, v. 49, 4, Summer, p. 163-175.
Statistics show that African American women are the fastest growing group infected with HIV. This study conducted by Professors of Education, Archie-Booker, Cervereo and Langone, attempted to understand the dynamics of planning and adult education program that addresses the needs of African American women’s needs. They discovered that a large AIDS education provider neglected to address their needs or found the information culturally insensitive. They found that AIDS education provided relevant information toward target groups such as gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals. However, the only relevant material intended for African American women was a one hour program.
Cole, L. (2005). StoryBuilder From Cries and Whispers to Answers: Curbing the Spread of HIV/AIDS
among Black Women. Black Women’s Health Imperative. www.blackwomenshealth.org.
President and CEO of the Black Women’s Health Imperative, Dr. Cole, writes about the response or lack of response by Vice Presidential candidates in 2004 to the question posed about AIDS and African
American women. The response from Cheney confirmed for many that African American women were
not a priority for anyone’s agenda. This article is an informative resource that evaluates politics and the
views held by many elected. This article provides the overall statistics of the increasing rates of
HIV/AIDS among African American women and discussed the importance of African American women
becoming a part of the research projects.
Favorite, Q. (1999). HIV/AIDS and the Young African American Woman. Advocates For Youth. www.advocatesforyouth.org. Washington, D.C.
This article caters specifically to young African American women. The language and expressions used
are meant to capture the attention of this specific group. The underlying message for young African
American women is that true self-love means that they make critical, informed decisions about their
bodies. The author, who belongs to Advocates For Youth, discusses communication, relationship
expectations, past and present drug use, contraceptive use and HIV testing. Favorite encourages African
American youth to speak up for themselves. Silence can be deadly.
Fears, D. (2005). U.S. HIV Cases Soaring Among Black Women. www.washingtonpost.com.
Washington Post writer, Fears, adds to the overwhelming and staggering statistics concerning African
American women and HIV. This article begins with a tragic personal account of an African American
woman dealing with this disease, but equally important, dealing with the psychological and emotional
issues surrounding how she acquired AIDS. This article uses one African American woman’s experience
to emphasize the importance that social factors play in increasing rate of this disease. Social factors
such as inadequate health facilities in low economic neighborhoods, poor living conditions and lack of
Gilbert, D. & Wright, E. (Eds.)(2002). African American women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Responses. Praeger Publishers.
Editors, Dr. Gilbert and Dean of Cornell University, Wright, have compiled highly researched and thought provoking writings from various scholars giving voice to African American women and HIV/AIDS. The book describes this epidemic in the African American community as a crisis and portrays the voices of this particular group. In addition, the book offers intervention and prevention strategies that have been successful. These strategies have been under the supervision of social workers, feminists and social constructivist theories. Important for this project, this book provides a culturally appropriate analysis of this disease and places African American women and their voices at the forefront.
Henry Kaiser Foundation. (2003). Women and HIV/AIDS in the United States. www.kff.org. Washington, D.C.
This very informative article statistically maps out how this disease affects many ethnic groups and also
breaks the data down according to regions within the U.S. This article adds to the research articles previously read, but details the statistics more indepthly. Also, this article summarized various profiles of women with HIV/AIDS that impacted their contracting the disease such as race/ethnicity, age, regional variation, transmission, reproductive health, family responsibilities, access to and use of the health care system and health insurance. The information also delineates various discrepancies between men and women who have HIV/AIDS.
Hines, A. and Graves, K. (1998). AIDS Protection and Contraception among African American, Hispanic, and White Women. Health and Social Work; August, 23, 3, p. 186.
Hines, professor of social work at the San Jose State University and Graves, Alcohol Research group scientist, examined behaviors women had in relation to AIDS protection and contraception. The data showed that women from each ethnic group had not used a condom in their most recent sexual encounter. African American women were more likely to use condoms than any other group. Hispanic women, according to the data, were least likely to use contraceptives; thereby increasing their risk for AIDS and STDs. Interesting, White women reported contraceptives other than condoms which indicated their emphasis was on preventing pregnancy, rather than AIDS or STDs.
Huff, R. & Kline, M. (Eds.) (1999). Promoting Health in Multicultural Population: A handbook for Practioners. (1st ed.) Sage Publications, Inc.
Professors Huff and Kline have put together a great resource concerning specific cultural groups and health. This book was particularly insightful due to the many cross-cultural assessments and interpretations in existence. Not only are assessments present, this book illustrates how one implements health promoting activities in cultural communities. Also, this book focuses on specific cultural communities, African Americans, Native Americans, etc., and provides case studies by which human service workers can fully understand the message(s).
McNair, L. (1997). Pervasive and Persistent Risks: Factors Influencing African American Women’s HIV/AIDS Vulnerability. Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 23, 2, May, p. 180-191.
McNair, Professor of psychology at the University of Georgia, conducted research that showed African American women engaged in risky behaviors that made them high risk for HIV infection. For example, unsafe sex practices are risky behavior s that increases their risk for infection. In addition, the women had other risky behaviors, such as smoking and drug and alcohol abuse. All of these behaviors result in poor health.
Minority Women’s Health. (2006). HIV/AIDS. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/womenhiv.htm
This article read more like a fact sheet and publication resource rather than an article. However, the information provided is invaluable due to the myriad of voices and experiences it encompasses. The publications listed in this article were difficult to find and proved to be different perspectives than other information on this subject.
Owens, S. (2003). African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS: Families as Sources of Support and of Stress. Social Work; April, 48, 2, p. 163.
Dr Owens, professor of social work at West Chester University, conducted research on eighteen African
American women living with HIV/AIDS. The research demonstrated that families were supportive by
providing assistance in times of crisis and the family bonds grew stronger. In addition, families were also
a source of stress by not listening to the needs of their sick family members and being in extreme denial
about the severity of their illness.
Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C., & Norcross, J. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 9, 1102-1114.
Professors, Prochaska, DiClemente and Norcross pose an interesting question about how people change addictive behaviors. Much of the literature is inundated with prevention programs that seek to guide change in behaviors. This article addressed both how people change behaviors with and without treatment. The data gathered encompassed several theoretical models. The research concluded that ultimately change occurred when clients were ready for change. This article has implications for professionals developing programs for those with addictive behaviors. Programs are quite stringent and methodical. This research suggests that these programs take individuals where they are and work progressively.
Rose, T. (1994). Longing to Tell: Black Women Talk about Sexuality and Intimacy (1st ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Professor Rose attempts to answer why so many African American women have HIV/AIDS in this country. The book portrays the voices of approximately 19 African American women who share their experiences with talking about sex and intimacy. This subject, according to Rose, has been taboo in African American communities. Rose contends that given the long history of racial and gender stereotypes, there continues to exist a stigma about African American women openly discussing sex and intimacy for fear of being labeled or judged in negative ways. This book captures the focus of the project and gives voice to many women society relegates to the margins.
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