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Title: Relationship between physical activity and body mass index in Adolescents

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1187 Sources: 1 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: A Critical Review of a specific paper,
The paper is entitled Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Adolescents. I will send a copy of the paper by email
The paper needs to be critical assessed, in essay format using the following appraisal questions as a guide,

1 Is the Abstract Clearly written?
2 Why was the study done?
3 Are the aims clearly stated?
4 Is the research design appropriate to the stated aims.?
5 Who exactly has been studied?
6 Was a control group used. Should one have neen used?
7 How adequate was the follow up?
8 Was the sample size justified?
9 Are the measuremnts likely to be valid & reliable?
10 Was the exposure intervention accurately measured?
11 Were the relevant outcome measures ignored?
12 Are the statistical methods described?
13 Did untoward events occur during the study?
14 Was the basic data adequately described?
15 Did the analysis allow for the passage of time?
16 Do The numbers add up?
17 Was the statistsical significance assessed?
18 What do the main findings mean?
19 How are the null findings interpreted?
20 Are importna effects overlooked?
21 What else might influence the observed outcomes?
22How do results compare to other reports?
23 What are the implications of the study?

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Essay Instructions: Writing Assignments Requirement
Please complete the five 10 point assignments listed below.
Review and critique of a current article relating to women?s biology.
Review and critique of a women?s health website.
Review of a health topic of your interest.
A 7 day journal documenting one aspect of women?s health such as diet,
exercise, or the menstrual cycle and an evaluation of how any of these may have
affected you personally (for example, did you gain weight, lose weight, etc).
?? Reflection paper.
A one page paper (12 pt font, double spaced, 1 inch margins) minimum (including only
the body of the paper) should be written for each assignment.

Note * I have listed all requriment for each assignments below. Please do each assignment in sperate sheet . please meet all the requreiments for each assignment as much as possible. Please review the lecture 1,2,3,4,and 5 power point to supprot these assignments. I have upload the power points in the files. Total assignments are 6. I have listed each section for each assignemnts.

(Assignment 1)
Biology of Women

Simulating an Infectious Disease Epidemic

Experimental Procedure:
A. Obtain one test tube per pair of students.
B. Go around the room and exchange liquids from your test tube with three other groups. To do this, pour one-half the volume of liquid in your test tube into the test tube of a classmate. Then that person should pour the same amount of liquid back into your test tube. These actions represent the transfer of microbes/viruses between persons.
C. Record the names of the persons with whom you interchange liquid in the order in which you made the exchanges.
D. After you are finished with the exchanges, go to the instructor who will add a chemical to the liquid in your tube. If the liquid remains clear, then you are not infected. If a white cloudiness appears in the liquid, then you are infected.
E. The problem the class must solve (together as a class) now is the identity of the group who started the infection. It will be like solving a puzzle. You will have to use the lists of contacts to see where each person might have picked up the infection and work backwards until you have determined who the original reservoir of infection. This is much like the process that the epidemiologist uses to trace the outbreak of a disease.

1. Who was the source of the infection?

2. Describe briefly the process you used to trace the infection back to its source.

3. What steps can be taken to prevent infections from spreading?
Bacteria are Ubiquitous and Diverse
Bacteria are ubiquitous; living not only on and within the human body, but also in every corner of our environment. They thrive in the hot environments of deep sea sulfur vents, the frozen tundra of the Antarctic, the saline environments of the Dead Sea, and extremely acidic environments such as the stomachs of organisms. Bacteria can be both pathogenic, responsible for a variety of diseases, and non-pathogenic, or harmless. Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for the outbreaks of cholera, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea, whereas non-pathogenic bacteria have many roles, which include the symbiotic residence in the stomachs and intestines of humans, the break down indigestible foods, and in return, producing necessary nutrients, such as Vitamin K.
The purpose of this activity is to observe both bacterial ubiquity and diversity.

Experimental Procedure:

1. Obtain 4 LB (basic nutrient) agar plates and 4 swabs per group.
2. Determine 4 locations/items around the building that you would like to analyze for the presence of bacteria. Popular choices include toilet seats, door knobs, and pop cans.
3. Swab the locations/items (if a dry surface, wet the surface first with sterile water) and streak a LB agar plate.
4. Label each plate with your names, date, location and Biol 106.
5. Store your plates upside down.
a. Count the colonies on each plate. Comment on colony number relative to each location.

b. Count the different types of bacteria/microorganisms on each plate based on size, color, shape. Comment on bacterial diversity relative to each location.

(Assignment 2 )
Biol 106
Group Project
Working in groups of 3 or 4, you will be using the steps of the scientific method to design and execute experiments to test an observation of interest to your group. Your experiments should be controlled experiments that take into consideration all of the possible variables.

