Essay Instructions: Research and write a brief Vision for WIC Program
Department of Health Women, Infant, and Children Program
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: • Annotated Bibliography Information
The intent of this project is to get you into an academic library (either live or electronically or both) to acquaint yourself with some of the materials used in research and to read and critique a few research journal articles related to your field of interest. While you may have done a fair amount of library work before, plan to spend a substantial amount of time with this project, and use it to further your understanding of the research process and your knowledge of your field in general. The real value of this project is not only what you may learn about the topics addressed in the articles, but what you acquire in the way of experience in critically evaluating the adequacy and technical merits of the presentations. As you will see in our threaded discussions, not all articles are well done - many are seriously flawed and maybe should not have been published (at least not without serious revision).
We want you to find research articles in academic journals on any topic or topics that interest you, read them, and write brief descriptions of them. We expect that the articles you select will be research articles (reports of empirical research studies) and that several of them will be from the very recent issues of the journals. For each article, write the bibliographic citation for it and a paragraph or two about the article. Use the APA style for your citations or use a style you that you prefer. The annotation may be as short as a paragraph of several sentences if that's what it takes to describe the article. If you find yourself writing more than 3 paragraphs you may be trying to include too much. However, if the bibliography is to be of value to you, you may wish to include more information in your description of the article than 3 paragraphs permit. Resist the temptation to just reproduce the abstract that precedes the article. Instead, read the article and attempt to capture its essence in your own words. You might wish to personalize your comments, e.g. how the article might affect your own teaching or whether or not you agree with positions the authors took. Be sure to include your own evaluative remarks of critique - was the article difficult to read, were the measures described well, did the authors overstep their data in your judgment, was the experimental design appropriate, was the sampling of subjects appropriate for the design, were the conclusions justified based on the data, etc. (have a look at p. 617 - 619 in Ary, for other ideas). It is important that you include your assessment of the technical adequacy or inadequacy of the article. We will be assessing the technical merits of articles in the last 4 threaded discussions in our course - you will see clearly there what constitutes a technically well-presented article. You might consider looking up articles on a topic or topics of specific interest to you (academic or not). In this case, provide a brief statement of the theme(s) or topic(s). Or provide a formal research question if you like. You may wish instead to read a variety of research articles that are not related to a single topic - this is fine also.
In addition to reading some research articles for this project, we recommend that you have a look at the Encyclopedia of Educational Research. It is an amazing compendium of extensive literature reviews of more than 200 educational topics. Identify the articles in this encyclopedia that are of greatest interest to you, read them, and include them in your annotated bibliography. Or have a look at Review of Educational Research - it contains timely encyclopedic treatments of major topics in education. Or have a look at Mental Measurement Yearbooks, look up some tests that are of interest to you, read about them, and report for each one its title, purpose, year, acronym, cost, a brief description, and reliability and validity information. If you are at an academic library that houses dissertations, pick one or two that are about topics that look interesting to you, read them, and write brief descriptions of these studies. Feel free to select other resources from which you might select articles or other materials to read. See pages 65 - 71 in Ary for other ideas. Up to half of the annotated citations that you submit may be "non-research" items like those mentioned above, or even position or summary papers that many academic journals publish yet are not reports of actual research.
Samples illustrating acceptable formats are presented below should you need them or wish to use them instead of an APA Manual. We ask that you:
1. Be consistent in the style you use for your citations,
2. that you get the bibliography to us on or before the deadline,
3. that you select materials of interest to you, read them, and write your brief summaries in your own words.
4. and that at least half of the articles or citations that you submit be research articles with your annotation that includes remarks about the article's technical merit or adequacy.
The annotated bibliography may be sent to us by email as an attachment. Deadline information is in the Course Schedule. This deadline applies regardless of whether you are sending in a 12-item bibliography that preserves your TEST GRADE or whether you are sending in 1) a 16-item bibliography to raise your TEST GRADE by one partial letter grade (like from an A- to an A), 2) a 20-item bibliography to raise your TEST GRADE by two partial letter grades (like from a B to an A-, or 3) a 24-item bibliography to raise your TEST GRADE by a full letter grade.
