Atherosclerosis Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Atherosclerosis College Essay Examples

Title: Factors That Influence Disease

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 829
  • Bibliography:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Please write a 2 page Discussion board paper and please include the References page.



Factors That Influence Disease
In clinical settings, some of the most common questions that patients ask are Why do I have this? What caused this disorder? Will it ever go away? These emotional questions can be difficult to ask and to answer. However, for patients to come to terms with their diagnoses and adhere to treatment plans, they must have an understanding of factors that might have caused, or continue to impact, their disorders. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to explain disorders, associated alterations and symptoms, and changes that might occur within your patients’ bodies.
To prepare:
• Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro. Reflect on the importance of developing an in-depth understanding of pathophysiology.
• Select a disorder from the following list:
o Adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease)
o Atherosclerosis
o Cholelithiasis (gallstones)
o Colon cancer
o Cystic fibrosis
o Hemophilia
o Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)
o Osteoporosis
o Parkinson’s disease
o Tuberculosis
• Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how that factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms.
• Identify the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including the normal and altered cellular function. Consider both intra- and extra-cellular changes that occur.
Post on or before Day 3 a brief description of a patient scenario involving the disorder and the factor you selected. Explain how the factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms. Finally, explain the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including changes in cellular function.



“Introduction to Advanced Pathophysiology” Program Transcript
NARRATOR: In this program, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse. Let's listen as she provides her insights to this course.
DR. TERRY BUTTARO: So advanced pathophysiology is definitely a difficult course. There's a lot of memorization as you go through this course, really trying to understand things at the cellular level-- how do organs function? What happens, for example, when that organ stops functioning, whether it's because of an infection or a malignancy? But if you don't understand this, if you don't kind of learn, not only the normal, but definitely that pathophysiology part, as an advanced practice nurse, then you're not going to be able to really put the picture together when someone comes in.
So for example, understanding what the liver does is really important when somebody comes in with abdominal pain or anorexia, because you have to figure out, well, what could this be? So you have to get that history about, well, when did this start? Does it happen all the time? Are there other things going along with this?
And then, when you do your physical exam, you have to understand, well, not only where the liver is and what it does, but what else do you have to look for in the physical exam to determine if there is a problem with the liver. And that's not only the liver, because the knee bone is connected to the thigh bone. So every organ affects another organ. So it's essential that we understand that.
And it does require a lot of work. It does require a lot of work. But what you want to do is have this really good understanding about each system so that when somebody comes in, you might not remember exactly, but something clicks. And you say, maybe it's this. And then you can go look it up to see, well, what diagnostics do I have to do?
And truthfully, advanced pathophysiology takes from health assessment so that when you learn how to do a really good health assessment and good history, and then a good physical exam, you take the important data from the history and from the physical exam, and you put that together. And you say, you know, this doesn't look so much like the liver. This acts more like the stomach. And that's how you work out your differential.
And it's not that there's every one thing. We all want to keep our minds open to the different pathophysiologic processes in the body to be sure that we're not attributing one disease to a patient when it could be something else. So we have
© 2012 Laureate Education, Inc. 1
to keep our minds open. So that's why it's important. You can't only learn one system. You have to learn all the systems.
Online learning's a little bit different than when you actually go to school. It really requires that a student is able to pace themselves and study frequently, because it's on their own time. And so in some respects, online is really great, because you can do in your own time. You don't have to travel. You can do it at midnight if you want. I've had students before who do some aspects of online when they're at lunch at work, because they have a little bit of quiet time. And that works out well.
But you also get distracted easily, because you can be home. And there's tons of distractions at home. So you have to really focus. And you have to study every week. And this is true for all education.
Learning this information is complex. So people certainly have to read, but reading isn't enough. You have to figure out how you learn best. Are you a visual learner? Are you an auditory learner? Hopefully, you get a little bit of both. And that will help you.
I think using the online system and discussing questions with your fellow students is really helpful. You can say, you know, I read this, but this doesn't really make sense to me. Why does somebody have heart failure? What's the difference between systolic and diastolic? I don't get that. And so another student who might actually be working in a cardiac unit might be able to explain it better in clearer terms to you than the book does.