Examples of projects from previous years include:
- Does Body Temperature Increase with Exercise?
- Ready, Set, Taste! People are more alert when they eat spicy foods.
- Music Affects Memory Recall
- Visual vs Audible: People who read material would remember it better than hearing it.
- Does diet language affect perception of whether a food is healthy?
- Does bowl size affect portion size?
- The effect of nutritional information and snack choices.
- Effects of sugar on heart rate.
- Fast food fallacies
- Generic vs. name brand foods
- Low fat vs. regular fat foods

Project Schedule:

? Form groups
? Discuss different observations from the world around you.
? Decide on what you would like to investigate.

? Form a hypothesis.
? Write a prediction.
? Consider variables.
? Plan experiments.

? Execute experiments/data collection.

? Continue experiments/data collection.
? Rewrite hypothesis/predictions and retest.
o Your hypothesis should hold up under many different circumstances.
? Data analysis

? Prepare Presentations

Group Project

Group Members: _________________________________




Brainstorm and record all project ideas below. Place a * next to the ideas that are the most interesting to the group.

(Assignment 3)
Biol 106

Body Mass Index (BMI) Lab
Part A: Calculate B.M.I.
In part A of Lab 6 you will?
? calculate a person's weight in kilograms, by converting pounds to kilograms
? calculate a person's height in meters by converting inches to meters
? calculate a person's body mass index (B.M.I.)
? determine if a person's B.M.I. indicates that they are underweight, at a desirable weight, overweight, or seriously overweight

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a reliable and easy to calculate an indicator of total body fat. BMI is a measure of a person's weight relative to their height. BMI, combined with a measure of abdominal fat and information about additional risk factors, helps a person determine their risk for developing obesity-associated diseases.
The main weaknesses of the BMI are that it tends to overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have extra muscle mass and tends to underestimate body fat in old people and others who have lost muscle mass.

NHLBI (the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institute of Health). 2003. "Calculate your B.M.I."

Equipment & Materials:

Using the sample data below:

1) Convert the weight of Alice, Betty, and Cindy from pounds into kilograms by dividing the weight in pounds by 2.2. (There are 2.2 pounds in 1 kilogram.)
2) Convert the height of each person from inches into meters by dividing the height by 39.4. (There are 39.4 inches in 1 meter.)
3) Calculate the Body Mass Index for each person using the formula: weight in kg ? (height in meters x height in meters).
4) Determine if their B.M.I. indicates that they are:
Underweight: BMI less than 18.5
Normal weight: BMI between 18.5 and 24.9
Overweight: BMI between 25 and 29.9
Obese: BMI over 30

Sample data:
Person A ("alice") weight: 110 lbs height: 59" (4'11")
Person B ("betty") weight: 220 lbs height: 59" (4'11")
Person C ("cindy") weight: 220 lbs height: 78" (6'6")
Part B: Prevalence of Overweight & Obesity
For this part you will?
? manually calculate your BMI.
? count the number of students in the class who fall into each B.M.I. category.
? calculate the percentage of students in the class who fall into each category.
? compare the prevalence of overweight & obesity in this class to their prevalence in the US overall.

According to the National Institute of Health, being overweight or obese substantially raises a person's risk of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, cancer of the endometrium, breast and colon, and several other less common diseases (NHLBI 1998),
Alarmingly, overweight and obesity are increasingly common. In fact, between 1960 and 1994 the percentage of women in the United States who are overweight increased from 23.6 to 24.7% and the percentage who are obese increased from 15.1 to 24.9%. Over 50% of women in the United States are now at increased risk of disease due to overweight or obesity.
How do we as a group compare to women of the United States overall?

NHLBI 2003. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. 228 pages. NIH Publication No. 98-4083. {can be found at:}

Equipment & Materials

5) Calculate your height in meters and your weight in kg, based on your height in inches and your weight in pounds.
6) Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI) using the formula: weight ? (height x height).
7) Drop your manually calculated Body Mass Index (show your work8) For each person in the class, determine their B.M.I. category:
Underweight BMI less than 18.5
Normal weight BMI between 18.5 and 24.9
Overweight BMI between 25 and 29.9
Obese BMI over 30
9) Count the number of students in each category.
10) Calculate the percentage of students in each category by taking the number of students in the category, dividing by the total number of students in the class, and multiplying the result by 100.
Sample data
class A number percent class B number percent
Underweight 5 16.7 Underweight 1 3.3
Normal weight 10 33.3 Normal weight 14 46.7
Overweight 10 33.3 Overweight 13 43.3
Obese 5 16.7 Obese 2 6.7
total 30 100 30 100

