Causality Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Causality College Essay Examples

Title: Critique of Group 1 Summary Module 3

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 703
  • Sources:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Please review & critique
Discuss the differences between prediction and theoretical explanation.

Prediction theory suggests or predicts that an occurrence will occur. A 'prediction' makes an assumption of what is likely to happen in the future, based on past experiences, an educated guess, or on any combination of the two. Prediction theory however, holds less logical power than other theories (i.e. explanation theory) because it does not explain why an event will occur. Furthermore, predications are often made in explanations. In this way, there may be several explanations for the same predication.

An explanation may be a theoretical explanation which is a “logical argument that explains why something occurs” (Kreuger and Neuman, 2006, p. 55), and links a theories concepts. Explanations may also be used to make something easier to understand; this is referred to as an ‘ordinary explanation’ (Kreuger and Neuman, 2006). The two may occur at the same time when a theoretical explanation is described in a way that illustrates it in a clear and intelligible manner. Theoretical explanations are believed to hold greater logical power because they provide a more ‘concrete’ explanation of why something occurs.

2. What are the three conditions for causality?

The three conditions of causality are: temporal orders, association and elimination of plausible alternatives. In reference to the text, we concluded that:

The temporal order condition has been met if it has been determined that the cause takes place before the effect. In doing so, “this eliminates from consideration potential causes that occurred later in time” (Kreuger and Neuman, 2006, p. 56). Simplified, temporal orders mean "that a cause must come before and effect" (Kreugar and Newman, 2006, p. 57).

Association implies that "two phenomena are associated if they occur together in a patterned way or appear to act together" (Kreugar and Newman, 2006, p. 57); causal relationship. As noted in our group, this could also be internalized as “the process of elimination of all other possible causes to a certain end”.

Elimination of plausible alternatives "means that a researcher interested in causality needs to show that the effect is due to the causal variable and not to something else" (Kreugar and Newman, 2006, p. 58).


3. Why do researchers use diagrams to show causality?

Collectively, we felt researchers use diagrams to show causality because diagrams act as visual aids useful in demonstrating theoretical relationships. Because humans are visual beings, diagrams are a useful method to aid in the development of our understandings. As outlined by one member, according to Kreuger and Neuman (2006), diagrams of causal relationships are used for the purpose of conveying a basic picture of a relationship that may be viewed and understood within a brief moment. Diagrams reinforce verbal and written descriptions of causal relationships and offer an effective means of presenting complex information in a simplified visual form

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REFERENCES

Rubin, A. And Babbie, E. (2005). Research Methods for Social Work. New York: Thompson,

Brooks, Cole.

Russo, F. (2008). Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences. New York:

Springer.

Tufte, E.R. (2001). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics

Press.

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Title: Kant and David on Causality Rousseau and Adam Smith on Social Order

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 849
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Write 300 words answer for each of the following essay questions, argue critically.

5. Compare and contrast Rousseau and Adam Smith, on the importance of economic or political mark in their account of social order.

7. What did Hume and Kant say about causality in their views? compare and contrast.

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Works Cited

"Causality." New World Encyclopedia. [18 Apr 2012]

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Causality#Hume

Discourse on inequality. Spark Notes. [18 Apr 2012]

http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/rousseau/section1.html

De Pierris, Graciela & Michael Friedman. "Kant and Hume on causality." The Stanford

Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008. [18 Apr 2012] http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-hume-causality/

"Introduction." Adam Smith Institute. 2012. [18 Apr 2012]

http://www.adamsmith.org/adam-smith

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Title: Information Technology Questions

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 796
  • Works Cited:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Please write an individual essay for each of the discussion topics. Each of the two essays should have 1 source and be around 300 words.

Discussion 1
Conduct a web search for the key words "Vulnerabilities in Cellular Data Networks" and look for a paper written by the three authors of our textbook: Traynor, McDaniel, and La Porta with the title of "On Attack Causality in Internet-Connected Cellular Networks". Then do the following: (2%)
Get the reference of the site that hosts this article
Save the pdf document
Within the article the authors state there are "two new denial of service (DoS) vulnerabilities in cellular data services."
What are these two new vulnerabilities? Read from the article and name them.
Give a short description in your own words to explain what they are.
Give an example of each one of the vulnerabilities becoming exploits under attack

Discussion 2
Listen to the Blue Box #85 Podcast: the VoIP Security Podcast on
http://www.mefeedia.com/entry/blue-box-85-internet-phone-calls-and-terrorism-georgia-tech-report-on-emerging-cyber-security-threat/11995446. Then do the following: (2%)
Write a one paragraph summary report of the podcast (minimum 250 words).
Write a second paragraph discussing your own thoughts on the podcast.
What do you feel about the government's wiretapping activities? Why or why not?
Should the government require data collection and retention? Explain.