The other thing is probably making note cards is really important so that you can study in free moments. That can be helpful. Sometimes, podcasts or just actually recording what the highlights are so that you could listen in the car, that can be helpful, too. But it's really understanding that you cannot let it go to the exam, that learning has to occur every single day.
And for the most part, I would say to students, when the week starts on a Monday, first, look over the outline or the PowerPoint that is available to you online. Then go back and do the readings. And if there's any kind of exercise, do those exercises, because those exercises are going to help you figure out, well, did I really learn that, or do I have to go back?
And then have a few notes. You don't have to take copious notes. You don't want to do that. You only want to take notes on what you don't understand. But what you don't understand in either advanced pathophysiology or pharmacology, you want to write something a little quickly.
© 2012 Laureate Education, Inc. 2
So what I usually tell students they absolutely have to know is, so what would the patient complain about with this? What do you have to look for in the physical exam? What are the diagnostics that might be done for this disorder?
And then, what are the medications? What's the pharmacological treatment that a patient's going to need for this disorder? And what are you going to have to teach the patients?
So if you can kind of figure out a kind of a formula for [INAUDIBLE] learning about what's the clinical presentation, what's the physical exam, what diagnostics go along with the heart failure, for example, what are the medications treated, that will help you. But you also have to know what's the basic pathophysiologic process for that disorder, because if you don't understand that pathophysiologic process, you're not going to understand how the drugs we're going to give fix it.
So if somebody comes in with heart failure, you know that their heart has failed in some way. That's all it is. The pump is not working the way it should be. But when the pump doesn't work well enough, the lungs fill up with fluid, and the patient's short of breath, and their oxygen level goes down. So how do you get rid of that fluid?
Well, the first medicine, or one of the first, is usually a diuretic. So what are you, as a nurse, going to look for first? You're going to give that diuretic, that furosemide.
Then you're going to be listening to the lungs to see, is it getting better? Is their breathing getting better, is their oxygen level getting higher, is their respiratory rate going down? It's because you're going to be watching them.
And then there's many other things. It's not only one simple thing we do. But it's putting that whole picture together.
And when you're studying, whether it's pathophysiology or it's advanced pharmacology, you should be trying to have this picture of your patient in your mind. What does this patient look like? What's going on? How am I going to treat them? And then, how am I going to evaluate the treatment?
So it's really picking out the clinical presentation for that patient-- what do they complain of-- and then thinking about what the pathophysiologic process is. And it really is trying to figure that out at the cellular level.
What happens when a patient has cancer? What happens? So lung cancers, for example, they start 30 years often before a patient comes in with symptoms.
So I had a patient come in a couple weeks ago who complained about back pain. And when I asked her about the back pain, she said, well, you know, I've had this
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for about six months. It wasn't too bad in the beginning. But it's really right across my back here. And I said, well, did you ever smoke? And she said, yeah, I smoked for about 30 years.
So I'm thinking to myself, what could cause this? What causes that kind of pain? It wasn't pain when she moved. So then thinking about, well, what could happen in that area?
Is it the spinal column that's causing this? But she didn't have any numbness and tingling in her arms. She didn't have a problem with moving her arms. She didn't have muscle pain.
So then you have to go really way back more to the cellular level, what organs are there. So really, it's kind of the lungs and the muscle and the spinal column in the back. There's not a ton of other things.
So you need to figure out, well, how am I going to figure out what this is? And I couldn't think of a lab test. But an X-ray would at least tell me, well, are her lungs OK? And the X-ray would also at least show what her spine looked like. So that's why it's so important to kind of think about pathophysiology and understand what's happening.
© 2012 Laureate Education, Inc. 4
Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

Atherosclerosis. (2012). American Heart Association. Retrieved: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/WhyCholesterolMatters/Atherosclerosis_UCM_305564_Article.jsp

Atherosclerosis disease. (2012). Ultrasound services. Retrieved: http://prosono.ieasysite.com/patho_chapter_atherosclerotic_disease.pdf

Heart disease. (2013). Women's Health. Retrieved: http://womenshealth.gov/minority-health/african-americans/heart-disease.cfm

Teicholz, Nina. (2007). What if bad fat is actually good for you? Men's Health. Retrieved: http://www.menshealth.com/health/saturated-fat

"What is atherosclerosis?" (2013). NIH. Retrieved: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis/

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Title: Health and Immunization

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 2426
  • References:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Directions

Answer the following questions in short essay paragraph format, Each answered questions must have a cited source. A Separate page must list all the references and sources that was presented in each respond.

