Essay Instructions: Develop your own theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to the Cognitive Behavioral theory. Explore your own belief about the nature of people, problems, and change and the counseling theory that best fits with their beliefs. The paper will be in APA style. Reference must be from peer reviewed journals or foundational books (written by the theorist). Include the following in the paper, and use the titles as subheadings:
The Nature of People - Describe your view of the nature of people, and describe which theory seems closest to this view. A description of mental health or effective functioning should be included in this discussion. Which theory is closest to your view?
The Individual in Families and Other Systems ? Describe your understanding of how family systems affect individuals, how the family system interacts, and how systems affect the individual in other areas. Describe what family or systemic theory is closest to your view.
Multicultural Considerations ? Summarize how cultural differences factor into your view of people, problems, and the process of change.
Wellness and Prevention - Describe your theory of how people maintain wellness, including the core constructs. Describe counseling strategies to prevent mental health issues, i.e. substance abuse, physical abuse, relationship problems.
The Nature of Problems - Describe your view of how people develop problems, challenges, or ineffective functioning. Also describe which theory seems closest to your view.
The Process of Change ? Describe your view of how people change in the counseling process. Include your view of the role the counselor should take and what the therapeutic relationship should be like to facilitate change. Indicate which theory seems most congruent with your views.
My Theory in Practice ? Describe techniques, strategies, and tools that you believe would assist in the process of change and with which theory they seemmost consistent.
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 5 Words: 1378 Works Cited: 5 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Final reflection paper,at least 5 pages,no more than 6 pages of text,not including the cover and reference pages.Paper must be in APA style and include a minimum of five referenced scholarly sources.This paper should develop,a tentative theory and approaches to guide ones method to becoming a caring,professional counselor.Must integrate multicultural issues and ground all assertions in the professional literature.Must address the following:discuss how a helping professional's theoretical orientation assists them in working with a specific population-adolescents and young adults.Explain whether or not you plan to be intentional or use an eclectic approach -eclectic will work.Address what current trends will impact my work with my population-probably the rise in use of synthetic drugs,K 2,etc.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: DOC FILE NEEDED HAS BENE UPLOADED TO THE FAX BOARD.
Objectives of Graduate Research Project
Upon completion of the thesis, students will be able to:
1. Develop a research question
2. Formulate a testable research hypothesis
3. Conduct a literature review
4. Describe an appropriate research methodology to answer the research
5. Collect and analyze data
6. Draw conclusions and make recommendations based on the available
7. Make an oral presentation of research findings;
8. Demonstrate an understanding of the ethical issues surrounding the
collection and reporting of research data;
9. Understand the role research plays in the development of forensic
10. Describe how diversity issues may influence choice of research
topics, research methodology, and the application of research findings
to the justice system.
Section 1: Organization of Contents
The following preliminary pages (numbered in lowercase Roman numerals)
precede the body of the thesis, in this order:
• Title page
• Thesis approval pages (one for chair and two supervisors & the 2nd
for the Forensic program director)
• Copyright page (if you plan to register a copyright)
• Dedication page (optional)
• Acknowledgments (optional)
• Table of contents
• List of tables (if appropriate)
• List of illustrations (charts, graphs, figures) (if appropriate)
• List of symbols (if appropriate)
• Preface (optional)
Paginated in Arabic numerals is the text and other pages following the
preliminary pages arranged in the following order:
• Text (chapters of the manuscript)
• Index (optional)
All Masters Theses must carry the following information on the title page:
A research project submitted to National University in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Master of Forensic Sciences.
Note: Refer to sample page in back.
Project Approval Page
A completed thesis must have the signatures of the three committee members,
and the forensic program lead faculty. Type only as many lines as there are
committee members signing. Signatures must be in permanent black ink. Refer
to sample page in back.
This page is necessary only if the project is to be registered with the Federal
Copyright Office. Refer to sample page in back.
Use discretion in making a dedication. The dedication should be consistent with
the topic of the research.
Use discretion in making acknowledgments. It is customary to acknowledge
special assistance from extramural agencies. There is no obligation that
assistance received from members of the committee be acknowledged.
Acknowledgments should be couched in terms consistent with the scholarly
nature of the work. Your name and date should not appear on this page.
All abstracts must be double-spaced and the title should simply be ABSTRACT.
The abstract can be no more than 150 words.
