CNN.com staff writers. (2003). "Narrow Use of Affirmative Action Preserved in College
Admissions." Law Center. http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/06/23/scotus.affirmativeaction/
Rochetti, Ricardo. (2004). "Not as Easy as Black and White: The Implications of the University of Rio de Janeiro's Quota Based Admissions Policy on Affirmative Action in Brazil." Vanderbilt Journal of Transitional Law. Vol. 37
Sowell, Thomas. (1999). "Racial Quotas in College Admissions: A Critique of the Bowen and Bok Study." Hoover Digest. No. 3. p. 37.
"The Supreme Court under its new chief justice decided the Meredith v. Jefferson County case, involving the Louisville, Kentucky, public schools, and a companion case involving the public schools of Seattle, Washington, it outlawed the use of race or diversity for any purpose -- benign as well as punitive, inclusionary, or exclusionary. The court found there is no compelling state interest that would justify acknowledgement of group characteristics in public education or the value of diversity" (xv-xvi).
Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education (1986): "Required that the use of racial classification support a compelling interest of state and be narrowly tailored to satisfy that particular interest. The court's ruling in this case also stated that historic social discrimination was not by itself a compelling reason for an affirmative action policy, and that a public employer should only enact such a policy if it is indeed needed" (7).
1994 -- 5th Circuit of the U.S. District Court of Appeals "held that the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment does not permit the University of Texas to establish admissions policies that give preferential treatment to one race over another" (7).