Questions:
1.Active acquired immunity can be achieved through the use of childhood immunizations. many parents voice concerns regarding the safety of vaccinations. what is your opinion on the current use of vaccinations? how would you educate parents regarding the safety and effectiveness of vaccinations? defend your answers with evidence based research.

2.Share a case study of an electrolyte imbalance from the literature. summarize the case study in 1-2 paragraphs. then discuss the clinical manifestations of the imbalance, the pathophysiology behind the imbalance, normal cell membrane transport of the electrolyte(s), and any alterations in cell membrane transport caused by the imbalance. How was the electrolyte imbalance resolved? analyzed the case study to determine any areas in which patient or staff education may have helped to prevent the electrolyte imbalance.

3.A widespread belief is that caffeine has a diuretics effect when consumed and will induce dehydration if used by athletes or those who perform strenuous exercise. discuss the pathophysiology behind this belief. share your thoughts on whether you agree or disagree that caffeine can induce dehydration. support your answer with evidence based literature.

4. Compare and contrast the pathophysiology between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Pneumococcal Pneumonia. include any types of cellular injury or cellular adaptation that may occur. evaluate if an inflammatory response is present and discuss the impact of that response. In the case of COPD, discuss the type of patient education you would implement to help with the patient's understanding of the disease and to improve compliance with a treatment plan.

5.Find an evidence based journal on cystic fibrosis and summarize the article in 2 paragraphs. address why you choose the article and how you might use the findings in your current or future practice settings.

6.Atherosclerosis is a common disorder of the arteries. A modifiable risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis is hypertension. discuss the pathophysiology of both disorders and the mechanisms by which hypertension contributes to atherosclerosis. discuss the current medications used to treat both disorder and the pharmacologic actions the medications have in altering the pathophysiology. How can you see this information in your current or future practice settings.

7.Share a case from the literature in which alternative therapies were used to facilitate the management of acute or chronic cardiovascular conditions.

8.Find an article on an inflammatory condition of the lower genitourinary tract. summarize the article in 1-2 paragraphs. discuss the pathophysiology of the condition, the pharmacologic agent(s) used to treat the condition, and how the agent(S) alter the pathophysiology. discuss the role of the nurse educator related to patient education of the reported condition and treatment.

9.Infertility is considered a disease process of the reproductive tract. find an article on an alteration of the genital tract that can lead to infertility. summarize the article in 2-3 paragraphs. discuss any potential treatments. what is the potential psychosocial impact for the patient with the condition?

10. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. the current treatment options for the disorder have focused on symptom control. Research is now focusing on developing ways to modify the disease progression and possibly provide a cure. investigate the current research on Parkinson disease treatment, including stem- cell research and the use of fetal tissue implants. share thoughts on the evolving therapies. what are the current controversies?

11.Share a case study from the literature on an endocrine disorder. discuss the pathophysiology of the disorder, including the effects on the endocrine feedback, and the role of the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Identify the pharmacologic agent(s) used to treat the disorder and how the pharmacologic agent(s) alters the pathophysiology

12. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is currently being used as an aid to weight loss in conjunction with an extremely restricted caloric intake of 500 calories per day. many people are buying the HCG through the internet with no medical surveillance. research the HCG diet and share thoughts on the efficacy, safety, and validity of the diet. what strategies would you use to educate patients on the diet?
Excerpt From Essay:
References:

Armstrong, L.E. Casa, D.J. Maresh, C.M. et al. (2007). The Temperature regulation Caffeine, exercise-heat tolerance and fluid-electrolyte balance, Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 35(3):135-40.

Grant, S.J. Bin, Y.S. Kiat, H. et al. (2012). The use of complementary and alternative medicine by people with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 12:299

Heymann D, Aylward B. (2008). Mass vaccination in public health. In: Heymann D, ed. Control of communicable diseases manual. 19th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Millard-Stafford, M.L. Cureton, K.J. Wingo, J.E. (2007). Hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions: effect of a caffeinated sports drink. Int J. Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 17(2):163-77.

Pellati, D. Mylonakis, I. Bertoloni, G et al. (2008). Genital tract infections and infertility. Eur J. Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 140(1):3-11.

