Essay Instructions: I need a (4) four-page essay on the American Literature course.
There are four separate topics that need to be answered.
Please answer one question per page.
I’ll provide all the literature materials (short stories, poems, etc.).
1) In The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass and A Pair of Silk Stockings people break free, if only temporarily, from the shackles that have held them in bondage.
Explain the actions taken by Frederick Douglass and Mrs. Sommers to break free of bondage. Then discuss the results of those actions.
2) In Winter Dreams, Dexter Green has a purpose and goals. Describe his purpose or goal and then explain what you think motivates him toward that goal. Make sure you include whether he succeeds or fails.
3) Write a paragraph explaining why learning based on experience can sometimes be more effective than learning acquired through textbooks and lectures.
Support your opinions with at least two examples from A Mystery of Heroism.
4) The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock uses dramatic monologue. In one paragraph discuss how this technique reveals Prufrock's character.
Then in a second paragraph, explain how dramatic monologue reveals the character of one of the protagonists in a Spoon River Anthology poem.
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Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Essay Section:
Worth 60 points. Select one (1) of the following prompts and compose a tight, accurate essay in response. Your essay should make reasonable assertions based upon readings, presentations, discussions, or other media sources. Watch for key words like compare, argue, or explain in designing your approach. Please limit yourself to approximately 1,250 words.
(Just an extra little hint because I’m feeling generous: you probably will want to choose a different essay prompt if you have already or plan to write an A&A on a topic that significantly overlaps with the key them in any of these prompts)
1. In responding to this prompt, I would like you to present and analyze a variety of ways in which the concept of EITHER maternity or paternity (you are welcome to extend both these terms through the entire procreation cycle and the process of child-rearing) can and has been understood or depicted across the broadest array of course curriculum you can effectively cover. I am expecting that you will present some very specific accounts, depictions, or explanations of these concepts in both non-fiction and literary sources we have covered and you will show their precise relevance to the curriculum and issues developed in IDS 161. Keep in mind that Kimmel, for example, will offer a variety of theories and ideologies without necessarily holding to them himself. Remember also that literature and other creative enterprises might explore maternity and/or paternity without making an absolute argument or reaching an unequivocal stand, and might challenge you to experience ideas about these things in ways you find uncomfortable or unpalatable. Not only am I not encouraging you to glamorize, glorify, or personalize these terms, I am strongly exhorting you to avoid doing that. If you can’t stay relatively objective, analytical, and critical, I advise you to stay away from this prompt altogether.
1A. Follow the general guidelines above, but compare representations and depictions of maternity and paternity (i.e. parenthood) rather than settling on one or the other.
1B. Follow the general guidelines above, but focus instead on the way that conventional notions of maternity vs. paternity might be blurred, redefined, or re-examined through the lens or filter provided by course curriculum.
Note: These are essentially three separate prompts. Please be clear which of the three you have chosen, and establish your position early in the structure of your essay.
2. Making certain that you are developing a distinct and original position on the issue rather than just recounting, for example, Kimmel’s, I would like you to examine significant examples of the relationships between gender and cultural symbols that have been presented through second-half course materials. Please don’t limit yourself to the most obvious or overt examples: I am looking for creative analysis and interpretation as well. You are welcome and encouraged to draw on both literary and non-fiction sources. Focus and limit your essay in such a way that it becomes an integrated discussion rather than a series of loosely related examples. Be prepared to present some clear conclusions.
3. Making certain that you are developing a distinct and original position on the issue rather than just recounting, for example, Kimmel’s, I would like you to examine the family “unit” (to be understood broadly depending upon the context) as a gendered construct with direct and thorough reference to a variety of course materials. Please go well beyond the most obvious or overt examples, and please don’t forget how the basics of economics (which, simply refers to the priorities and activities surrounding the sociocultural use of resources and distribution of labor) might come into play. I am looking for creative analysis and interpretation as well as responsibility for theories or historical trends posed in course materials; therefore, you are welcome and encouraged to draw on both literary and non-fiction sources. I am open to expanded notions of family that go beyond familiar structures and the single household model with which you are most familiar??"in fact, I encourage it. Examining this phenomenon does not necessitate imposing a judgment or bias of your own. Be prepared to present some clear conclusions.