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References

Traynor, P., McDaniel, P., & La Porta, T. (2007, August). On attack causality in internet-

connected cellular networks. In Proceedings of 16th USENIX Security Symposium on USENIX Security Symposium (pp. 1-16). USENIX Association. Retrieved from https://www.usenix.org/legacy/event/sec07/tech/full_papers/traynor/traynor_html/

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis. Homeland security threat assessment: Evaluating threats 2008-2013. Washington, DC: Government Printing

Office, 2008. Retrieved from http://info.publicintelligence.net/DHS- Threats2008-

2013.pdf

York, D. & Zar, J. (2008, October). Blue Box Podcast #85: Internet phone calls and terrorism,

Georgia Tech report on Emerging Cyber Security Threats, phone jamming, 802.1X-REV,

802.1AE, VoIP security news and more. Retrieved from http://www.mefeedia.com/entry/blue-box-85-internet-phone-calls-and-terrorism-georgia-tech-report-on-emerging-cyber-security-threat/11995446

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Title: Quantitative Analysis

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 2690
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Please answer the 6 questions relating to quantitative analysis, some of which require example questions. Resources will be uploaded. Answers must demonstrate critical analysis and deep understanding of the topics covered.

For each of the following items, answer in at least the specified number of pages, if pages are required. You need not use citations, but please use 12-point font and one inch margins.


1. In the context of student engagement within mathematics, create a set of dependent measures. Follow the rules for writing test items, and please include the correct answers, as well.
a. 5 multiple-choice items
b. 5 True-false items
c. A matching section with 5 items.

2. After reading the article addressing middle school student note taking, discuss the value of each phase of the study. That is, describe the value of the experimental phase, and then do the same for the qualitative phase. Next, be critical of the study. What, in your opinion was lacking? What were possible weaknesses (e.g. you might address the use of the Latin square design)? Finally, comment on the value of using both quantitative and qualitative phases together in a single study. (2 pages)

3. Assume you are creating a Likert-type scale addressing teacher interest of teachers engaged in a professional development activity. Include 10 items and two versions of the anchors??"one set of four anchors and one set of six anchors.

4. Using the research website www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/index.php distinguish the differences among Likert-type, Gutman, and Thurstone scales. Next, describe your opinion of their usefulness in research by creating a rank order of them. Describe why you have ordered them that way. In other words, which do you believe is best, second best, and worst? (1 and half pages)

5. Consider the differences in the experimental research designs discussed in class (NOTE: refer to the powerpoint slides). Also consider your areas of interest. Generate two examples of each of the following designs, describing the Dependent and Independent variables for A, B, and C, and only the two levels of independent variables in D.

a. One-group
b. One-group pre-test post-test
c. Static-group comparison
d. Two-way factorial (2x3)

6. A colleague of yours is interested in conducting a correlational study. However, he does not seem to understand the difference between correlation and causality. Explain it to him using plain, conversational language and two practical examples: one for correlation and one for causality. Please make up these examples. There is no need to cite actual research. Rather, you should be creative. Do NOT use examples from the PowerPoint slides. (1 page).

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References

Igo, L., Riccomini, P., & Bruning, R. & . (2006). How should middle school students with LD approach online note-taking? Retrieved from Learning Disability Quarterly: https://resources.oncourse.iu.edu/access/content/user/mikuleck/Filemanager_Public_Files/L700/Potential_Readings/Igo%202006%20mixed.pdf

Quenneville, J. (2001). Tech Tools for Students with Learning Disabilities: Infusion into Inclusive Classrooms. Retrieved from colorincolorado.org: http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/6380/

Trochim, W. (2006). Scaling. Retrieved from socialresearchmethods.net: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/scaling.php

W-uh. (2013). Correlation vs. Causality. Retrieved from w-uh.com: http://w-uh.com/posts/030302a_correlation_vs_ca.html

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