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The First World War also resulted in vastly improved infrastructure. Marshall speaks of sophisticated transportation systems moved personnel and supplies in volume and speed that were unknown merely decades earlier.[footnoteRef:27] Keegan, Ferguson, Overy and Weinberg do not dwell on these transportation developments during World War I but Keegan, Overy and Weinberg speak of their extensive use by both the Allies[footnoteRef:28] and the Germans[footnoteRef:29] during World War II. [27 S.L.A. Marshall, World War I (New York, NY: Mariner Books, 2001), p. viii.] [28: Keegan, p. 100; Overy, p. 53; Weinberg, p. 116.] [29: Keegan, p. 116; Overy, p. 49; Weinberg, p. 143.]
For example, in approximately 2 weeks in August, 1914, French railway system was so sophisticated and efficient that it transported more than 3,700,000 troops and the Germans transported approximately 2,000,000 well-armed troops through their railway system in even less time.[footnoteRef:30] [30: Marshall, p. viii.]
Marshall also asserts that the enormity of this first "World War" required the construction of factories and training of manpower in the technical requirements for manufacturing arms and ammunition, tied intimately to technology but also requiring vastly improved efficiency in living accommodations and all the accoutrements, connections and transportation. For one example, as Essen, the Germans built the Krupp works, consisting of a city-within-a-city of 41,000 workers for the construction of heavy weapons and having its own streets, police force, fire department and traffic regulations.[footnoteRef:31] Marshall provides another example in Woolwich, England, in which one factory and all required materiel and workers were transported and assembled to churn out 30,000 rounds of ammunition each month and transport them.[footnoteRef:32] Weinberg also mentions the importance of the United States' manufacture of munitions during World War I.[footnoteRef:33] Keegan, Ferguson and Overy do not mention munitions factory developments through World War I but assert that the importance of such factories was recognized from the very early stages of World War II.[footnoteRef:34] Marshall also speaks of extensive railways built to transport forces, arms, supplies and artillery. One example is the construction of five new narrow-gauge railway lines across the Fifth Army's operation zone in the Verdun to transport weapons and ammunition to their positions.[footnoteRef:35] Keegan, Ferguson, Overy and Weinberg all speak of the importance of railways for both the Germans and the Allies.[footnoteRef:36] Necessity being the Mother of Invention, the necessities of a first World War led to markedly improved developments,
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