4. In responding to this prompt, I am inviting you to expand upon the Transmogrified Image assignment and to walk me through a hypothetical day in your life that analyzes your experience in terms of IDS 161 issues (this must include to some degree all aspects of the title, Literature, Gender, and Science). It should be a hypothetical day because I am inviting you to condense and intensify typical experiences that you might have over a relatively long period and stuff them into a compact day. Be real, but stay on topic. Focus only on things relevant to the prompt, to the course, and to the exam. You are still required to draw on broad course curriculum, so if you can’t find a way to examine your reality with specific, clear, relevant reference to sources as diverse as Aliens, Herland and the works of Kimmel, Atwood, Perkins-Gilman, Chopin, and Wright, for example, you don’t want to choose this option.
5. In selecting this option, I would like you to present and analyze a significant variety of ways in which a variety of specific social institutions work in conjunction to construct masculinities and/or femininities. Notice that the key terms are now plural, which reinforces Kimmel’s reminder that gender shifts and changes across time and in response to social factors even within a particular culture. I am expecting that you will draw on both non-fiction and literary sources as well as video material, which means that you need to go well beyond Kimmel in effectively responding to this prompt. Keep in mind that Kimmel, for example, will offer a variety of theories and ideologies without necessarily holding to them himself. Remember also that some sources might invoke or explore masculinity and femininity without making an absolute argument or reaching an unequivocal stand; they may be implicit rather than explicit, requiring interpretation. Be varied and imaginative in your use of course sources, and please re-read the prompt carefully. As a reminder, for instance, I’m asking you to examine how social institutions work in conjunction with each other, but you don’t have the space or time to exhaustively cover them all. You’ll need to carefully limit the scope of your project accordingly.
6. Using the general guidelines in #1 above, I invite you to design your own prompt in which you combine any two terms or phrases from the list of I.D. terms. As always, the idea will be to present a focused, original analysis that demonstrates your ability to responsibly draw on and integrate a variety of course materials and sources. You must get my approval before taking on this option. And again, of course, if you undertake this option, you have decided not to repeat yourself in the I.D. section by examining either of the same terms.
7. In Herland, Charlotte Perkins-Gilman seeks to debunk and denaturalize gendered norms by removing gender difference from the equation. She takes for granted the magico-technological capacity for parthenogenesis (i.e. spontaneous pregnancy) but removes the capacity from a specifically religious context (though there is a reverence for the First Mother, she is not worshipped as a divine entity). In fact, the inhabitants of Herland are predominantly scientific and secular while still managing to treat each other ethically and maintain a strict moral code (amazing concept, huh?). Your challenge in this prompt is to design your own Utopian world that either eliminates, or radically reconfigures, the institutions of gender that emerge through difference and domination: it can be a Herland, a Hisland, a Theirland, a Gynandroland, or something else entirely. I am allowing and inviting you to be highly creative and speculative with this opportunity, but I am still holding you responsible for drawing abundantly, precisely, knowledgably, and faithfully on a broad array of course sources and materials. If you can’t conceive of a way to effectively balance an imaginative scenario with responsibility to course curriculum, it’s simple: don’t choose this prompt! If you do choose this prompt, I encourage you to describe the world rather than fictionalize it, by which I mean don’t get bogged down in complex plot design, poetic imagery, or character development beyond the minimum necessary to envision and enliven your world.
Some key reminders:
--I expect that you will strategize your responses on the exam in such a way that you are able to draw upon the broadest possible range of course materials issues, themes, and perspectives. Your choices should at least roughly reflect the amount of emphasis placed on various sources in class. Completely ignoring the film Aliens, the novel Herland, or the last several chapters of Kimmel, for example, would be oversights that would detract from your overall grade. If you only end up examining the family in this exam, or even social constructionism in regard to gender, you aren’t fulfilling that expectation at the highest level.
--At no time should any A&A term or essay prompt be approached in such a way that your analysis or application is limited to a very narrow range or to a single source or viewpoint. ALWAYS, I am looking for you to synthesize, integrate, compare, and to think interdisciplinarily. So, for example, if you can’t do anything more with the term “Evolution” than give a summary of the obvious handouts, then you should choose a different term.
--I expect you to judiciously cite course materials concisely and precisely, which means that you use brief but directly relevant examples that support your propositions and characterizations. This is how you demonstrate your careful reading and consideration of their content.