Table of Contents
The table of contents is designed for the convenience of the reader. It should
include the acknowledgment page, abstract, list of tables, list of illustrations, list
of abbreviations or symbols, appendices and references as well as the major
sections in the text. Do not list the "Title Page" or "Table of Contents" in the
table of contents. Please note the following:
• You must have dot leaders between the end of a heading and its page
• Headings in the table of contents should appear as they do in the text
List of Tables
The term "table" applies to numerical and statistical data set in vertical or
horizontal alignment. If there are tables in your text/appendix, a list of tables
must be included. The "List of Tables" is on a page by itself and arranged in the
same general format as the Table of Contents. Type the table numbers in Arabic
numerals, and the titles in capital and small letters, with period leaders
extending from the last letter of the title to the page number. Please note:
• Titles may be shorter than they appear in the text as long as they are not
misleading. Titles may not be longer than the titles in the text.
• Numbering of tables. You have two options: (a) You may begin by
numbering the first table with the numeral "1" and continue to number
your tables consecutively throughout the entire manuscript; or (b) you
may number the first table in each chapter with numeral '1" and
continue to number your tables consecutively within each chapter. For
example, if chapter four has three tables and chapter five has three
tables, the numbering would be as follows: 4.1 4.2 4.3; 5.1, 5.2, 5.3.
Single space within titles which are longer than one line, but double space
between each entry.
List of Illustrations (charts, graphs, figures)
This list is also placed on a page by itself and arranged in the same general
format as the Table of Contents. Designate figure numbers with Arabic
numerals, and plate numbers, if any, with capital Roman numerals. If the thesis
contains both figures and plates, arrange them on separate lists.
List of Symbols
If symbols are needed in the text, a list should be provided to explain their
definitions or meanings. The list should be placed on a separate page and
included where specified by these instructions.
A preface, while optional, enables you to explain your purpose and perhaps
justify your choice of a topic. The preface is also an appropriate place to present
an overview of the project, including a description of what is to be found in
each chapter. If utilized, it is part of the preliminary pages (numbered with
Roman numerals) and therefore precedes the main text.
The organization of the text varies somewhat with the subject matter. The
project is divided into five chapters, each chapter titled and beginning on a new
page. In general, the content of the five chapters include:
Chapter I: Introduction
The first chapter provides an overview of the project. The specific subsections
of this chapter will vary, depending on the subject matter. In general, the first
chapter should include the following information:
Background of the Study: provide a brief history of the ideas and issues
related to the research topic. This section should not be a review of the literature
(though some information may be repeated in the literature review), but a
description of the events leading up to this research.
Problem Statement: this is the heart of the research project. This subsection
states the reason(s) why this research project is important. A good way to
approach the Problem Statement is to address the following: Because of x and y,
there is a problem in society (or the criminal justice system or the field of
forensic science); if only we knew more about things might be better. The
research project should be designed to answer z, which is the research question.
Purpose and objectives of the Study: list the component parts of the research
question. Rarely is a problem in forensic sciences one-dimensional. This
subsection should describe the specific elements of the problem being addressed
by the research.
Rationale of the Study: develop the reasons for examining the elements
described in the purpose and objectives section. Explain why those elements
were selected, how they relate to the topic of the research, and how they related
to each other. In other words, explain how will accomplishing the purpose and
objectives answers the research question, and is something we should care
Definition of Terms: list definitions for only those terms which might be
unfamiliar to the reader, especially those which can be considered terms of art
and operational definitions.
Limitations of the Study: describe self-imposed limits on the research,
including those that relate to both the breadth and depth of the inquiry. Also
include limitations that exist due to factors beyond your control. Describe the
(potential) effects the particular limitations may have on your research.
Theoretical Framework: if the research is driven by, or relates to, a particular
theoretical orientation, provide a brief overview of that orientation and how it
relates to the research.
Research Hypotheses: based on the purpose and objectives, what are the
expected outcomes for the research? Hypotheses are essentially predictions
about the answers to the research question and its component parts. The
research hypotheses are a critical element of the research project: they will
guide the literature review; heavily influence the research methodology needed
to obtain data that will either support or reject the hypotheses; and provide the
focus for data analysis, discussion, conclusions, and recommendations.
Summary of Remaining Chapters: include a brief summary of the first
chapter and describe the content of the remaining chapters. If a preface is
utilized, this subsection is not necessary.
Summary of Remaining Chapters: Describe the content of the remaining
chapters. If a preface is utilized, this subsection is not necessary.
