Brain Function Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Brain Function College Essay Examples

Title: A paper bipolor include What ideas prevalent clinical literature relationship brain function nero development disorders What relevant issues pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics What common

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1537
  • Bibliography:3
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: A paper on bipolor, include the following:

What ideas are prevalent in clinical literature concerning the relationship between brain function and nero-development disorders?

What are some relevant issues concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics?

What are common uses of psycohpharmacological medications?

[ Order Custom Essay ]

[ View Full Essay ]

Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

References:

Keck, P.E. & McElroy, S.L. (2002). Clinical Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Antimanic and Mood-Stabilizing Medications. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63(4), 3-11. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v04s02/v63s0401.pdf

McCray et. al. (2012, April). The Importance of Differential Diagnosis in Neurodevelopmental

Disorders: Implications for IDEIA. Retrieved January 29, 2013, from http://www.apadivisions.org/division-16/publications/newsletters/school-psychologist/2012/04/neurodevelopmental-disorder-implications.aspx

Rogge, T. & Zieve, D. (2012, May 25). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from U.S. National Library

of Medicine website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001924/

Stahl, S.M. (2000). Essential psychopharmacology of depression and bipolar disorder.

Trumpington Street, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Order Custom Essay On This Topic

Title: Interpretive Analysis Oliver Sacks essay The Mind's Eye

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1727
  • Sources:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Follow Oliver Sacks' essay "The Mind's Eye" from beginning to end and pay close attention to how and when he questions his own assumptions and understanding about how and what the Blind see.
1.What does he learn from the memoirs of the blind authors he has read and studied? Hint: what do each of the authors tell in detail about their own blindness and their own adjustments to their blindness? What does Sacks explain to the readers about how to interpret what he has learned from the different experiences of the blind and about how each blind author "sees" in his or her own way?
2 What additional understanding does Sacks acquire through the anecdotal evidence supplied by the other blind people he has met or encountered?
3. what does Sacks mean when he argues that brain function is "metamodal" and not fixed? How does "synesthesia" work in this context? what then is Sacks' thesis about the neuroscience of the sensory areas of the brain in both the sighted and the blind? How does this relate to the title of his essay: The Mind' Eye?
4. Throughout the essay, Sacks uses rhetorical strategies to get his points across. Identify the rhetorical strategies he uses by name, as they occur in the text. Tell us when, why and how he is using summary or commentary, definition, cause and effect, and compare/contrast strategies to explain his own analysis of what he is learning and then relating to us, his readers. Show these strategies as they occur in the text.

[ Order Custom Essay ]

[ View Full Essay ]

Excerpt From Essay:
Sources:

Works Cited

Bear, Mark F., Barry W. Connors, and Michael a. Paradiso. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007. Print.

Sacks, Oliver W. The Mind's Eye. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 2010. Web/eBook

Order Custom Essay On This Topic

Title: Argument essay on how video games impact adolescent aggresion

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2961
  • References:8
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This is my annoted bibliography I wrote, the sources are not required they are just reccomendations. The essay needs to be a argument essay, with my stance being that violence in video games does effect adolescents.