--Unlike thought papers, I am not inviting you in this exam to substitute personal views or opinions for demonstrated understanding of materials and arguments presented in the course. You are responsible for comprehending and acknowledging the variety of perspectives and possibilities offered within course curriculum regardless of whatever preconceptions or foundational beliefs you bring to the subject matter. I am not inviting you to find ways to dispute or wrangle with course sources.
--A&A terms are meant to open up possibilities. You are encouraged to originally and creatively demonstrate how they apply to, are applied or explored within, are derived from, are thematically explored within??"whether directly or indirectly--are challenged by, or are rejected by a variety of course sources. There is no necessary absolute checklist, but you need to at least acknowledge significant instances where they apply. For example, if you choose to work with the term “Parenthood” it would be a substantial oversight if you were to exclude reference to the fictional literary sources directly related to that theme.
Sources: I can attach sources upon request. - Please use these sources only and maybe 1 or 2 more if needed
Alien and Aliens movie - dont have to use this too much
The Man who was Almost a Man
The Yellow Sandpaper
A Pair of Silk Stockings
The Gendered Society by Michael Kimmel using chapters 6,10,11,12, 13 only (I have questia.com) account
You can choose any of the prompts that's best for you. You can also use Symbol of Gender as a theme for writing the prompts if possible but I was not clear whether it was a requirement. If this can be done by Friday I promise my loyalty. I only have $75-100 for this essay but get paid on the deadline date and will buy another essay within the week if I like it or do a payment plan! It must be completed by Friday! If paper is eligible for the buy 1 get the 2nd for 14.99 please let me know.
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Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Reading Response 1
Anton Chekhov and Kate Chopin
Appendix 2: "The Elements of Fiction" (1726) (This discussion will familiarize you with the terms you will be
using to discuss the stories you read.) The informational file "Terms for Analysis of Fiction" will also be helpful.
Anton Chekhov (256): "The Darling"(257); "The Lady with the Little Dog" (266) (Read and respond to both
Kate Chopin (278): Choose two of the four stories to respond to: "D?sir?e's Baby" (279); "The Story of an
Hour" (283); "Regret" (Internet link); "A Pair of Silk Stockings" (Internet link)
(Read and respond to at least one of these commentaries. You may incorporate your response to the
commentary in your response to the story; however, including just one sentence isn't enough to let me
know that you have read the commentary.)
Anton Chekhov, "Technique in Writing the Short Story" (1448)
Richard Ford: "Why We Like Chekhov" (1474)
Vladimir Nabokov: "A Reading of Chekhov's 'The Lady with the Little Dog' " (1534)
Leo Tolstoy: "Chekhov's Intent in 'The Darling' " (1571)
What the Critics Say about Anton Chekhov (Internet link with commentaries)
Chekhov's Legacy (Internet link with comments by other famous authors)
Questions for Reading Responses for English 2342
Use these questions below to guide you as you complete your reading responses. Note that you must
respond to the question about the most important element of fiction (since these elements are
essential to the art of the short story) and to the question about your favorite quotation (or
quotations), since these quotations reveal the author's style (and will be useful for your final essay).
I suggest that you choose only a few questions to answer in your response--but make the response
a paragraph--don't number your responses. You will probably notice that some of the questions
are similar and that some of the responses may overlap--that's fine. Your response should reflect
your own thoughts and analysis of the story. Your response to each story should be at least 200
words (but will probably be longer) and should show that you have read the story carefully. You
should mention the names of characters, details from the story that support your response,
incidents in the story that affect your reading of it, etc. You must include responses to the questions
with an asterisk (*).
*1. What is the most important element of fiction in this story (theme, setting, plot/conflict,
character, point of view, style)? Why did you choose this element? If you had trouble deciding,
2. What did you like about the story? What did you dislike? Why?
3. Who is your favorite character? Is he or she like you in any way? Would you make the same
decisions (or react in the same ways) in the same situations as this character? Why or why not?
Which characters remind you of people you know?
4. What did you learn about history, society, art, literature, philosophy, science (etc.) from this
story? What research might you do to help you understand the story better?
