Essay Instructions: Journal Article: A Comparison of European and African-Based Psychologies and Their Implications for African American College Student Development
Author: Vanessa D. Johnson
Journal of Black Studies Vol. 33, No. 6 (Jul., 2003), pp.817-829
I can fax it if there is no access. call me
Reference: Critical Race Perspectives on Theory in Student Affairs
Author: Lori D. Patton, Marylu McEwen, Laura Rendon, Mary F. Howard-Hamilton
Last Reference: anything from Helms, J.E.
Specifications: Purpose of this Critical Review Assignment 4 to 5 pages
The critical review is a writing task that asks you to summarize and evaluate a text. The critical
review can be of a book, a chapter, or a journal article. Writing the critical review usually
requires you to read the selected text in detail and to also read other related texts so that you
can present a fair and reasonable evaluation of the selected text.
What is meant by critical?
At the graduate level, to be critical does not mean to criticize in a negative manner. Rather it
requires you to question the information and opinions in a text and present your evaluation or
judgment of the text. To do this well, you should attempt to understand the topic from
different perspectives (i.e. read related texts) and in relation to the theories, approaches and
frameworks in your course.
What is meant by evaluation or judgment?
Here you decide the strengths and weaknesses of a text. This is usually based on specific
criteria. Evaluating requires an understanding of not just the content of the text, but also an
understanding of a text’s purpose, the intended audience, and why it is structured the way it is.
What is meant by analysis?
Analyzing requires separating the content and concepts of a text into their main components
and then understanding how these interrelate, connect and possibly influence each other.
Structure of a Critical Review
Critical reviews, both brief (one-two pages) and long (three-four pages), usually have a similar
structure. Check your assignment instructions for formatting and structural specifications.
Headings are usually optional for longer reviews and can be helpful for the reader.
The length of an introduction is usually one paragraph for a journal article review and two or
three paragraphs for a longer book review. Include a few opening sentences that announce the
author(s) and the title, and briefly explain the topic of the text. Present the aim of the text and
summarize the main finding or key argument. Conclude the introduction with a brief statement
of your evaluation of the text. This can be a positive or negative evaluation or, as is usually the
case, a mixed response.
Present a summary of the key points along with a limited number of examples. You can also
briefly explain the author’s purpose/intentions throughout the text and you may briefly
describe how the text is organized. The summary should only make up about a third of the
The critique should be a balanced discussion and evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, and
notable features of the text. Remember to base your discussion on specific criteria. Good
reviews also include other sources to support your evaluation (remember to reference). You
can choose how to sequence your critique. Here are some examples to get you started:
· Most important to least important conclusions you make about the text.
· If your critique is more positive than negative, then present the negative points
first and the positive last.
· If your critique is more negative than positive, then present the positive points
first and the negative last.
· If there are both strengths and weaknesses for each criterion you use, you need
to decide overall what your judgment is. For example, you may want to
comment on a key idea in the text and have both positive and negative
comments. You could begin by stating what is good about the idea and then
concede and explain how it is limited in some way. While this example shows a
mixed evaluation, overall you are probably being more negative than positive.
· In long reviews, you can address each criterion you choose in a paragraph,
including both negative and positive points. For very short critical reviews (one
page or less) where your comments will be briefer, include a paragraph of
positive aspects and another of negative.
· You can also include recommendations for how the text can be improved in
terms of ideas, research approach; theories or frameworks used can also be
included in the critique section.
This is usually a very short paragraph.
· Restate your overall opinion of the text.
· Briefly present recommendations.
· If necessary some further qualification or explanation of your judgment can be
included. This can help your critique sound fair and reasonable.
If you have used other sources in you review you should also include a list of references at the
end of the review.
Summarizing and paraphrasing for the critical review
Summarizing and paraphrasing are essential skills for academic writing and in particular, the
critical review. To summarize means to reduce a text to its main points and its most important
ideas. The length of your summary for a critical review should only be about one quarter to one
third of the whole critical review. The best way to summarize is to:
1. Scan the text. Look for information that can be deduced from the introduction,
conclusion, and the title and headings. What do these tell you about the main points of
2. Locate the topic sentences and highlight the main points as you read.
3. Reread the text and make separate notes of the main points. Examples and evidence do
not need to be included at this stage. Usually they are used selectively in your critique.