Chapter II: Literature Review
The second chapter should not be confused with the Introduction in Chapter I.
The introduction provides a review of the topic; the Literature Review
summarizes what has been said about the topic. The Literature Review is not a
series of book (or journal article) reports. A good literature review tells a story
about the topic, using published works to support what is written. The chapter
should be organized in such a way as to (a) bring together the most important
writings about the research question in general, followed by (b) a closer
examination of the writings related to the component parts detailed in the
Purpose and Objectives subsection of Chapter I. It is very helpful to the reader if
the ideas are presented in the same order throughout the thesis.
This chapter will contain the greatest number of citations, so it is important that
they be done correctly. Each citation must have a corresponding listing in the
The Literature Review should not include data that will be used to answer the
research question or test your research hypotheses. If the project is utilizing an
analysis of published research to answer the research question, the Literature
Review should provide the background and take the reader up to the point
where those studies begin.
Chapter III: Methodology
In general, this chapter describes how the data were collected that answer the
research question and its component parts. It is important to utilize appropriate
methods of data collection in order to be able to support or reject the research
hypotheses. This chapter should begin with a description of the research
methods used in the research, including a description of the dependent and
independent variables, if any. Chapter III will most likely include the following
Setting: if important to the research, describe the time and place of data
Description of the Subjects: depending on the type of data used in the project,
this subsection can include either subjects involved in primary data collection,
or those described in published research studies. If the project involves human
subjects, it is necessary to first obtain their consent in writing.
Description of the Research Instrument(s): fully describe all questionnaires
and tests, if appropriate. Include a copy of questionnaires in the Appendix.
Procedures: describe in full detail how data were collected. If different
methods were used, each method must be described. This subsection should also
include a description and rationale for any statistical procedures used to support
or reject the research hypotheses.
Chapter IV: Results
This chapter includes a presentation and analysis of the data. The tone of the
chapter is purely objective, devoid of assumptions and interpretations.
Following a summary of the research data, Chapter IV should be organized in
manner consistent with the research hypotheses: first, present data related to the
first hypotheses; and second, analyze those data to determine whether the first
hypothesis can be supported or rejected. Follow this sequence for each
Tables are an effective way to present quantitative data. Qualitative data should
be summarized, as opposed to verbatim transcriptions.
Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusions, and
This chapter involves (a) a discussion of the research project, including the
findings, interpretation of the results, and problems and/or limitations; (b) a
conclusion: what did we find out? what did we learn? and (c) recommendations
for changes in policy or practice, future research, or anything else that will
direct solutions to the problem(s) that were the focus of the research.
Endnotes supplement or amplify information in the text. They should be used
sparingly: if the information is of central importance, it should be included in
the text; if the information is irrelevant or nonessential, it should be excluded;
however, if the information is tangential, and more fully develops an element of
the text, endnotes may be appropriate. Endnotes can be included at the end of
each chapter or at the end of all the text.
Appendix or Appendixes
The main purpose of the appendix (or appendixes) is (are) to provide detailed
information that would be distracting if presented in the text. For example, a
survey instrument or questionnaire, a data collection form, or a list of variables
would be appropriate for placement in an appendix.
Only those works cited in the text appear in the Reference section and,
conversely, every work in the Reference section must appear in the text. It is
important to properly cite all references. References style should be according
to APA manual.
Tokita, K., & Schmid, K. (1963).Variants of alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Nature,
Johnson, A. M., Schmid, K., & Alper, C. A. (1969). Inheritance of human
alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) variants. J Clin Invest, 48:2293 – 2299.
Schmid, K. (1975). Alpha1-acid glycoprotein. In: Putnum FW, editor. The
plasma proteins. Vol. 1 (pp. 183 – 228). New York: Academic Press.
Giblett, E. R. (1969). Genetic markers in human blood. Oxford and Edinburgh:
Schmidtmann, U. (1999). PGM1 (phosphoglucomutase-1) polymorphism. Ph.D.
Thesis, National University, San Diego, California.
Pollanen, M.S. (2000). The forensic value of the diatom test for drowning.
Forensic Pathology Unit, Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, 26 Grenville
Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M7A 2G9. Retrieved June 20, 2003 from:
? No more than 3 web sites allowed.
? No News Papers are allowed.
An index can be extremely useful, but also difficult to create. Consider
including an index only if word processing software facilitates its creation.
11Section 2: Format for Text
The Forensic Sciences Program follows the format guidelines established by the
American Psychological Association (APA). Please speak with your instructor
if you need additional help with the format.