5. What did you learn about life from the story?
6. In what ways do you identify with the story?
7. How would you describe the writer's style or voice? (Style: "the characteristic way an author uses
language to create literature" ) Style includes "sentence length and complexity, word choice
and placement, and punctuation" (1738). Style also includes use of irony, symbolism, figurative
Here's an interesting checklist of literary style that you might find helpful: Checklist: Elements of
*8. What are your favorite sentences, passages, words, etc. from the story? (You must include at
least one quotation, since you will be using some of these when you write your final.) Explain your
2342RR1 (CHOPIN) Page 1 of 3
9. What would you tell a friend about this story?
10. Who would you recommend this story to and why?
11. What value does this story have for you?
Anton Chekhov is one of my favorite writers. I'm not sure that I know why, but I enjoy his small
stories that reveal so much about human nature. The quotation in the introduction to Chekhov tells
us much about his view of life. I like the idea that he has "squeezed the slave out of himself" and that
the "blood coursing through his veins is no longer that of a slave but of a real human being" (256).
Since our book contains many commentaries on Chekhov, it's possible to explore his theories about
writing and the views of others about his works and his life. His early life was traumatic; illness and
poverty left their mark. His death at age 44 from tuberculosis was most likely a result of the
disorder of his early life.
Your response should let me know that you have read and thought about all of the stories
and one of the commentaries. Do not merely summarize the stories. If you have difficulty
understanding a story, include your questions in your response. You should write at least
200 words per story. You may find the following links useful (and very interesting).
Woman Question in Russia
Although Kate Chopin's most famous writing by far is her novel The Awakening, I find her short
The Young Anton
Anton Chekhov and Olga
"A Pair of Silk Stockings"
"Desiree's Baby" (279)
"The Story of an Hour" (283)
Kate Chopin Biography and
Kate Chopin House in Cloutierville, La.
2342RR1 (CHOPIN) Page 2 of 3
stories (some almost short enough to be called sketches rather than stories) to be most intriguing.
Marriage and children were issues for women during the late 19th century (a time when the
women's movement was very active, since women didn't yet have the right to vote). For an
indication of how some women felt at the time, read Elizabeth Cady Stanton's famous document
from the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention: Declaration of Sentiments.
If you have read the introduction to Kate Chopin in our text (278), you know that Chopin was a
widow with six children when she began writing (at the suggestion of her doctor). Many of her
stories reveal her views (and the conflicts she perceived) on marriage and children, as she struggled
to find her own identity. For more about Kate Chopin's unconventionality, go to the following
website: Kate Chopin: A Re-Awakening.
Note: You may combine your responses to the stories into one response. Keep in mind that I'm looking for evidence that you have read and thought about the stories. Don't forget to cite sources if you use them.
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Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT: 1000-1500 words (or more)-- 4 secondary sources-- The primary source is the story. In all, you will be using at least 5 sources in your paper. You may use more, of course.
Preparing to write the paper
1. Choose one of the following stories for your research paper. One way to choose a story is to
read the introduction to the author and then to read the first few paragraphs of the story. If you
want to know a little more about the story, let me know. I suggest that you read the story before
looking for commentaries (secondary sources--sources about the stories), since you'll want to
experience the story as literature with all its interesting details and surprises first. Once you have
chosen your story, read carefully and take notes, jotting down any questions that occur to you as
you read. All page numbers are from the 8th edition. Stories to choose from will be uploaded as pdf's.
"This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen" (Tadeusz Borowski, 150)
"The Guest" (Albert Camus, 178)
"Cathedral" (Raymond Carver, 191)
"The Open Boat" (Stephen Crane, 359)
"A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings" (Gabriel Garcia Marquez, 445)
"The Overcoat" (Nikolai Gogol, 475)
"The Real Thing" (Henry James, 594)
"Shiloh" (Bobbie Ann Mason, 859)
"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" (Joyce Carol Oates, 988)
"A Good Man is Hard to Find" (Flannery O'Connor, 1042)
"My Life with the Wave" (Octavio Paz, 1102)
"The Conversion of the Jews" (Philip Roth, 1151)
"Everyday Use" (Alice Walker, 1334)
"The Man Who Was Almost a Man" (Richard Wright, 1401)
2. Find four commentaries (articles, interviews, overviews, critical essays, etc.) about the story
and take notes or highlight the parts that help in your understanding. You will be using at least
two substantial quotations from each commentary in your paper. I encourage you to use
more than four commentaries (sources). Keep in mind that your research should focus on the
literature itself, not on the author, though you may find articles in which the author discusses the
story, or you may find that the author's own life is relevant to the story in a very specific way. The
primary source (the story) does not count as one of the four commentaries (secondary
sources). This means that you will have at least five sources listed in your works cited.