The homework should be typed and contain the following items:
1. Sample calculations for Alice, Betty, and Cindy (show your work) from Part A
2. Calculation of your BMI (show your work)
3. From Part B, a table showing the number of students in each Body Mass Index category, and the percentage of students in each category
5. A statement of how this compares to % of women in the US in each category (perform an internet search to find the information and include your source

(Assignment 4)
Biol 106
Writing Assignments
?? Review and critique of a current article relating to women?s biology.
?? Review and critique of a women?s health website.
?? Review of a health topic of your interest.
?? A 7 day journal documenting one aspect of your health such as diet, exercise, or the
menstrual cycle and an evaluation of how any of these may have affected you
personally (for example, did you gain weight, lose weight, etc).
?? Reflection paper
There are five 10 point writing assignments due throughout the semester. These papers should be
typed and the body of the paper should be at least one page (double spaced, 12 pt font, 1? margins)
long. Spelling and grammar will be graded. The first four assignments may be completed in any
order as long as I receive one assignment from you on each of the below dates. You may use the
space below to keep track of which assignments you have already turned in. See the following
pages for assignment instructions.
Reflection Paper
Biol 106
-Review and critique of a current article relating to women?s biology.
1. References
2. A summary of the article or what the main goal of the website is and what features it has.
3. The connection to women?s health and how the information impacts women?s health. Does it relate to anything you have learned in class so far?
4. Your general opinion of the information. Is it interesting, helpful, organized?
-Review of a health topic of your interest.
Research a health topic of your interest and write a paper about the topic.
1. References
2. Title
3. Introduction to the topic.
4. Summarize what you learned.
5. The connection to women?s health and how the information impacts women?s health. Does it relate to
anything you have learned in class so far?
6. Conclusion
-A 7 day journal documenting one aspect of your health such as diet, exercise, or the menstrual cycle
and an evaluation of how any of these may have affected you personally (for example, did you gain
weight, lose weight, etc).
1. Comment on what aspect of your health you decided to look at and why.
2. Summarize your data in writing (also attach to the paper a table of your 7 days of data).
3. Comment on your reaction to your findings. Were you surprised or not?
4. Are you going to make any changes to your lifestyle?
5. What did you learn about yourself from this experience?
-Reflection paper
The reflection paper is your chance to write about the class. What did you learn? What surprised you?
What bothered you? What did you want to know more about? How will you use what you learned in the
future? In the last paragraph, tell me what you liked about the course and what you didn?t like.
Biol 106

-Review and critique of a women?s health website
The internet contains a wealth of health related information. However, not all of the information is credible as
it may be based on opinion instead of fact, it may contain bias, or it may simply be incorrect. Therefore, it is
very important for the reader to be skeptical until the source and quality of the information can be verified. For
this assignment, review and critique a women?s health website using the questions below. You can choose
any website that has information related to women?s health. Include the website address in your review.
1. Who runs the site?
Any good health-related Web site should make it easy for you to learn who is responsible for the site
and its information. Web addresses ending in ?.gov? denote a federal government-sponsored site;
?.edu? is for educational institutions; ?.org? was one limited to nonprofits organizations but now may be
used by commercial Web sites.
2. Who pays for the site?
It costs money to run a Web site. The source of a site?s funding should be clearly stated or readily
apparent. Does it sell advertising? Is it sponsored by a drug company? The source of funding can
affect what content is presented, how the content is presented, and what the site owners want to
accomplish on the site.
3. What is the purpose of the site?
Check the ?About This Site? link, which appears on many sites. The purpose of the site should be
clearly stated and should help you evaluate the trustworthiness of the information.
4. Where does the information come from?
Many health/medical sites post information collected from other Web sites or sources. The original
source should be clearly labeled and the site should describe the evidence that the material is based
on. Medical facts and figures should have references (such as a medical journal). Also opinions or
advice should be clearly set apart from information that is ?evidence-based? (that is, based on research
5. How is the information selected?
Is there an editorial board? Do people with excellent medical qualifications review the material before
it is posted?
6. How current is the information?
Web sites should be reviewed and updated on a regular basis, and a review date should be clearly
posted. Even if the information has not changed, you want to know that the site owners have reviewed
it recently to ensure it is still valid.
7. How does the site choose links to other sites?
Web sites usually have a policy about how they establish links to other sites. Some medical sites take
a conservative approach and don?t link to any other sites; some link to any site that asks or pays for a
link; others only link to sites that have met certain criteria.
8. What information about you does the site collect, and why?
Web sites routinely track the paths that visitors take through their sites to determine which pages are
being used; however, many health Web sites ask you to ?subscribe? or ?become a member.? Any
credible health site and asking for personal information should tell you exactly what it will and will not
do with your data. Be certain that you read and understand any privacy policy or similar language on
the site, and don?t sign up for anything that you are not sure you fully understand.
9. How does the site manage interactions with visitors?
There should always be a way for you to contact the site owners with problems, feedback, and
questions. If the site hosts chat rooms or other online discussion areas, it should tell visitors what the
terms of using the service are. Are chats or discussions moderated? If so, by whom and why? It is
always a good idea to spend time reading the discussion without joining in, so you feel comfortable with
the environment before becoming a participant.
10. Would you visit the site again?

