Title: Genetics: How the American Lifestyle Contributes to Obesity
- Total Pages: 4
- Words: 1525
- Citation Style: APA
- Document Type: Essay
In this assignment, you will revise and edit the research essay written in Unit 3. In addition to reviewing and weighing previous feedback from your peers and instructor, you will need to make your own decisions about revising and editing the content of your paper. The purpose of the assignment is to make changes to create an improved and significantly changed version of the research essay.
Examine your paper and check the following areas to make informed decisions about what to change to improve your paper:
?Is the introductory paragraph effectively written? Does it define the issue and state an arguable thesis statement?
?Are main points in support of thesis statement organized logically in the essay?
?Does the supporting reasoning you provide relate logically to the main point stated in each paragraph? Are any ideas unrelated and need to be modified or deleted?
?Are paragraphs developed effectively with relevant and current evidence from credible sources? Which paragraphs need more support?
?Are opposing viewpoints addressed and counter-argued logically? Are there any opposing viewpoints you have not considered but should include in your essay?
?Are there paragraphs where you need to add transition words to improve coherence?
?Is the concluding paragraph effectively written? Does it summarize key points and restate thesis?
?Have you used sources appropriately? Check your essay for use of sources: appropriate paraphrasing, formatting of direct quotations,
?Have you used APA correctly? Check for errors in APA text citation. Check to make sure text citations and reference citations correspond. Check for errors in formatting of reference citations.
?Have you written effective sentences? Examine your sentences for clarity and effectiveness. Rewrite sentences where the meaning is not clear or the sentence structure is wordy or awkward which makes it more difficult for the reader to understand the intended point of the sentence
?Proofread your paper. Is it free of grammatical and mechanical errors? Correct errors.
More than Genetics: How the American Lifestyle Contributes to Obesity
American Intercontinental University
More than Genetics: How the American Lifestyle Contributes to Obesity
Obesity in America is a continuing crisis that is approaching epic proportions. According to recent studied by the CDC, nearly 400,000 Americans die every year from obesity-related diseases and complications. In total, close to $1.25 billion per year is spent on health care for obesity-related costs. This paper examines the causes of obesity in Americans, the definition of obesity and the lifestyle factors that contribute to the rise in American obesity specifically, such as increased food supply, lack of easy healthy foods, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Research from several sources, including the CDC and a study published in the JAMA, is used to support to thesis of the paper, which is that American culture contributes to this epidemic. The paper concludes with several specific recommendations for combating obesity now and for future generations.
For many years now, Americans have been getting heavier and heavier, and in 2004, the USUS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ranked obesity as the ?number one health risk? facing Americans. Approximately 400.000 people die every year as a result of health-related issues line to obesity and the effects cost nearly $125 billion annually (Ogden). Even more troubling are the increasing rates of childhood obesity, which affects more than 15% of the population under 18 (Obesity in America). The consequences of obesity are many and varied. Not only does obesity have an effect on lifestyle, resulting in even lower physical activity rates, it can also lead to depression, social anxiety, lower self-esteem and a significant diminishment in the quality of life (Obesity in America). It?s no secret that obesity is on the rise. One in four Americans are now considered obese and Surgeon General Richard Carmona has referred to obesity as a public health ?crisis? (Oliver). For many years now, Americans have been told that they are too fat and only getting fatter. Yet the message doesn?t seem to be getting through. According to certain projections, America?s teens are at risk of becoming the first generation in history to live a shorter lifespan than their parents (Oliver, 2006). Even the First Lady, Michelle Obama, has taken up the cause with her new ?Let?s Move? campaign, which is designed to get children up off the couch and exercising more (Let?s Move). According to certain projections, America?s teens are at risk of becoming the first generation in history to live a shorter lifespan than their parents (Oliver, 2006). The sad truth, however, is that the American culture has created an environment that promotes obesity and discourages a healthy lifestyle.
