This is a dissertation prospectus model. Based on the information provided, please complete the bullet points according to the specified framework.
Do the parenting
styles in the Jewish community differentially correlate with alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males (18 - 26)?
Beck et al., (2004) discussed that parenting
styles with the degree of alcohol intake frequency during adolescents is a significant problems among college students (Beck et al., 2004). In fall 2006, a random sample of under graduate students attending 10 universities were invited to participate (8 public and 2 private) in an online Internet-based survey of alcohol use and other risk behaviors (O’Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). All participating universities had a graduate program and surveys were sent to graduate and undergraduate students combined (O’Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). The National Institute on Alcohol abuse and Alcoholism (NIAA) funded the study as part of an effort to reduce high risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students (O’Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Campuses ranged from approximately 5,375 to 44,841 students (O’Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Further, 139 Caucasian well-educated adolescent parents
coupled with their adolescent children were assessed according to parenting
types (Baumrind, 1991). Authoritative parents
who are highly demanding and responsive, demonstrated noteworthy success in safeguarding their children from substance use with increased competency of self- harm (Baumrind, 1991). Also, while Authoritarian approaches most often sufficed good upbringing, results did not suggest increased competency of substance use consequences (Baumrind, 1991). According to Yang, Zhiyong, and Schaninger (2010), youth drinkers turn in to drinking adults. Yang, Zhiyong, and Schaninger (2010) asserted that parents
are key attributes to mediating alcohol drinking frequency via implementing positive communication rather than insisting on behavioral control. Positive communication increased child responsiveness which manifested in raring children with a good self-esteem (Yang, Zhiyong, & Schaninger, 2010). Complimentary, having yielded a decrease of alcohol intake risk factors in young adulthood (Yang, Zhiyong, & Schaninger, 2010).
The theories of attachment styles are directly related to children and their caregivers (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The nature of parenting
styles has been considered as a dominant factor in deciding the overall outlook of a child’s personality (Baumrind, 1991). Alcohol drinking behaviors are all present in the four different styles of parenting
, Permissive, and Uninvolved) to a greater or lesser degree. It can be inferred that these different parenting
styles definitely warrant further investigation in connection to alcohol consumption of adolescents during their years of college. Children with strained relationships with their parents
tend to show a greater inclination for alcoholism in later parts of their lives (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). What is more, there is a relationship between youth drinking frequency and the parenting
styles faced by alcohol addicts in their childhood (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The rationale of this relationship is based on social change theories, such as family system theory and social learning theory (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). At the present, there is a need to better ascertain how parenting
styles correlate with drinking frequency in the Brooklyn Borough Park Jewish community.
Bowlby & Ainsworth (1982) demonstrated that poor attachment styles manifested as a greater factor for an increased risk alcohol intake frequency in children and teenagers. Bowlby’s interest explored maternal loss while Ainsworth researched issues in regards to security theory (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). In the process of investigating attachment, there was a linkage established between caregiver and child bonds with secure vs. insecure adjustment (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). Further research indicated if children were exposed to good affectionate relationship styles, it sufficed healthy romantic attachment styles as a young adult (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). By contrast, if the child experienced exposure of poor affectionate care, it resulted in separation anxiety, phobias, and poor relationship attachments in adulthood (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). “Parenting
styles convey parents
’ overall feeling about the child through body language, tone of voice, emotional displays and quality of attention” (Benson & Haith, 2010, p.281). Accordingly, individuals can reciprocate affection that they themselves felt and is familiar to them (Bretherton, 1992). Even though there are different levels of intimacy in childhood vs. adulthood, there were ample similarities in connection to intimate relationships during adulthood (Bretherton, 1992),
According to Doyle, Karavasilis, and Markiewicz (2003), healthy attachment styles were examined in relation to parenting
styles. Healthy attachment upbringings, furnished authoritative parenting