EXAMPLES OF ANNOTATED RESEARCH ARTICLE CITATIONS WITH COMMENTS ON TECHNICAL ADEQUACY
1. Boulware-Gooden, R., Carreker, S., Joshi, R.M., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Instruction of Metacognitive Strategies Enhances Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Achievement of Third-Grade Students. The Reading Teacher, 61(1), 70-77
This study was specifically designed to analyze the efficacy of systematic direct instruction of multiple metacognitive strategies created to aid students in their comprehension of texts. The data collected through this five-week study resulted in the addition of “multiple-strategy use” as one of the eight effective strategies to aid students in their literacy development, as cited by the National Reading Panel (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). The purpose of the study was to specifically investigate the reading comprehension and vocabulary development of 119 third grade (over six classrooms) students in two urban elementary schools in southwest United States. The pre-test and post-test results of students in both schools were analyzed to determine the effect of using metacognitive strategies to assist students in their comprehension of expository texts.
I was rather confused by the purpose of the study. It seemed dichotomous to me, because as a literacy teacher, I question the possibility of direct instruction apropos to teaching the use of metacognitive strategies to students. Moreover, it also seemed confusing because I was not sure of the variable was comprehension of expository texts or vocabulary development, because the two can require very different strategy approaches. I would have gained more information from the article if there were clear descriptions of the setting of the study as well as a more detailed description of the characteristics of the intervention and the comparison group. The results were analyzed and indicated that the gains demonstrated through the performance of the intervention group (to which direct instruction in metacognitive strategies was given) were statistically significant, and through an additional analysis using a Binomial Effect Size Display (BESD), the intervention group showed a 40% difference in gain in vocabulary development and a 20% difference in gain in reading comprehension.
2. Herman, D, Harrison, G, Afifi, A, Jenks, E. (2008).Effect of a targeted subsidy on intake of fruits and vegetables among low-income women in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. American Journal of Public Health, 98 (1), 98-105.
The study authors referred to the design of this project as a nonequivalent control group design, which is a categorization that I am not familiar with. There were 2 treatments and 1 control administered at 3 similar WIC clinics in Los Angeles. Each clinic recruited postpartum women enrolled in WIC services, and one clinic sample received vouchers for fruits and vegetables to be purchased at a farmers market, one clinic sample received vouchers for fruits and vegetables for purchase at a supermarket, and the controls received a nonfood voucher for disposable diapers. The baseline, end of intervention and 6 months post-intervention consumption of fruits and vegetables were assessed and compared. A mixed model approach was used to look at any changes in fruit and vegetable intake at the end of the intervention and 6 months after incentives were removed in order to account for intrasubject correlation (degree of similarity of participant responses within a group and across groups) and to adjust for covariates. The study showed that the farmers market and supermarket participants increased their fruit and vegetable intake during the intervention and maintained increased consumption over the control group 6 months post-intervention.
As mentioned with other WIC studies, the results of this study are very specific to the WIC program and its participants. The demographics of the participants in this study are not at all representative of WIC participants across the country ??" in this group close to 90% of the participants were Hispanic. As in other WIC studies, the majority of the data were self-report including dietary intake, causing much of the data to be questionable in regards to accuracy (although the researchers did do evaluations to ensure that energy intake reports were within plausible limits and tried to account for intrasubject correlation). One major question that was raised for me was how much of the fruits and vegetable incentives were actually consumed by the participant’s other household members vs. the participants’ consumption. The redemption of the vouchers was 90%, but that doesn’t mean that the food purchased was actually consumed by the treatment groups only. Another limitation is that this study was conducted in an environment where fruits and vegetables are available in abundance year round and the consumption of these foods are more culturally accepted (particularly in participants who are recent immigrants). As far as study design goes, I would have liked to have seen a better randomization process for each treatment group, although that would have been a much harder design to implement within the normal clinic experience as the clinic specific sample groups were.
Some of the main positive points that stuck out for me were the comments revealed in the interview of the “pleasant community experience” reported by the farmers’ market shoppers. This group also had the highest prevalence of exclusively breastfeeding than the other groups. This study laid some great ground work in looking at the implementation of a fruits and vegetables addition to the WIC food packages. It will be interesting to see whether the increased intake will occur at the same level with the current additions, even though the nation wide intervention will be smaller dollar amounts for the vouchers and will not necessarily include farmers markets as venues for purchase.