In order to truly understand the health crisis that obesity has become, it is necessary to understand what obesity is and how it differs from simply being overweight. Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. The terms also identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of certain diseases and other health problems (CDC). Recently we have been able to quantify the differences between body weights. A person is considered overweight if they have a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater and weigh at least 10% more than the recommended weight for their height and body type (Obesity in America). BMI is calculated based on height and weight, and it is a measurement that also figured gender into its calculations. A person is obese if they weigh at 30% more than their recommended weight and have a BMI of 30 or greater (Obesity in America). One tricky thing about using BMI to track obesity is that, although BMI does correlate with the amount of body fat, BMI does not directly measure body fat. For this reason, some people have a BMI number that would identify them as overweight even though they do not have excess body fat (CDC). Although BMI is easy to calculate, there are other methods of determining obesity, such as measuring waist circumference, hip to waist circumference ratios, skin fold thickness tests, and ultrasound technology (CDC). An estimated 25 percent of America?s children are overweight or obese, while an estimated 54 percent of American adults are obese, and another 22 percent are overweight (Hill and Peters, 1998).
There are many factors that contribute to the increasing rates of obesity in America, and several of them are unique to American culture, putting more and more pressure on both adults and teens to maintain a healthy lifestyle and body weight. It?s no secret that American?s eating habits are highly unhealthy. Our luck in being a prosperous nation means that there is an over-abundance of food availability in both supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants, and the portion sizes at those eating establishments are uncontrolled and unreasonable (Hill and Peters, 1998). The easiest choices for American families are often those laden with high-fat content, and those food choices are often paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Americans are getting fatter because the foods they eat contain more and more fat. One Egg McMuffin sandwich from McDonald?s, for example, contains a full 25% of the recommended fat grams for an entire day for an adult (Self Magazine). Studies show that a diet of 35 percent fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). Unfortunately, many Americans, in addition to eating unhealthy diets, are also living a more sedentary lifestyle, even children. An increasingly sedentary lifestyle due in part to advances in technology and transportation, in addition to the appeal of sedentary entertainment options, such as television, video games and computers.
Preventing obesity, on its face, is a very simple proposition. People simply need to eat healthier and move more. The science is simple: Studies show that increased activity and improved aerobic fitness can significantly reduce bodyweight and prevent obesity, particularly in children (Epstein, Paluch, Gordy & Dorn, 2000). If it were so simple, however, it wouldn?t be such a big problem. The fact remains that the American cultural norms that have arisen in the past 50 or so years have made it difficult for many average people to control their weight. There are several solutions to this problem. First, there must be education by the consumer and food industry aimed at controlling portion sizes and reducing dietary fat content. There must also be a concerted effort ? from restaurants, parents, and schools to encourage a preference for low-fat foods in young children. This can be accomplished by educating children about healthy food choices, but it will only work if healthy foods are readily available for children to eat. Another key to success is creating an environment that encourages physical activity by a) raising the physical education standards in schools, b) countering the appeal of sedentary activities by emphasizing the ?fun? component of sports and aerobic exercise, c) shifting the focus of social gatherings from food to more active pursuits, such as a family hike or game of ultimate Frisbee in the park with friends, and d) offering public incentives such as lower insurance rates or more paid vacation time for healthy individuals (Hills and Peters, 1998; Epstein et al, 2000). This is a community-wide effort and needs the cooperation of parents, schools, and other communities in which children live, such as their church or synagogue. There is also a role for local governments and school boards, who are responsible for setting guidelines about physical education and recess times in public schools. Some state legislatures are right now considering bills that would set minimum standards for physical activity for elementary school children (Denver Post). All of these efforts must come together if there is to be any chance of success at reducing childhood obesity, which will go a far distance in reducing adult obesity as well, as families learn healthier habits and then pass them on to the next generation.
Obesity in America is a serious problem that, if left untreated, will have serious effects for millions of Americans. Fighting obesity requires a tremendous amount of work, however, both by those affected and by those who have positions of influence over the food industry and our schools. Studies show that a combination of a healthy diet and regular physical activity most effectively treats and prevents obesity, regardless of family history. What this means for people with genetic predispositions to obesity is that they can avoid becoming obese by cultivating certain habits, such as ?restrained eating? and regular exercise (Hill and Peters, 1998). In essence, while obesity is a disease, it is one of the most easily preventable diseases for those who approach it proactively, though this may require certain departures from the American lifestyle.
CDC. Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved on February 19, 2001 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html
Denver Post (2011). Colorado Physical Activity Bill Given Initial OK, The Denver Post Online. Retrieved on February 19, 2001 from http://www.denverpost.com/headlines/ci_17384956
Epstein, L. H., Paluch, R. A., Gordy, C. C., Dorn, J. (2000). Decreasing Sedentary Behaviors in Treating Pediatric Obesity. Arch Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 154, 220-226.