(Assignment 5)
Biology of Women
Lab 3: Contraceptives
Observational Study of Contraceptive Products

1. Obtain samples of three different contraceptive products. List their brand and description below.
2. Compare and contrast their features (What do they look like?).
3. Compare and contract their mechanisms of action? (How do they work?)
4. How effective is each method?
5. How often do you need to use it?
6. How quickly can one get pregnant after stopping usage of the product?
7. Do you need a prescription?
8. List advantages and disadvantages of each product.
9. Is there anything surprising about the products?
10. What questions do you have of the products after examining them closely (list at least one question)?

(Assignment 6)
The Scientific Method
In this lab, you will make an observation, form a hypothesis,
make testable predictions, conduct experiments around the
predictions, collect and analyze data, and form a theory. You
will not be told if your theory is correct because in science no
one ever really knows (nothing is proven)-there are just
experimentally backed guesses! You will not be graded on
whether or not your theory is correct but rather on your ability to
use the scientific process to formulate a good guess.

Using all the steps of the scientific method, determine what is in
the mystery container. In other words, observe and generalize,
hypothesize what the contents may be, form a prediction, while
documenting, testing, and analyzing the possible combinations.
Don?t worry if you do not come up with the correct combination.
Science is all about trial and error. Most importantly-take good
notes (what did you do, what did you observe) so that you do
not repeat incorrect trials.
Mystery container
Tubes-2 sizes
Aluminum Foil
Paper Clips

The Scientific Method
Partner?s Name:___________________________
Container #: ______________________________
1. Obtain a mystery container.
2. Make observations about your container without removing the
aluminum foil.
3. Record your observations.
4. Based on your initial observations, write a hypothesis.
5. Make testable predictions and document them.
6. Plan and execute an orderly set of experiments to investigate your
7. Document, document, document!
a. What did you do?
b. What did you observe?
c. What did you learn?
8. If you hypothesis was not correct based on your experiments, write a
new one and retest.
9. Write a theory based on your experimental results.
Lab Report

You are conducting the experiments and sharing data with a partner, however,
you are to write individual reports.
Write at least a one page, double spaced report including:
Partner?s Name and container # (1 point)
Purpose of the experiment (1 point)
Documentation of each trial (4 points)
-Observation and Generalization
-Experimental Design
-Data and Analysis
Experimentally backed theory (1 point)
Conclusions (3 points)
-Summarize the experiment and how you came up with your theory
given your results.
-What would you do differently if you had more time or resources?
-What were the potential sources of error?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Huntington's Disease

Total Pages: 10 Words: 2806 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Literature review of Huntington's Disease, specifically focusing on the correlation of weight with the disease and its progression. Would be very helpful to look at other progressive neurological conditions and the effect that weight and weight loss has on them.

The ultimate title of the paper will be "Correlation of Body Mass Index/Ideal Body Weight with morbidity and mortality in persons with Huntington's Disease."

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Correlational Methods

Total Pages: 2 Words: 485 Bibliography: 1 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Please read the following article.
Goldfield, G. S., Murray, M. A., Buchholz, A., Henderson, K., Obeid, N., Kukaswadia, A., & Flament, M. F. (2011). Family meals and body mass index among adolescents: effects of gender. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 36(4), 539-546. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from EBSCO.
In a 2-page paper:
1. Explain what the terms correlations AND confounding variables mean (in your own words, and cite the source). Review the links in the Background Information to learn about these terms.
2. Introduce and briefly describe the study in one paragraph.
3. Discuss the correlations and confounding variables described in the study.
4. Did the researchers try to overcome or control for the confounding variables? If so, how?
ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS: Please read before completing assignments.
• Copy the actual assignment from this page onto the cover page of your paper (do this for all papers in all courses).
• Assignment should be approximately 2 pages in length (double-spaced).
• Please use major sections corresponding to the major points of the assignment, and where appropriate use sub-sections (with headings).
• Remember to write in a scientific manner (try to avoid using the first person except when describing a relevant personal experience).
• Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is on independent thinking and critical analysis). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others.
• When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be properly cited. This means that material copied verbatim must be enclosed in quotes and the reference should be cited either within the text or with a footnote.
• Credible professional sources are used (for example, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, academic institutions, scholarly journals). Wikipedia is not acceptable.
• Cite references within the body of the paper as well as listing them at the end. Use APA style.

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