3. Valencis, S.W., & Buly, M.R. (2004). Behind test scores: What struggling readers Really Need. The Reading Teacher, 57(6), 520-531. Reprinted with permission of the International Reading Association.
This article draws on the results of an empirical study of students who failed standardized reading tests and describes six different profiles of struggling students as follows: 1) Automatic word callers, 2) Struggling word callers, 3) Word stumbles, 4) Slow comprehenders, 5) Slow word callers, and 6) Disabled readers. (brief description of each of these profiles was also included)
The article was reasonably well presented, except for the descriptions of instruments used that are not well known and the lack of attention to any serious analysis leading to their conclusions. I thought the article should have been revised for clarity, comprehensiveness, and accuracy before going into print. This research article will help me find instructional strategies that I might use and help me find pertinent instructional strategies by identifying my struggling readers into different profiles of struggling students.
4. Feldman, D., Kluwin, T. & McCrane, W. (2006). Deaf Clients’ Perceptions of Counseling Expertise as a Function of Counselors’ Signing Skill, Gender and Therapy Type. American Annals of the Deaf, v150n5, 408-413. This study looks at how signing skills, gender and therapy type influence a deaf client’s perception of the counseling process. The results showed that these three factors did not have an influence on perception.
There were some limitations that would influence the outcome of this research. First, the sample for the research was very small. Also, the sample of students in the study were all taking professional perception classes which may not be a true representative of the deaf population. Finally, sign skills were not indicated as a factor of the clients’ perception. This may be due to the fact that one quarter of the sample was hard of hearing, not deaf. The client’s who were hard of hearing may be more tolerant of signers who are not as skilled. There were some flaws in the sample and the stimuli, and I believe that if future research were done to change these inconsistencies, the results would be very different.
i need 24 article in five pages close to the example above
please dont do copy because i will fail the class
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: This type of assignment is for an Evaluation Design paper and there will be multiple assignments following this one so I hope to have someone with masters level experience and skilled in program planning and evaluation who chain commit to multiple assignments (some short and on final paper (12-16) pages over the next 8 weeks. All assignments will be given on a weekly basis . If this request can not be accommodated then I would like to cancel this order and quest a refund. I will provide as a any resources as possible in addressing this assignment.
This first assignment is a program brief. (2 pages) describing a selected program ( I would like to use the food stamp program) , indicating the problem addressed by the program, the range intended beneficiaries and the scope of the intended benefits.
These a my thoughts on the subject in general:
I personally feel that's eating healthy at times can be much more expensive especially if you are one of those people where everything must be organic. However my thinking and approach to this is that the food stamp program should follow some more of the awesome improvement made by the WIC program for mothers to be and children under the age of 5. You can get an abundance of food but each coupon is limited to certain items. Bread including whole wheat, eggs, tuna, whole grain healthy cereal, milk included skim and 2%. Of course they would need to expand the variety more but I do not feel people should be getting obese on the government and ultimately our dime spending their food stamps Oreos and sweetened artificial cereals etc..And then when they become obese we are responsible for their medical health issues and the government will actually pay for Gastric Bypasses , their scold ten suffer from the sugar overloads of their bad food choices as well. People don't need to starve they just need to be provided with better choices and if they want the junk food then let them get it on their own dime. Lets not even get into those who buy Lobster and filet mignon with their food stamps ...and if you think it doesn't happen then think again. These changes can easily be done without any additional expenses . Lets get these local farmers who are in need of assistance involved also. The WIC program gives each family $20 approximately to spend on farmers market. Right idea but not enough to make a be difference . The government should make better deals with its local farmers and distribute these good to the needy rather than them going to the supermarket and buying fruits and vegetables from Mexico and other countries outside of the US. The more we support our local farmers the better they do and the less the government would have to help them out financially as well. I don't known maybe I am missing a very important key factor but these all seem like very simple and very cost efficient ideas that will produce a chain of multiple benefits from the needy to the tax payers.
Excerpt From Essay:
I really do appreciate HelpMyEssay.com. I'm not a good writer and the service really gets me going in the right direction. The staff gets back to me quickly with any concerns that I might have and they are always on time.
I have had all positive experiences with HelpMyEssay.com. I will recommend your service to everyone I know. Thank you!
I am finished with school thanks to HelpMyEssay.com. They really did help me graduate college..