Berger, Arthur Asa. Video Games : A Popular Culture Phenomenon. New York: Transaction, 2002. Discusses the social, psychological, and cultural significance of video games on modern society primarily teenagers. Primarily focuses on the impact of adventure or action-adventure video games. Including, but not limited to the role video games play on the lives of teenagers, a bio-psycho analysis of the video game phenomenon, and the impact of four video games considered to be important action-adventure games; Myst, Riven, Tomb Raider, and Half-Life.
Carnagae, Nicholas L. "In Video Games, Not All Mayhem Is Created Equal." PyscologicalScience.org. 30 Nov. 2005. Association for Psychological Science. 15 Oct. 2008 . Discusses How rewarded hostility and violence in video games leads to violence in real life situations. Gives reference to studies done in which participants were placed either playing violent or non violent games. A series of tests was then done which showed that the subjects that participated in the violent games had a higher level of hostility than those who participated in the more docile games.
Delp, Christopher A. Boy Toys: The Construction of Gendered and Racialized Identities in Video Games. Deborah Dixon, 1997. Examines the construction of gender and racial identities in video games, arguing that landscapes play a primary role in distinguishing masculine, feminine, and racial identities of video game characters. The book also relates how these aspects of the video game can also be related to the players in the "Real World"
Gee, James Paul. What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Limited, 2003. Discusses the complexity of video games and how by giving the video games puzzles to solve or requiring them to maintain a complex entity, such as a army, the game is giving attributes to the player that can be demonstrated or executed in a real world situation. The author’s primary focus is on the player taking on the role of a fantasy character, but also takes on third person creators and first person shooters.
Gros, Begona. "The Impact of Digital Games in Education." First Monday. 23 June 2003. 15 Oct. 2008 . Main topic of discussion is the possibility of virtual learning being more advantageous than standard learning. Digital learning is more flexible, easier to distribute, and is easy to adapt to. States that people acquire digital literacy through the playing of video games, and that neither schools nor other education institutions take this into account.
Mcrae, Tegan. "The impact of video games on society." Helium. 15 Oct. 2008 . Discusses how video games have caused the general public to become desensitized to such things as street violence, or death. The page discusses how accustomed we as a generalization have become so accustomed to violence, and if it is a good, a bad, or a neutral desensitization.
Nauert, Rick. "Violent Video Games Leave Impact." PsychCentral. 14 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2008 . The page suggests that playing violent games leads to temporary effects on brain functions. It also discusses that "a new study has found that adolescents who play violent video games may exhibit emotional arousal and diminished control, focus and concentration." The page gives a example in which 44 adolescents played either a violent or a non-violent video game for 30 minutes while using a functional magnetic resonance emitter to study the effects that the games had on the brain.
Salen, Katie, ed. The Ecology of Games : Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. New York: MIT P, 2007. Discusses the ecology of gaming including, but not limited to; reconnecting video game play to real world situations, the rhetoric of video games, and a case study of the collective intelligence in gaming. Also discusses the hidden agendas that game designers place into games, such as teaching a child something that can be applied to everyday life, without them realizing they are actually learning and not just playing a game.
"Violent video games leave teenagers emotionally aroused." RichardDawkins.net. 29 Nov. 2006. Radiological Society of North America. 15 Oct. 2008 . The page brings up a study that shows that as Naurt stated "adolescents who play violent video games may exhibit lingering effects on brain function, including increased activity in the region of the brain that governs emotional arousal and decreased activity in the brain's executive function, which is associated with control, focus and concentration." The page brings up the same case study that Nauert’s page did, but goes into more detail on the subject matter that the adolescents were exposed to.
Zhen, Albert. "The impact of video games on society." Helium. 15 Oct. 2008 . The page discusses the underlying effects of video games such as obesity and lack of physical intimacy. Also brings up a lack of respect while online, and depression due to online relationships in online multiplayer role playing games such as World of Warcraft or Everquest. The page also discusses the positive effects that gaming has including faster cognitive reflexes and higher computer proficiency

[ Order Custom Essay ]

[ View Full Essay ]

Excerpt From Essay:
References:

References

Anderson, C. A et al. Video games and aggressive behavior. In D. Ravitch & J.P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid stuff: Marketing sex and violence to America's children (pp. 143-167). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003a.

Anderson, C. A et al. An update on the effects of playing violent video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 113-122, 2004.

Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359, 2001.

Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behav-ior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772-790, 2000.

Anderson, C.A., & Ford, C.M. Affect of the game player: Short-term effects of highly and mildly aggressive video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 390-402, 1986.

Anderson, C.A., & Murphy, C.R. Violent video games and aggressive behavior in young women. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 423-429, 2003.

Bartholow, B.D., & Anderson, C.A. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: Potential sex differences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 283-290, 2002.

Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679-1686, 2002.

Carnagae, Nicholas L. "In Video Games, Not All Mayhem Is Created Equal." PyscologicalScience.org. 30 Nov. 2005. Association for Psychological Science. 15 Oct. 2008 http://www.psychologicalscience.org/media/releases/2005/pr051130.cfm

Children Now. Fairplay? Violence, gender and race in video games. Los Angeles: Author, 2001.

