Essay Instructions: Topic: Without great difficulty, wealthy white American settlers created and dominated a stable plantation society in which slaves, Indians, and poorer whites accepted the justice of their subordination." Assess this statement, using material from the first 3 sets of readings to support your answer.
Here are some of the selected readings:
James Revel - "The Poor Unhappy Transported Felon''s Sorrowful Account of His Fourteen Years Transportation, at Virginia, in America"
Slave Code, Virginia (1705)
Author unknown - "An Account of the Negro Insurrection" (1739)
Selection from Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, eds., The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 179-1712
Selections from Elizabeth Donnan, ed., Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America.
"Slavery and the Constitution"
Selection from Thomas Jefferson, "Notes on the State of Virginia" (1785)
"Tyrone Power Sees Slavery Moving West," and "George Featherstonhaugh Encounters a Slave Coffle," from Willie Lee Rose, ed., A Documentary History of Slavery in North America.
I can fax copies of the readings or certain parts of the reading if needed. I want to have quotes in the paper, but none that are very long. Here are some suggestions that he outlined for us that will help improve the grade of the paper. Present and stay focused on a significant central idea. Each paragraph needs to follow from the previous paragraph. Assertions need to be supported with specific evidence throughout, and the paper will balance description with analysis.
-express the main idea of the paper clearly
-write with specifity
-write in the past tense
-do not use passive voice
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Total Pages: 4 Words: 1316 Works Cited: 4 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Thesis Statement: Blacks, already disenfranchised from American society, were less affected in the Great Depression than White Americans
4 page paper, Chicago citation style. Paper must reference the two historical documents that are attached, and two scholarly pieces of your choice. Please feel free to also draw from literary references of the time as well to add color and vibrancy to this paper.
There are faxes for this order.
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Essay Instructions: Your task is to show black movies as correlates to the progress of African American society. Describe how some of the most important black movies (include Shaft, Malcolm X, and Do the Right Thing as examples) represent events in the progress of African American society. Give adequate background of critical historical events in African American history, such as the Civil Rights era, integration, blaxploitation, and the election of Barak Obama (to name a few) and how black movies reflected these events.
Below are the first four pages of the essay that I've written. There needs to be 14 pages total. You may insert your own work anywhere or rewrite anything I've written.
PLEASE send me an update within 3 days of anything that you've written so I can see if you're on the right track.
Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African American Society
From the first African slave to set foot on American soil, to the election of Barack Obama, there has been a tremendous metamorphosis of the African American community’s stature within the culture of the United States. Where Within Our Gates provided one of the first proverbial dips into the waters of African American’s being able to express their genuine opinions, films such as Do the Right Thing and Shaft were vibrant expressions of passion and rage that pulled no punches. This dramatic change did not happen overnight, and to illustrate this, this paper will utilize several films from the black film canon that individually signify the gradual steps African Americans took to improve their social standing in the U.S. Much to the benefit of this paper, the most drastic social advances blacks have made during their time in the U.S. occurred during the era of film, primarily the Civil Rights era.
In order to fully understand the era of black film, a conceptualization of the African American condition since 1654 needs to be formed. By understanding the convoluted and wretched history African Americans have endured, the path that black films have taken will be all the more cohesive and logical. I will divide African American history into three categories: (1) the era of American slavery, (2) the era of state-sanctioned oppression, and (3) the aftermath.
The era of African slavery in North America started with the first black indentured servants arriving in Rhode Island in 1654 and theoretically ended with the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The evils associated with slavery are ubiquitous: complete control over individual’s identities, physical torture, instilment of fear, and relegation to a subhuman social class are but broad classifications of the range of abuses seen under slavery. The suffering felt by physical abuse ends with the life of the person experiencing it. If a slave owner whipped his slave’s backside into a mass of scar tissue, that slave’s anguish would stop with his death. Conversely, stereotypes and beliefs about an entire race last for generations and become self-evident the more time goes on and the more those stereotypes are propagated. If the American slave trade lasted for more than two hundred years that is more than enough time for a litany of stereotypes to take root in American culture, no matter how outrageous any one claim may be. To borrow a quite profound observation from Adolf Hitler, “Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it.” After more than three hundred and fifty years, our culture still clings to the stereotypes generated during this timeframe: blacks are inherently gifted in athletics (and thus place less emphasis on being intelligent); blacks are not human beings; blacks are prone to criminal behavior. The movies discussed further on in this paper will provide African Americans a chance to intimately convey the effects of this lineage in a way in which the entire American public can piece together an understanding of how African Americans came to exist in today’s world.