No internet (or print) sources that are "notes" or "summaries" of the primary source
(CliffsNotes, Endnotes, Classicnotes, Booknotes, Sparknotes, Novelguide.com, etc)
(Anything with lots of advertisements should be avoided.)
No encyclopedias, especially Wikipedia, which is a good general reference but not always
reliable, especially not as literary criticism
No dictonaries--definitions of words aren't commentaries (though it's good to look up
words, of course)
No unsigned internet articles
Books (biographies of the author, compilations of critical essays, critical studies of the
HCCS databases (especially Literature Resource Center). Choose the tab with "Literary
Criticism, Articles, and Work Overviews." You will also see that you can search by the title
of the story, which is very useful.
Movies or documentaries that relate to the the primary source
Reliable websites (with authors listed)
Websites with .org, .gov., .edu
Writing the Paper
3. In your paper, begin with a brief introduction in which you tell why you chose this story or
play, what questions you had after reading, how your found your sources, which sources were
most useful. This introduction is required.
***You should use "I" in the introduction since you are discussing your personal response***.
4. Include a very brief discussion of the primary source itself, including quotations that you think
are important. This part of the paper shouldn't be more than a paragraph or two. (I emphasize
"brief" because in the past, some students have discussed the story for half the paper and
responded very briefly to the commentaries.)
5. Then discuss each commentary (source) in a full paragraph for each source, letting the reader
know what the critics have said about your story, novel, or play. Include at least two substantial
quotations from the source and your reponses to what the critics say. You will need to give the
name and author of each commentary, but don't use these as headings. I prefer that you organize
your essay by discussing the sources one by one. You may, of course, make connections among
the sources to make the essay flow nicely. I'm interested in what you find out about the literature
through research. Please follow punctuation rules for quotations. Quotation marks don't substitute for other marks of punctuation (commas, colons, semicolons, periods). Here is a
website that should be useful: Punctuating Quotations in Essays
6. At the end of the paper, summarize what you have learned by doing the research, perhaps
letting your reader know which commentaries answered the questions you had, which gave you
additional insight, which were difficult to understand, etc. Again, you should use "I."
7. Include a Works Cited list at the end of the paper, listing all sources alphabetically, using
MLA documentation format. Be sure to list your primary source (the story you are
writing about). You must follow MLA format exactly. If you need help, let me know. You
may wish to pick up a handout at the library or consult the following website: MLA Format
Research Documentation Guidelines:
1. Include the name of the author and title in a sentence in the text of the paper, not in
parentheses. The page number should appear in parentheses just after the quotation. The
page number always comes after the quotation marks and is not preceded by a p.; the period
comes after the parentheses. See example below. Websites and databases usually don't have
page numbers, so you need to include only the author and title. Remember that any
borrowed material (a quotation, a paraphrase, a summary, an idea) must have an intext
Example 1 (In-text citation):
In Ian Watt's excellent biography, Conrad in the Nineteenth Century, Watt says that "[n]
either Conrad nor Marlow had any faith in the rationalisations [of the Victorian ethic], but
they adhered to many of the values" (148).
Notice that I have not repeated "Watt" in parentheses before the page number. It is very
important not to repeat the author's name unnecessarily. Doing so is distracting to the
reader and implies that he or she can't remember the name of the author, even though you
have included it at the beginning of the sentence. (Imagining yourself as the reader is a good
Works Cited Entry:
Watt, Ian. Conrad in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
Example 2 (In-text citation): In Theatre U.S.A: 1665-1957, the author, Barnard Hewitt, says of Tennessee Williams and the
production of A Streetcar Named Desire: "Tennessee Williams had succeeded in investing
contemporary materials with poetry by intensifying the expression of the suffering of
realistically conceived characters" (441).
Notice that there is punctuation after the introduction to the quotation. In this case, I used a
colon; however, depending on the lead-in, you might use some other mark of punctuation.
It's important to follow normal punctuation rules when using quotations. Notice also that
the ending quotation marks come before the parentheses and that the period comes after.