Derrick Janushewski and Myna Truong. Video Games and Violence. October 27, 2008: http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/soc/courses/stpp4C03/ClassEssay/videogames.htm.

Dietz, T. An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior. Sex Roles, 38, 425-442, 1998.

Dill, K. & Dill, J. Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3, 407-428, 1998.

Dmitri Williams & Marko Skoric. Internet Fantasy Violence: A Test of Aggression in an Online Game. Communication Monographs, June 2005.

Dominick, J.R. Videogames, television violence, and aggression in teenagers. Journal of Communication, 34, 136-147, 1984.

Elmer-Dewitt, P. The amazing video game boom. Time, 67-72, 1993.

Flatin, P. Do video games trigger violence? 2000, Retrieved at http://www.policy.com/news/dbrief/dbriefarc578.asp

Gegax, T.T., Adler, J., & Pedersen, D. The boys behind the ambush. Newsweek, 21-26, 1998.

Gentile, D.A., & Anderson, C.A. Violent video games: The newest media violence, 2003. In D.A. Gentile (Ed.), Media violence and children: A complete guide for parents and professionals (pp. 131-152). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jessica Nicoll & Kevin M. Kieffer. Violence in Video Games: A Review of the Empirical Research., Presentation to the American Psychological Association, August 2005.

Kaiser Family Foundation. Kids & media @ the new millennium: A comprehensive national analysis of children's media use. Menlo Park, CA: Author, 1999.

Lin, S., & Lepper, M.R. Correlates of children's usage of videogames and computers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 72-93, 1987.

Mcrae, Tegan. "The impact of video games on society." Helium. 15 Oct. 2008 http://www.helium.com/items/388566-the-impact-of-video-games-on-society

Nauert, Rick. "Violent Video Games Leave Impact." PsychCentral. 14 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2008 http://psychcentral.com/news/2006/11/29/violent-video-games-leave-impact/

Nicholas L. Carnagey and Craig a. Anderson. The Effects of Reward and Punishment in Violent Video Games on Aggressive Affect, Cognition, and Behavior. American Psychological Society. 16:1. Iowa State University, 2005.

Smith, S.L., Lachlan, K., & Tamborini, R. Popular video games: Quantifying the presentation of violence and its context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47, 58-76, 2003.

Wiegman, O., & van Shie, E.G.M. Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 367-378, 1998.

Yang et al. 29 Nov. 2006. Radiological Society of North America. 15 Oct. 2008. http://richarddawkins.net/article,381,violent-video-games-leave-teenagers-emotionally-aroused, radiological-society-of-north-america

Argument essay on how video games impact adolescent aggression

Order Custom Essay On This Topic

Title: Early Intervention For Mentally Disabled Children Due to Genetic Etiology

  • Total Pages: 15
  • Words: 6396
  • Works Cited:30
  • Citation Style: None
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: - This study includes 100 cases with mental disabilities due to different genetic causes (e.g. Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome & Silver-Russel Syndrome), and controls matched for age (6M-4Y) and sex.
2- Each case will be subjected to the following:
a) Comprehensive history taking including family history as: maternal and paternal ages at birth of the case, similar conditions in the family, jobs and exposure to drug or x-rays,…etc.
b) Pedigree construction and analysis.
c) Evaluation of social status of the family (i.e. high, middle, or low).
d) Clinical examination of all body systems with special emphasis on any anomaly.
e) Investigations according to individual case such as echocardiography, hearing test (ABR), fundus examination, brain C-T scan, EEG,...etc
f) Early Intervention:
i) Preliminary (pre-test) evaluation of developmental age (DA) of all developmental fields (i.e. infant-stimulation, cognition, motor, social maturation, and language), using the “Portage” developmental charts.