Standardized margins are required on every page to ensure that no part of the
project is cut off when it is bound and trimmed. The left margin must be 11/2
inches from the edge; all other margins must be at least 1 inch from the edge.
Double spacing is required for the entire thesis.
Many common manuscript problems involve punctuation. Selecting committee
members who are good writers and who are familiar with APA style can
alleviate most problems.
Every page must be counted in the numbering. With the exception of the title
page, a number must appear on every page. Placement of page numbers must be
consistent throughout and fit within the margins. Page numbers for preliminary
pages using Roman numerals appear centered at the bottom of the page; pages
using Arabic numerals appear in the upper right edge of the paper, one inch
from the right edge and one inch from the top.
Each chapter must begin on a new page. Chapters should be numbered.
Section 3: Illustrations
The purpose of illustrations (drawings, photographs, diagrams, maps, tables,
plates, etc.) is to present information more clearly than can be done with words.
Legends or titles should be self-explanatory, concise, and consistent in form.
Refer to the APA Style Manual.
The term "table" applies to numerical and statistical data set in vertical and
horizontal alignment. Tables over half a page in length should be placed on a
separate page. Tables too wide to be accommodated on one page may be typed
on two or more pages, pasted together and either folded or reduced to page size
by a suitable photographic process. Lengthy tables should be placed in the
Footnotes for tables are to be indicated by standard symbols (*, etc.) or lowercase
letters (a, b, etc.). Do not use numbers for footnotes to tables. Footnotes are
placed at the bottom of the table, not the bottom of the page.
The term "figure" refers to illustrations such as graphs, charts, diagrams,
photographs, and maps, but not statistical data presented in tables. Refer to the
APA Style Manual for the various styles.
Section 4: The Final Copy
Typing and Printing of the Manuscript
The Master’s Thesis is expected to be the product of neat and careful work by
all concerned. The physical appearance must be immaculate and convey an
impression of pride and quality in behalf of the student, the advisory committee,
the program, and the university.
Your manuscript must be prepared on a typewriter, word processor, personal
computer, or mainframe computer. However, al print in the project must meet
the following standards:
Any standard typeface is acceptable (although a font such as Courier is
recommended) as long as the same typeface is used throughout the manuscript,
with the exception of certain appendix material or legend on charts, which may
be put in a different type. Italics should be used only to highlight specific words
or phrases in the text, and only rarely.
The type size should be 12-point for all material in the text (thisincludes
any reduced material which may be included in the Appendix).
The print should be letter quality (typewriter or letter-quality printer, 300
dots per inch, 24-pin printer) with dark black characters that are consistently
clear and dense. Dot matrix is unacceptable. If you are uncertain about the
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: 7 pages…..
Integrating theory, personal values, interaction style, and specific client needs requires time, attention, effort, and experience. The purpose of this paper is to begin the process of exploration and integration in order to articulate your own personal theoretical orientation to counseling.
As you write, draw on your readings, course discussions, and personal reflections. Use at least two primary sources that are the original works of the theorists for your paper. Include the key concepts of your approach, your view of your role as a therapist, therapeutic goals, and central techniques and methods. Explain why this integrative approach fits for you as a counselor and discuss how you would apply your theoretical orientation to potential client problems. Your paper must be in APA format and should not exceed 8 pages.
Guided reflection to assist with your personal theory assignment:
• What do you consider the most important therapeutic goals? Which theoretical orientations would most guide you in formulating your goals?
• What do you see as your major responsibility as a helping agent? What would you expect of your clients? How do you view the relationship between you and your clients? Which theories are compatible with your answers to these questions?
• What are your basic assumptions about human nature? Which approaches to therapy come the closest to your beliefs?
• Given your basic assumptions, what procedures will you use with clients to achieve the therapeutic goals?
I will upload a personal disclosure and supervision document...but here are some thoughts
I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Person-Centered Counseling and some Reality and/or Existential Therapy.
I feel it is my role to assist clients to discover meaning in their lives or ”shine a flashlight on them, so they can see themselves.” I do not give them answers, I help them explore options (and unconditional positive regard) and empower them to make their own decisions. I help them discover/name what obstacles need to be removed, and figure out what they need to do to move forward.
Some basic assumptions: People are doing the best they can. Sometimes they meet obstacles that prevent their growth. These obstacles may be physical or mental. They can overcome these obstacles and move forward.
Excerpt From Essay:
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