which yielded as secure adolescent attachment (Doyle, Karavasilis & Markiewicz, 2003). More specifically, different parenting
styles were measured in accordance with self-regulation during peer pressure related interaction such as drinking alcohol; hence, a more positive self-regulation was demonstrated with regard to alcohol intake in correlation to healthy parenting
styles (Balhorn, Cheong, Patock-Peckham, & Nagoshi, 2001). However, poor parenting
styles, which are associated with negative outcomes of self-regulating behavior in adolescents, were more likely to engage with alcohol (Balhorn, Cheong, Patock-Peckham, & Nagoshi, 2001). One of the most famous researchers on parenting
styles was Baumrind (1991), who discovered that four dominant areas of parenting
demonstrated significant differences in children’s development. Consequently, these parenting
styles manifested within the parents
’ warmth, nurturance, discipline strategy, communication skills, and expectations about maturity (Sarac, 2001). Baumrind (1991) defined parenting
styles as child up-brining techniques used by the parents
to control and limit their children’s behavior. In theory, there are three typical parenting
behaviors: authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative
style was identified by Maccaboy and Martin (1983). This parenting
style was known as the uninvolved/disengaged parent
(Maccaboy & Martin, 1983). These parenting
styles have a tendency of affecting the personality of a child to a great deal. The nature of parenting
style has been considered as a dominant factor in deciding the overall outlook of a child’s personality (Baumrind, 1991). However, elements of drinking alcohol are all present in the four different styles of parenting
to a greater or less degree. It can clearly be inferred that these different parenting
styles need further investigation of how they correlate with alcohol consumption of children during their years of college. To date, there is much needed research to be done on how parenting
styles within the Jewish community affect alcohol intake among our youth. McNally, Palfai, Levine, & Moore, (2003), advanced some of the above findings with 336 college age students. It was evidenced that young adults who had a poor perception of self, were more prone to engage in alcohol intake (McNally, Palfai, Levine, & Moore, 2003). Participants with a positive self, had a positive perspective of others and did not have significant relationships to problem drinking (McNally, Palfai, Levine, & Moore, 2003).
Underage and college drinking is an increasing problem in our youth. This later phase of adolescence is one where pressure and a desire to act as an independent individual are overwhelming enough to convince college students to opt toward excessive alcohol usage (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The degree to which parenting
styles correspond to college age drinking frequency within the Jewish community remains unknown. The given research is intended to investigate/measure a possible relationship between the parenting
styles experienced by a child during childhood coupled with inclination potential to develop an alcohol intake frequency during late adolescence (Brennan, 1986). It is evidenced that there is a considerable relationship between the parenting
styles and the degree of alcohol consumption in college aged adolescents/young adults in many college communities (Beck et al., 2004). Interestingly, it is currently unknown how parenting
styles within the Jewish community correlate with our community youth drinking frequency.
Purpose of the Study
At the present, there are no studies to determine the interaction of parenting
styles with alcohol frequency of college/rabbinical college students in the Brooklyn Borough-park Jewish community (Hassidic, Orthodox, and Modern Orthodox). It is currently unknown how prevalent this use/abuse is in the same age group within the Jewish Community. Much needed resources cannot be created without recognition or acknowledgment of the problem. Conclusively, there is a need to further investigate a direct relationship between parenting
styles and alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Respectively, this study would rarise parental competency in types of parenting
style effectiveness. Further, it would elevate the level of awareness in the Jewish Community regarding Teenage Alcoholism during Late Adolescence. IV-1 ??" Parenting
Styles (4) Evb. Inst. IV-2 - Jewish Affiliations (3) DP- Frequency of Drinking (How Much).
Research Question(s) and Hypotheses
RQ 1- Do the parenting
styles in the Hasidic, Orthodox, and Modern Orthodox Jewish communities differentially correlate with alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males (18 - 26)?
Null HP- Parenting
Styles have no correlation with teenage drinking frequency.
Alternate HP-2- Do parenting
styles have a positive or negative correlation on teenage drinking frequency? Alternate HP-3- What type of parenting
styles dominate in the Borough Park Jewish community? Alternate HP-4- Provided the investigation of specific parenting
styles in the Borough Park Jewish community, is there a correlation if any, toward the existence of Alcohol use frequency within the Jewish Community Specifically in College Age Students?
Alternate HP-5 Are parenting
behaviors related to influencing alcohol drinking frequency in college age children?