ii) A comprehensive clinic and house-centered “Portage” program for early intervention and education of the mentally disabled children and their care givers (e.g. mothers). This program is concerning mainly with training of the studied children inside their local environment specially in the house. The main program idea turns around the exaggeration of the mother through the home. This program was implemented in the form of bi-weekly interventional sessions (30-40 minutes for each session) and 3 monthly evaluation sessions. Throughout the early intervention program (2 years), children have been taking brain function stimulants and enhancers in the form of calculated megadoses of multi-vitamins, anti-oxidants, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and essential amino acids.

iii) A final (post-test) evaluation of DA of all developmental fields, using the “Portage” developmental charts
g) Statistical Analysis:
Statistical analysis was performed on IBM/PC using statistical package "Microstate" computer program, SPSS for windows, and GraphPad Instat for windows, GraphPad software, San Diego, California, USA, WWW.GraphPad.com. Both statistical analysis and tabulation were done according to Altman.
• Comparing the means and SD by student's t-test.
• We used Pearson's chi-square "X2" test for analysis of categorical data.
• Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect differences in the mean age between different studied groups.
• Pearson correlations between the different investigated parameters were calculated. The level of significance was set up to p<0.05.

[ Order Custom Essay ]

[ View Full Essay ]

Excerpt From Essay:
Works Cited:

References

Nilholm, C. (1996) Early intervention with children with Down syndrome - Past and future issues. Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 1996;4(2);51-58. Online available at: http://www.down-syndrome.org/reviews/62/

Mahoney, G., Robinson, C. And Fewell, RR (2001) The effects of early motor intervention on children with Down syndrome or cerebral palsy: a field-based study.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 22 (3): 153-62 (2001 Jun)

Crombie, M. And Gunn, P. (1998) Early Intervention, Families, and Adolescents with Down Syndrome International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 45 (3): 253-281 (1998)

Hines, S. And Bennett, F. (1996) Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Children with Down Syndrome. Mental Retardations and Developmental Disabilities 2 (2): 96-101 (1996)

Connolly, B.H., Morgan, S.B., Russell, F.F. And Fulliton, W.L. (1993) A longitudinal study of children with Down syndrome who experienced early intervention programming. Phys Ther 73 (3): 170-179 (1993 Mar)

Fewell, R.R. And Oelwein, P.L. (1991) Effective Early Intervention: Results from the Model Preschool Program for Children with Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Delays. Topics In Early Childhood Special Education 11 (1): 56-68 (1991 Spr)

Gibson, D. And Harris, A. (1988) Aggregated early intervention effects for Down's syndrome persons: patterning and longevity of benefits. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 32: 1-17 (1988 Jan).

Hudson C. (2010) The Importance of Early Physiotherapy in Down Syndrome Cases, 2010, Articles Base. Online available at: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/the-importance-of-early-physiotherapy-in-down-syndrome-cases-1926220.html)

Connolly BH, Morgan S, Russell FF (1984) Evaluation of children with Down syndrome who participated in an early intervention program. Second follow-up study. Phys Ther 10 (64): 1515-1519 (1984 Oct)

Cicchette, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nadel, L. (Ed.). (1988). The psychobiology of Down syndrome. Cambridge: MIT Press. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Appendix 'A'

Table (9): Comparison between Mean Pretest Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20) According to Sex

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

F (n=7)

67.14+19.48

69.86+22.47

52.16+33.7

53.54+30.45

45.27+25.68

M (n-13)

69.39+17.35

78.58+22.58

42.69+19.76

59.78+25.69

41.12+22.1

P value

0.10557

0.108088

0.07514

0.156869

0.31137

Significance

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS statistically non-significant difference (P>0.01).

Table (10): Comparison between Mean Pretest Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20) According to Social Class

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

High (n=7)

60.09+17.2

72.24+23.48

39.19+23.2

54.66+23.64

45.9+25.47

Middle (n=9)

76.6+16.19

73.62+23.88

49.13+24.06

55.27+33.75

38.54+26.39

Low (n=4)

65.53+17.52

85.58+19.26

50.9+34.32

67.98+14.74

45.8+7.5

Table (11): Comparison between Mean Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20) According to Sex

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

F

83.6+13.41

72.829+19.85

64.47+18.58

74.26+18.08

44.11+17.59

M

83.23+20.57

81+18.22

68.78+25.95

75.21+21.56

56.58+20.64

P value

0.102845

0.475567

0.095027

0.063238

0.5

Significance

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS statistically non-significant difference (P>0.01).