Hill, J. O., Peters, J. C. (1998). Environmental Contributions to the Obesity Epidemic. Science Magazine, 280, 1371-1375.
Let?s Move (2011). Let?s Move: America?s Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids. Retrieved February 19, 2001 from www.letsmove.gov
Neporent, L. (Jan. 24, 2011). Lack of Sleep Linked to Childhood Obesity. ABC News/Health. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/lack-weekend-catch-sleep-risk-childhood-obesity/story?id=12743677
Obesity in America.(2011). Understanding Obesity. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2011 from http://www.obesityinamerica.org/understandingObesity/index.cfm
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999--2004. JAMA 2006;295:1549--55.
Oliver, J. E. (2006). Fat Politics: The Real Story behind America?s Obesity Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Self Magazine (2011) Self Nutrition Data: Know What you Eat. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/foods-from-mcdonalds/6262/2
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Centers for Disease Control. "Overweight and Obesity." Retrieved on February 19, 2001 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html?
*Denver Post (2011). Colorado Physical Activity Bill Given Initial OK, The Denver Post Online. Retrieved on February 19, 2001 from http://www.denverpost.com/headlines/ci_17384956?
Epstein, L.H., Paluch, R.A., Gordy, C.C., Dorn, J. (2000). "Decreasing Sedentary Behaviors in Treating Pediatric Obesity." Arch Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 154, 220-226.
Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C. (1998). "Environmental Contributions to the Obesity." Epidemic. Science Magazine, 280, 1371-1375.
*Let's Move (2011). "Let's Move: America's Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids." Retrieved February 19, 2001 from www.letsmove.gov?
Neporent, L. "Lack of Sleep Linked to Childhood Obesity." ABC News/Health. 24, Jan. 2011 Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/lack-weekend-catch-sleep-risk-childhood-obesity/story?id=12743677?
*Obesity in America.(2011). Understanding Obesity. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2011 from http://www.obesityinamerica.org/understandingObesity/index.cfm?
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. 2006; "Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999 -- 2004",. Journal of the American Medical Association. 295:1549 -- 55.
Oliver, J.E. (2006). "Fat Politics: The Real Story behind America's Obesity Epidemic." New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
*Self Magazine (2011) "Self Nutrition Data: Know What you Eat" Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/foods-from-mcdonalds/6262/2
Title: Correlational Methods
- Total Pages: 2
- Words: 485
- Citation Style: MLA
- Document Type: Research Paper
Please read the following article.
Goldfield, G. S., Murray, M. A., Buchholz, A., Henderson, K., Obeid, N., Kukaswadia, A., & Flament, M. F. (2011). Family meals and body mass index among adolescents: effects of gender. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 36(4), 539-546. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from EBSCO.
In a 2-page paper:
1. Explain what the terms correlations AND confounding variables mean (in your own words, and cite the source). Review the links in the Background Information to learn about these terms.
2. Introduce and briefly describe the study in one paragraph.
3. Discuss the correlations and confounding variables described in the study.
4. Did the researchers try to overcome or control for the confounding variables? If so, how?
ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS: Please read before completing assignments.
• Copy the actual assignment from this page onto the cover page of your paper (do this for all papers in all courses).
• Assignment should be approximately 2 pages in length (double-spaced).
• Please use major sections corresponding to the major points of the assignment, and where appropriate use sub-sections (with headings).
• Remember to write in a scientific manner (try to avoid using the first person except when describing a relevant personal experience).
• Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is on independent thinking and critical analysis). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others.
• When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be properly cited. This means that material copied verbatim must be enclosed in quotes and the reference should be cited either within the text or with a footnote.
• Credible professional sources are used (for example, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, academic institutions, scholarly journals). Wikipedia is not acceptable.
• Cite references within the body of the paper as well as listing them at the end. Use APA style.
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Goldfield, G.S., Murray, M.A., Buchholz, a., Henderson, K., Obeid, N., Kukaswadia, a., & Flament, M.F. (2011). Family meals and body mass index among adolescents: effects of gender. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 36(4), 539-546. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from EBSCO.