While the Emancipation Proclamation put an eventual end to slavery, Jim Crow laws extended the history of relegating blacks to a class of inferiority from 1876 to 1965. African Americans may have gained freedom from the iron chains of white Americans, but what good was that freedom if blacks moved into a state of limbo where the laws of the land kept them trapped in a state of perpetual poverty and social inferiority? This freedom transformed African Americans from physical property the lowest class of the human race. When someone or something is viewed as property, the connotation of that property being inferior is a likely assumption given the nature of the owner/slave relationship. A slave is slave because he or she is thought to be incapable of self-sufficiency without the guidance of a superior intellect that can preserve the slave’s existence. No matter how ludicrous this concept may be sound to you or I in 2009, this is a very real viewpoint that many Americans shared in the past. Once African Americans gained their freedom from slavery, a long journey would begin to reclaim dignity and self-worth destroyed by centuries of external domination. That process continues to this day. The intonation of the paper from this point forward revolves around the psychological impetus of a victim recovering from a history of abuses.
To watch Within Our Gates in 2009 is to watch something wholly primitive. The editing makes no sense in certain parts, actors make exaggerated facial expressions for no particular reason, and yet none of this matters when considering the value of this film. Within Our Gates represents the first small step African Americans took in reclaiming their dignity on a national scale. Created as an answer to D.W. Griffith’s monstrously degrading Birth of a Nation, Within showed the American public an African American population that was cognitive, rational, and educated, a massive correction of Griffith’s portrayal of blacks as sex-crazed rapists and buffoons. A scene depicting the rape of a black woman at the hands of a white man was an unheard act of defiance in the early 20th century. The phenomenon of white sexual domination over black women existed since the inception of slavery, and for a black filmmaker to assert the notion that white males and not black males have a long and prolific history of interracial sexual oppression is remarkable given the time period Within was released in. This event is akin to a victim confronting his or her longtime tormentor and declaring that the suffering being wrought upon them needs to come to an end. Images of docile, innocuous blacks obviously hold no shock factor in 2009, but for a black movie made in 1920, this was a mighty declaration in a sea of mistruths.
Old Ned, a poor black preacher in Within, visits two white male acquaintances and is asked what he thinks about blacks possibly getting the right to vote. Old Ned replies, “This is a land for the white man and black folk got to know their place.” After the two white men have a good laugh and kick Old Ned in his rear-end, he exits the room humiliated. After his exit, the scene becomes a simple emotional expression that poignantly exposes the kind of emotional toll that an Uncle Tom would have endured. The shining smile that hung from Old Ned’s face in the presence of the two white men faded away to a look of sincere regret and fear as he acknowledged that his true feelings were buried away during this encounter: “Again, I've sold my birthright, all for a miserable mess of pottage.” Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director up until Within’s Oscar Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Do the Right Thing marked a turning point in the history of black films. No longer were black audiences being pandered to as they were during the generation of blaxploitation. Instead of simply appeasing black audiences with heroic black figures and stereotypes of white oppressors, director Spike Lee threw whites, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics into the same mix without fingering one race as the aggressor and another race as the victim.
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Essay Instructions: The objective of my dissertation is to show that Alain Locke''s used the culture of the Negro to educate white America that Negroes had a rich heritage, one that is distinct, beautiful, and valuable. It is a heritage not forgotten with the years of slavery and its backlach. Negroes had a rich culture to share just like other groups who came to America - willingly or not. Locke believed that if white American just knew the Negro culture from the Negro, prejudice would lessen and cultural pluralism(his philosophy) would occur. This chapter must address the role Locke''s philosophy played in his contributions to the Negro culture and their struggles for social justice and acceptance as people, not objects.The following must be included in this final chapter: a connection of Locke''s philosophy of Cultural Pluralism to the teaching of cultural heritage of Negroes during the Harlem Renaissance. Locke wanted to show that the Negro should be included in the various cultures in America. Some people used education like booker T Washington, DuBois and others; Locke''s weapon was culture. He was a avid writer. How did he use culture? Was it Effective? How does his work connect to adult education? Using his works, what does he say/do to help Americans understand that Negroes were people filled with a rich background just like others - that they have something to add to. What did they add that perhaps reduce their non-acceptance in America. Show how the very things Locke was trying to show other about Negroes was in fact displayed by Locke himself. He was the best person to do this.
The writing should not be bland like an encyclopedia. I''ve introduced previous chapters with a quote from Locke and connected it to the chapter in some sort of way.
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