Table (12): Comparison between Mean Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20) According to Social Class

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

High (n=7)

76.73+28.53

72.2+24.54

69.47+31.37

71.9+26.09

53.27+23.12

Middle (9)

85.8+7.86

79.72+16.78

66.01+18.5

73.19+17.95

49.82+18.87

Low (n=4)

89.48+9.53

84.98+10.47

66.25+22.67

83.88+12.52

55.78+22.42

Table (13): Comparison between Mean Pretest & Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS (N=20) Cases

Total DS

Mean

SD

68.61

17.64

75.53

22.35

46

25.03

57.6

26.81

42.57

22.82

83.36*

18

78.14

18.71

67.27**

23.21

74.88*

19.93

52.22

20.1

* indicates statistically significant difference (P<.01).

** indicates statistically highly significant difference (P<.001).

Table (14): Pearson Correlations among Pretest Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20)

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Correlation

1.000

.854**

.453*

.661**

.478*

Self-Help

Correlation

.854**

1.000

.511*

.824**

.587**

Cognition

Correlation

.453*

.511*

1.000

.224

.429

Motor

Correlation

.661**

.824**

.224

1.000

.607**

Language

Correlation

.478*

.587**

.429

.607**

1.000

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table (15): Pearson Correlations between Pretest and Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20)

Post-Test

Pretest

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Correlation

-.288

.482*

.710**

.619**

.335

Self-Help

Correlation

-.166

.482*

.793**

.412

.458*

Cognition

Correlation

-.521*

.029

.710**

-.362

.059

Motor

Correlation

-.211

.478*

.551*

.619**

.529*

Language

Correlation

-.325

.350

.556*

.374

.335

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table (16): Pearson Correlations among Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20)

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Correlation

1.000

.091

-.233

.183

-.039

Self-Help

Correlation

.091

1.000

.348

.684**

.462*

Cognition

Correlation

-.223

.348

1.000

.067

.029

Motor

Correlation

.183

.684**

.067

1.000

.493*

Language

Correlation

-.039

.462*

.029

.493*

1.000

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table (17): Pearson Correlation between the Ages, Maternal & Paternal Ages and Pretest Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20)

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Age

Correlation

-.149

-.218

-325

-.351

-.194

Maternal Age

Correlation

.124

.058

-.204

.067

.208

Paternal Age

Correlation

.149

.106

-.203

.240

.118

Table (18): Pearson Correlations between Ages, Maternal & Paternal Ages and Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS Cases (N=20)

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Age

Correlation

.346

.024

-.369

-.095

-.105

Maternal Age

Correlation

.131

.382

-.213

.452*

.348

Paternal Age

Correlation

.139

.355

-.142

.545*

.343

Table (19): Pearson Correlations between Laboratory and Pretest Developmental Fields Values of DS cases

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Whole Blood Selenium

Correlation

.191

.307

-.071

.218

.255

Plasma Copper

Correlation

-.174

.317

0.127

0.069

.272

Erythrocytes SOD

Correlation

-.504*

.072

.088

-.057

-.011

Whole Blood GPx

Correlation

-.195

-.117

-.406

-.089

.014

Serum Myristic Acid

Correlation

.012

-.264

-.007

.125

.087

Serum Palmitic Acid

Correlation

.082

-.241

.196

.084

-.018

Serum Stearic Acid

Correlation

.211

.357

.377

.215

-.074

Serum Oleic Acid

Correlation

.287

.138

-.114

.017

.098

Serum Linoleic Acid

Correlation

.000

.035

-.078

-.189

-.024

Serum Linolenic Acid

Correlation

-.061

.079

-.028

-.075

-.027

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table (20): Comparison between Mean Pretest & Post-test Developmental Values of PWS (N=10) Cases

Pretest

Post-Test

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Mean

61.9

52.5

48.8

49.6

43.2

70.2

56.8

50.8

74.9**

40.7

SD

18

7.21

7.6

7.18

21.52

4.98

5.25

6.8

11.94

20.22

P value

0.18

0.14

0.54

1.92003E-05

0.79

Significance

NS

NS

NS

HS

NS

NS statistically non-significant difference (P>0.05).