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Title: essential hypertension as a contributing factor to heart disease

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1035
  • Bibliography:11
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: explain the pathophysiology of essential hypertension and evaluate its role as a contributing factor to heart disease

basically include,
how sodium and water (fluid) levels (i.e sodium reabsorption) within the blood affect and cause essential hypertension (blood pressure)

how obesity causes essential hypertension about a third of a page

and how all of the following are caused by essential hypertension and their relation to essential hypertension

Atherosclerosis
•Arterial aneurysm
•Myocardial infarction.

and briefly where possible how they (the above three conditions) can be treated
Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

Alexander, R.W. (1995). Hypertension and the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. Hypertension. Vol. 25. Retrieved from http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/25/2/155#SEC6

Carretero, O.A. And Oparil, S. (2000). Essential Hypertension. Circulation. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/circulationaha;101/3/329

Fenton, D.E. (2010, May 18). Myocardial Infarction. Emedicine. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/759321-overview

Garas, S. (2010, Jan 22). Myocardial Infarction: Treatment & Medication. Emedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-treatment

Handbook of Ocular Disease Management. Hypertension. Retrieved from http://cms.revoptom.com/handbook/SECT61a.htm

Lew, W.K. (2008, Sep 17). Renal Artery Aneurysm. Emedicine. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/463015-overview

MedicineNet.com. (2010). High Blood Pressure. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/high_blood_pressure/page4.htm

Narkiewicz, K. (2006). Obesity and hypertension -- the issue is more complex than we thought. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. Vol. 21, Iss. 2. Retrieved from http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/21/2/264

Reaven, G. (2003). Insulin Resistance, Essential Hypertension, and Coronary Heart Disease. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460069_2

Vikrant, S. And Tiwari, S.C. (2001, Jul.-Sep.). Essential Hypertension -- Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology. Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 3. Retrieved from http://medind.nic.in/jac/t01/i3/jact01i3p140.pdf

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Title: Aging of the body

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 767
  • References:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions:
Please answer the 4 questions below and write in your own words, no quotes. A paragraph or two- some questions might warrant a longer paragraph then others. You can give citations (and certainly do so if anything you write seems 'controversial') (The responses should be as you were explaining it to your mom…)

Please read the following paragraph from a treatise on osteoporosis and answer the questions below:

"In summary, the multifaceted activities of estrogen are fully reflected in bone. Of the many surprises encountered investigating estrogen action in bone is the relationship among estrogen, the immune system, and the skeleton .Clearly, if this relationship is equally relevant in humans as in rodents, postmenopausal osteoporosis should be regarded as the product of an inflammatory disease bearing many characteristics of an organ-limited autoimmune disorder, triggered by estrogen deficiency, and brought about by chronic mild decreases in T cell tolerance. Why such a pathway should have emerged is intriguing. One explanation is suggested by the need to stimulate bone resorption in the immediate postpartum period in order to meet the markedly increased maternal demand for calcium brought about by milk production. The signal for this event is the drop in estrogen levels early
postpartum. Henry Kronenberg (Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USAUSA) has suggested that postmenopausal bone loss should be regarded as an unintended recapitulation of this phenomenon (personal communication).Another response to delivery is the restoration of normal immune reactivity and the loss of tolerance to the fetus. It is tempting to speculate that cessation of ovarian function induces bone loss through an adaptive immune response because natural selection has centralized these 2 key adaptations to postpartum within the immune system. “

1. What does the author mean when he compares osteoporosis in terms intensified osteoclast activity and an abnormal immune response ??" what makes him suspect this?

a) Describe the progression of events that leads to atherosclerosis in numbered steps.
b) What effect does inflammation play in this process?
c) What is the event that can lead to a myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cerebrovascular accident (stroke)?


2. According to the figure below:
a) Could growth factors contribute to a cell becoming apoptotic? If so, how so, if not why not?
b) What would you guess were the functions of fos and jun (found within the pink nucleus in the drawing). Were you right, why or why not?
c) What activates the PKA protein ?
d) Major pathways leading to apoptosis converge on “Mt” - what do you think that stands for and why?



3. What causes Alzheimer's disease?


4. The APC gene in adenomatous familial polyposis responds to cell to cell contact, to a cell's moving or not and to a cell having the correct number of chromosomes (it seems to sense pressure or tension (in the physics sense, not in the psychological sense). Though it does not cause cancer it often leads to cancer ??" why, how? Give a chain of events that might occur from first inheriting the gene to cancer.
Excerpt From Essay:
References:

Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.

Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.

Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.

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