Paraphrasing means putting the text into your own words. Paraphrasing offers an alternative to
using direct quotations in your summary (and the critique) and can be an efficient way to
integrate your summary notes. The best way to paraphrase is to:
1. Review your summary notes
2. Rewrite them in your own words and in complete sentences
3. Use reporting verbs and phrases (e.g. The author describes…, Smith argues …).
4. If you include unique or specialist phrases from the text, use quotation marks.
Some General Criteria for Evaluating Texts
The following list of criteria and focus questions may be useful for reading the text and for
preparing the critical review. Remember to check your assignment instructions for more
specific criteria and focus questions that should form the basis of your review. The length of the
review/ assignment will determine how many criteria you will address in your critique.
Criteria Possible focus questions
Significance and contribution to
What is the author’s aim?
To what extent has this aim been achieved?
What does this text add to the body of knowledge? (This
could be in terms of theory, data and/or practical
What relationship does it bear to other works in the field?
What is missing/not stated?
Is this a problem?
Methodology or approach (This
usually applies to more formal,
research- based texts)
What approach was used for the research? (e.g.,
quantitative or qualitative, analysis/review of theory or
current practice, comparative, case study, personal
How objective/biased is the approach?
Are the results valid and reliable?
What analytical framework is used to discuss the results?
Argument and use of evidence Is there a clear problem, statement or hypothesis?
What claims are made?
Is the argument consistent?
What kinds of evidence does the text rely on?
How valid and reliable is the evidence?
How effective is the evidence in supporting the argument?
What conclusions are drawn?
Are these conclusions justified?
Writing style and text structure Does the writing style suit the intended audience? (e.g.,
expert/non-expert, academic/non- academic)
What is the organizing principle of the text? Could it be
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: This is my senior ARGUMENTATIVE research (dissertation type paper) paper and the entire class grade is dependent upon only this 1 research paper so it's of extreme importance that this is high quality graduate work. It is a research paper that needs to be AT LEAST 20 pages long. This paper must be professionally written and contain very little quoting, if any at all, no fluff, and done without any sort of plagiarism,
Research Methodology Seminar: Cultural History
Ethnic Studies 191
You are expected to search out and critically analyze primary materials, to read and synthesize secondary sources, and to write up your findings. Your ultimate goal is to use the evidence you have gathered to substantiate an original argument in a rigorously written term paper. To successfully complete this paper you'll need to refine your topic, devise a research plan, develop analytical questions to drive your investigations, identify and secure sources, engage with prior research on your topic to frame your work, and revise your final paper.
I need an ARGUMENTATIVE (IT MUST BE EXTREMELY/VISIBLY ARGUMENTATIVE) and HIGH QUALITY research paper about Marcus Garvey and his movement/ideaology of Pan-Africanism. NOT A SUMMARY about Marcus Garvey and his accomplishments and NOT a summary on his movement and ideology of PAN-Africanism . NO SUMMARY PERIOD PLEASE!! but an argumentative research paper. This is a black studies graduate course. The paper topic is kind of wide open as long as it is ARGUMENTATIVE and about Marcus Garvey AND his movement and ideaology of Pan-Africanism and NOT PLAGIARIZED PLEASE.
--You can choose what you want to focus on and argue about but it must be VERY VERY VERY argumentative and insightful. It also must be written in a fashion that (although you definitely can write about his shortcomings) respects/dignifies Marcus Garvey and his achievements as my Black Studies professor loves Marcus Garvey...(although the paper could be about his shortcomings or some of the problems Garvey faced trying to implement Pan-Africanism). However it must be very critical, argumentative to THE BONE (whether it is praising Marcus Gavery and his movement and ideology/success or critrizng him and his movement of Pan-Africanism by analyzing some of its flaws or shortcomings).