Works Cited Entry:
Hewitt, Barnard. Theatre U.S.A.: 1665-1957. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. Print.
2. For your primary source (the story, novel, or play you are researching), use page numbers
only as long as it's clear that you are quoting from the primary source (and as long as you
have included the author and title in the introduction). The full citation will appear in the
Works Cited list).
The narrator of "The Real Thing" explains his philosophy of illustration in the following
I liked them [Major and Mrs. Monarch]--I felt, quite as their friends must have done-
-they were so simple; and I had no objection to them if they would suit. But
somehow with all their perfections I didn't easily believe in them. After all they were
amateurs, and the ruling passion of my life was--the detestation of the amateur.
Combined with this was another perversity--an innate preference for the
represented subject over the real one: the defect of the real one was so apt to be a lack of representation. I liked things that appeared; then one was sure. Whether they
WERE or not was a subordinate and almost always a profitless question. (598)
The quotation above is "blocked," which means it is indented 10 spaces from the left
margin. Quotations of four lines or more should be blocked. Notice that there are no
quotation marks around the quotation. Blocking it reveals to the reader that you are
quoting. Also, in a blocked quotation, the period comes before the parentheses.
Examples of Works Cited Entry for primary source: James, Henry. "The Real Thing." The Story and Its Writer. Ed. Ann Charters. 8th ed. Boston:
Bedford. 594-611. Print.
Notice that you should include the inclusive page numbers for the story.
3. Use the following format if you're quoting from a multi-volume source like Twentieth
Century Literary Criticism, Contemporary Literary Criticism, Twentieth Century Views, etc.
(Always cite the actual author of a piece, not an editor.) In-text citation: Lionel Trilling, in "F. Scott Fitzgerald" (from The Liberal Imagination), says this about
Fitzgerald's writing style: "Even in Fitzgerald's early, cruder books, or even in his
commercial stories, and even when his style is careless, there is a tone and pitch to his
sentences that suggest his warmth and tenderness, and, what is rare nowadays and not
likely to be admired, his gentleness without softness" (12).
Works Cited Entry: Trilling, Lionel. "F. Scott Fitzgerald." The Liberal Imagination. New York: Viking, 1951. Rpt. in F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Collection Of Critical Essays. Arthur Mizener, ed. Twentieth
Century Views. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1963. 11-19. Print.
4. If you're using the Internet, follow MLA guidelines by including the author (if known) and
title of the piece, the date the site was created (if indicated), the http address (optional), and
the date accessed. If the author isn't known, use the title of the piece (even if it's a simple
title like "A Poe Chronology").
Colleen Burke, in an article on the Internet, describes Heart of Darkness as a work that
"descends into the unknowable darkness at the heart of Africa, taking its narrator, Marlow,
on an underworld journey of individuation, a modern odyssey toward the center of the Self
and the center of the Earth."
Works Cited entry:
Burke, Colleen. "Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness: A Metaphor of Jungian Psychology." 21
March 1998. Web. 17 Oct 2009.
Note: Check guidelines for dates to include. If you know the date when the site was produced
or last revised, include that. If not, include only the date you accessed the site.
5. If you use a database like Literature Resource Center, follow this format:
Example (in-text documentation):
Linda Wagner-Martin in " 'A Pair of Silk Stockings': Overview," comments on the story's style:
"Chopin's departure from a plot-oriented narrative, to the emphasis on the inner motivation of her
character, was as important as her abandonment of the details of local color writing."
Works Cited entry:
Wagner-Martin, Linda. " 'A Pair of Silk Stockings': Overview." Reference Guide to Short
Fiction. Ed. Noelle Watson. 1st ed. St. James Press, 1994. Literature Resource Center.
Web. 17 October 2009.
6. To avoid repeating all of the information about a book with several essays about your
story, you may include one full reference to the entire book (with the editor) and then
cross-reference the individual essays. Here is an example.
Mizener, Arthur, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century
Views. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966. Print.
Cowley, Malcolm. "Third Act and Epilogue." Mizener 64-69. Print.
Wanning, Andrews. "Fitzgerald and His Brethren." Mizener 57-63. Print.
and the center of the Earth."
lack of representation. I liked things that appeared; then one was sure. Whether they
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