Table (21): Pearson Correlations among Pretest Developmental Fields Values of PWS Cases (N=10)

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Correlation

1

-.287

.109

.294

-.106

Self-Help

Correlation

-.287

1

.401

-.407

.521

Cognition

Correlation

.109

.401

1

.031

.421

Motor

Correlation

.294

-.407

.031

1

-.316

Language

Correlation

-.106

.521

.421

-.316

1

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table (22): Pearson Correlations between Pretest and Post-test Developmental Fields Values of PWS Cases (N=10)

Post-Test

Pretest

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Correlation

-.318

.522

-.466

.025

-.271

Self-Help

Correlation

.139

-.270

-.091

.385

.533

Cognition

Correlation

-.283

.166

-.504

-.125

.195

Motor

Correlation

-.295

.461

.210

.301

-.347

Language

Correlation

-.273

-.199

-.228

-.267

.792**

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table (23): Pearson Correlations among Post-test Developmental Fields Values of PWS Cases (N=10)

Social

Self-Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Social

Correlation

1

-.525

-.084

.378

-.396

Self-Help

Correlation

-.525

1

.201

-.211

-.397

Cognition

Correlation

-.084

.201

1

.022

-.049

Motor

Correlation

.378

-.211

.022

1

-.174

Language

Correlation

-.396

-.397

-.049

-.174

1

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table (24): Comparison between Mean Pretest Developmental Fields Values of DS (N=20) and PWS (N=10) Cases

Social

Self-

Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Group1

Mean

SD

71.68

17.97

78.49*

23.24

49.85

19.48

60.71

18.67

38.56

14.99

Group2

Mean

SD

58.08

12.91

81.32*

20.60

43.34

35.35

56.36

33.90

47.3

29.36

Group3

Mean

SD

72.98

19.98

63.82

22.32

40.98

28.21

52.6

37.73

45.86*

32.0

Total DS

Mean

SD

68.61*

17.64

75.53

22.35

46

25.03

57.6

26.81

42.57

22.82

PWS

Mean

SD

61.9

18

52.5

7.21

48.8

7.6

49.6

7.18

43.2

21.52

* indicates statistically significant difference from PWS group (P<.01).

** indicates statistically highly significant difference from PWS group (P<.001).

Table (25): Comparison between Mean Post-test Developmental Fields Values of DS (N=20) and PWS (N=10) Cases

Social

Self-

Help

Cognition

Motor

Language

Group1

Mean

SD

80.59

23.0

77.69**

18.25

60.72

24.09

72.01

21.98

49.73

20.24

Group2

Mean

SD

92.28**

8.29

91.04**

13.45

85.46**

20.34

87.32

13.52

67*

21.44

Group3

Mean

SD

79.98*

12.15

66.14

18.55

62.18

16.9

68.16

18.6

42.42

11.33

Total DS

Mean

SD

83.36*

18.0

78.14**

18.71

67.27*

23.21

74.875

19.926

52.22

20.1

PWS

Mean

SD

70.2

4.98

56.8

5.25

50.8

6.8

74.9

11.94

40.7

20.22

* indicates statistically significant difference from PWS group (P<.01).

** indicates statistically highly significant difference from PWS group (P<.001).

Order Custom Essay On This Topic
Request A Custom Essay On This Topic Request A Custom Essay
Testimonials:
“I really do appreciate HelpMyEssay.com. I'm not a good writer and the service really gets me going in the right direction. The staff gets back to me quickly with any concerns that I might have and they are always on time.’’ Tiffany R
“I have had all positive experiences with HelpMyEssay.com. I will recommend your service to everyone I know. Thank you!’’ Charlotte H
“I am finished with school thanks to HelpMyEssay.com. They really did help me graduate college.’’ Bill K