The types of research data that will be collected will involve opinions and characteristics that the children have and find in their parents
. Some of the most fundamental research that needs to be collected before the latter half of the study occurs is concrete findings, which determine a specific group (A or B) to place the boys into for research. In many ways, labeling a child as originating from a particular parenting
style generally describes how the parent
feels about the child and feels about being a parent
. This will be collected via surveys given to the children so that they can freely categorize their parents
based on a series of questions. Thus, the research study will also collect information about how the child uses alcohol, when, how often, why and trace those reasons as they adapted throughout life. The measuring tools for this data set will be primarily questionnaire interviews gathered via self-report (surveys) and researcher observation.
Research Question(s) and Hypotheses
• State the research questions.
??- State the null and alternative hypotheses that identify the independent and dependent variables being studied, the association being tested, and how the variables are being measured.
??- IV-1 ??" Parenting
Styles (4) For each institution
??- IV-2 - Jewish Affiliations (3)
??- DP- Frequency Of Drinking (How Much)
??- Methodology- Two Way Anova
Theoretical and/or Conceptual Framework for the Study
• Studies must include either a theoretical foundation or a conceptual framework section or both.
• Theoretical Foundation
• Identify the theory or theories and provide the origin or source.
• State concisely the major theoretical propositions and/or major hypotheses with a reference to more detailed explanation in chapter 2.
• Explain how the theory relates to the study approach and research questions.
• This applies to some epidemiological studies (as well as to some other quantitative studies).
• Identify and define the concept and/or phenomenon that grounds the study.
• Concisely describe the conceptual framework (a description of the body of research that supports the need for the study) as derived from the literature with more detailed analysis in chapter 2.
• State the logical connections among key elements of the framework with a reference to a more thorough explanation in chapter 2.
• State how the framework relates to the study approach and key research questions, as well as to instrument development and data analysis, where appropriate.
Nature of the Study
• Provide a concise rationale for selection of the design and/ or tradition.
• Briefly describe the key study variables (independent, dependent, and covariates).
• Briefly summarize the methodology (from whom and how data are collected and how data will be analyzed).
• Provide concise definitions of the independent variable, dependent variable(s), and any covariates (with more detailed analysis of coding, etc. described in chapter 3).
• Define terms used in the study that have multiple meanings (e.g., socioeconomic status, educator, health service professional, etc.). Do not include common terms or terms that can easily be looked up in a dictionary.
• Include citations that identify support in the professional literature for the definition or operational definition.
• Clarify aspects of the study that are believed but cannot be demonstrated to be true. Only include assumptions critical to the meaningfulness of the study.
• Describe the reasons why the assumption(s) was (were) necessary in the context of the study.
Scope and Delimitations
• Describe specific aspects of the research problem that are addressed in the study and why the specific focus was chosen (issue of internal validity).
• Define the boundaries of the study by identifying populations included and excluded and theories and/or conceptual frameworks most related to the area of study that were not investigated (this is an issue of external validity).
• Address potential generalizability.
• Describe limitations of the study related to design and/or methodological weaknesses (including issues related to limitations of internal and external validity, construct validity, and confounder variables).
• Describe any biases that could influence study outcomes and how they are addressed.
• Describe reasonable measures to address limitations.
• Identify potential contributions of the study that advance knowledge in the discipline. This is an elaboration of what the problem addresses.
• Identify potential contributions of the study that advance practice and/or policy, as applicable.
• Describe potential implications for positive social change that are consistent with and bounded by the scope of the study.
• Summarize main points of the chapter.
• Provide transition to chapter 2.
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O’Brien, M. C., McCoy, T. P., Rhodes, S. D., Wagoner, A., & Wolfson, M. (2008). Caffeinated Cocktails: Energy Drink Consumption, High?risk Drinking, and Alcohol?related Consequences among College Students. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(5), 453-460.
Patock-Peckham, J.A. & Morgan-Lopez, A.A. (2007). College drinking behaviors: Mediational links between parenting
styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(3): 297-306.
Patock-Peckham, J. A., Cheong, J., Balhorn, M. E. and Nagoshi, C. T. (2001), A Social Learning Perspective: A Model of Parenting
Styles, Self-Regulation, Perceived Drinking Control, and Alcohol Use and Problems. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25: 1284??"1292. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02349.x
Rowe, S., & Wertsch, J.V. (2002). Vygotsky’s model of cognitive development. In G. Bremner & A. Fogel (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of infant development (pp. 538-554). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1979). The development of higher forms of attention in childhood, Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 18(1), 67-115.
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