---This SHOULD NOT be an AUTOBIOGRAPHY of the life of Marcs Garvey: Its argumentative reserach paper
--Please: No background or History... Just striaght discussion and ARGUMENT (of course also citations)
---This paper MUST MAKE SENSE and BE PROPERLY EDITED and proofread... not thrown together with typos, incomplete sentences, incomplete thoughts, and non-relating ideas. It must be fluid, CONNECT, and make sense.
--Please Section off your thesis by providing it at the very beginning of the paper underlined with very CLEAR and FORCEFUL language: i.e. "In this paper I intend to demonstrate, prove, argue xyz..." or "I will show how (provide argument)...." The thesis should be assertive LOUD and CLEAR.
--Lastly, please provide a WORTHWHILE and INTRIGUING topic... not a very easily constructed and proven argument that is sort of a hyperbole..(no straw man aruguments) I need a topic that my professor would want to read. Thanks a lot.. AND NO PLAGERISM, as I have already recieved a plagerized paper from another site, which is the reason I'm having you guys write the same paper again. Thanks
---This should be APA or MLA (either one)... doesnt matter... Thanks guys : Remember My paper is due on June 4th or 5th at the latest!!
Number of primary/secondary sources (references) requested = at least 11 primary sources/ 6 secondary sources
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Write a paper on "Apartheid in South Africa: Explanation on the Rise and Fall of it." Discuss the many abuses that the black population in the country had to go through and the struggle they fought for freedom.
The paper has to be at least 10 pages. Also please include an annotated bibligraphy.
Use 4 books and 3 articles on the subject. Articles should be selected from scholarly journals, such as the Journal of American History, American Historical Review, Journal of Black Studies, Journal of Negro History, Journal of African American History, American Quarterly, Social Science History.
Books should be written by historians. You should choose more recent scholarship. You should try to use books published after 1980
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: 1. Topic: Based mainly on oral histories, what was the African American soldier's experience like in Vietnam? How were they treated within their different ranks? What kind of obstacles did they face? How did they overcome them?
2. Should have a strong thesis.
3. 1" Margins. Double Spaced. Times New Roman.
4. Research must be cited correctly using Chicago style citation along with footnotes and works cited page.
5. You may use academic journals, primary sources, and secondary sources to support your thesis. No internet references unless properly cited.
6. Use the following sources for a foundation of your research:
Goff, Stanley., Sanders, Robert., and Clark Smith. Brothers: Black Soldiers in the Nam. Novato: Presidio Press, 1982.
Johnson, Thomas A. "Armed Forces: Racial Violence Mars the Integration Record." New York Times, 17 August 1969, p. E6.
Johnson, Thomas A. "Armed Forces: Blacks Don't Feel They Get a Fair Shake." New York Times, 29 November 1970, p. 193.
Parks, David. G.I. Diary. New York: Harper and Row, 1968.
Terry, Wallace. Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans. New York: Random House, 1984.
Vance, Samuel. The Courageous and the Proud. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1970.
Whitmore, Terry. Memphis Nam Sweden: The Autobiography of a Black American Exile. New York: Double Day, 1971.
Appy, Christian. Working Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
Baskir, Lawrence M., and William A. Strauss. Chance and Circumstance: The Draft, the War, and the Vietnam Generation. New York: Random House, 1978.
Butler, John Sibley. “Assesing Black Enlisted Participation in the Army.” Social Problems 23:5 (1976): 558-566.
Graham, Herman. The Brother's Vietnam War: Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience, University Press of Florida, 2003.
Levy, Yagil. “Militarizing Inequality: A Conceptual Framework.” Theory and Society 27 (1998): 873-904.
Shexnider, Alvin J. “The Development of Racial Solidarity in the Armed Forces.” Journal of Black Studies 5:4 (1975): 415-435.
Westheider, James E. Fighting On Two Fronts: African Americans and the Vietnam War. New York and London: New York University Press, 1997.
Westheider, James E. The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.
Excerpt From Essay:
I really do appreciate HelpMyEssay.com. I'm not a good writer and the service really gets me going in the right direction. The staff gets back to me quickly with any concerns that I might have and they are always on time.
I have had all positive experiences with HelpMyEssay.com. I will recommend your service to everyone I know. Thank you!
I am finished with school thanks to HelpMyEssay.com. They really did help me graduate college..