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The Solar System Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for The Solar System College Essay Examples

Essay Instructions: I have already wrote out my outline and thesis statement. If you could follow this that would be great. The paper has to be 5 pages. Also it has to have some sources, but mostly opinion. This is my outline and what I have so far.
I. Introduction:
What causes solar storms? Why should Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms which may cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth including problems as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have built a system to protect the Earth?s energy. The earth is still vulnerable to all the unknown activity that scientists have uncertainty about, but how can we prepare for the unknown possibilities of the sun. All we have is the history of nature to help protect ourselves from the future. So is that enough to guide us to be one step ahead of the universe?

A. The Sun:
The Sun is a massive, and magnificent object with a seriously complex system of inner workings that have the potential to alter the universe. This huge star is considered the center of Earth?s existence being that it produces the light, heat, and energy for humans. Being approximately 1.4 million Kilometers wide and housing around 99.8 percent of the total mass of the solar system in hot gases in which heat the sun up to about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit on the surface alone. (Nat?l Geo,1)
1. Magnetic Fields
2. Solar Activity
B. Earth
1. History
2. Predictions/Possibilities
II. Description
A. Satellites
1. Sources of Communication
2. Sources of Intel
B. Power Grids
1. Sectional Outline
2. Effects of Blackouts
C. Atmosphere and Climate
1. Aurora Borealis
2. Radiation versus Temperature
III. Conclusion
A. Preparations for Earth
1. Technologically
2. Physically
B. Statistical Data for the Future
1. Statistical Data from the last ?Perfect Storm?
2. Predictions for the next ?Perfect Storm?
"Sun, Sun Information, Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic." Science and Space Facts, Science and Space, Human Body, Health, Earth, Human Disease - National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. solar-system/sun- article.html>.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: The stars Sun and Moon

Total Pages: 7 Words: 1988 References: 7 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Please answer the following questions. Some of the activities will require you to make multiple observations of the sun, moon, and stars. (But 90% of this can be done if you know that math, the norms, and the cycle) most of these answers can be found just by knowing the cycles of the sun, moon, and stars.

For these activities, you may need to access simple items such as-but if you know the cycles and where to look for the answer you may not need any of this.
• a ruler (marked in centimeters)
• a broom handle (or mop handle or long, straight piece of wood of similar dimensions)
• a couple of envelopes
• a red-light flashlight (you could also tape a piece of red cellophane or plastic over a white-light flashlight a regular white-light flashlight will interfere with your night vision)

Obviously some of these results you can figure out without actually doing anything- all you would need to do is find out when the sun goes down etc…

Part 1

1. Data and results from your diameter of the sun activity:

Image diameter: _______ cm
Distance from pin-hole to image: _______ cm
Calculated diameter of the sun: _______ km

How does your calculated value for the diameter of the sun compare with its actual value? If the values are different, describe possible reasons for the difference. Can you think of any improvements that could be made to the procedure?

2. Kepler's third law, P2 = a3, applies to any object orbiting the sun. Newton was able to derive Kepler's third law using his law of gravity. Newton's version includes the mass of both objects, P2 = a3 / (M1 + M2), and can be used for any object that orbits any astronomical body. In this formula, the masses are measured in special units called solar mass units. The mass of the sun is equal to one solar mass unit.
A. If the mass of the second object is very small compared with the first mass, then, to a good approximation, P2 = a3 / M1. Solving for the mass, we get M1 = p2 / a3. Use this mass formula to determine the mass of Jupiter using data from its moon Sinope: period of orbit is 2.075 years, average orbital distance is 0.158 astronomical units.

B. calculated mass of Jupiter: _______ solar mass units

C. You can convert your result above into kilograms by multiplying it by the mass of the sun in kilograms: 2.00 Ã??" 10 30 kg.

D. calculated mass of Jupiter: _______ kg

E. Compare your calculated mass of Jupiter (kg) to the actual value. How close did you get? Explain any difference.

3. Research Mauna Kea Observatories -What type of telescope is used? What is the size of its mirror or radio dish? What specific wavelengths of light can be studied using this device? Why would these wavelengths of light be useful to astronomers?

Part 2

1. Data and results from your sun position activity: (you can also find this out from sources on astronomy daily updates websites)

Location of observations: _______________________________________________

Observation (1) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (2) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (3) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (4) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (5) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (6) date ____________________time __________ p.m.

During the course of your observations, what was the general direction of movement of the sun's position at sunset? Did the sun's position ever reverse direction? Using the methods laid out for the sun position activity, estimate the total amount of angular change in the sun's position at sunset over the course of your observations. What is this amount?

2. Data and results from your moon observation activity:

Location of observations: _______________________________________________

Observation (1) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (2) date ____________________time __________ p.m.
Observation (3) date ____________________time __________ p.m.

Describe any changes in the moon's appearance from observation to observation. Describe any change in the moon's position in the sky from observation to observation. Using the methods laid out for the moon observation activity, estimate the daily amount of angular change in the moon's position. What is this estimate?

4. Radioactive decay is one of the sources of the heat that drives Earth's geologic activity. Radioactive decay also enables us to date rocks and to determine the age of Earth and other solar system bodies.

In this activity, you will simulate the radioactive decay of 36 atoms of a rare isotope of uranium, U-235. U-235 has a half-life of 700 million years. Gather 36 coins and arrange them in a 6 Ã??" 6 grid with all of the coins facing heads-up.
Flip each coin once and place it back in its original location. This represents the passage of one half-life (700 million years, for this example). The coins that come up heads represent atoms that have not yet decayed; the coins that come up tails represent atoms that have decayed. Record the number of heads below.

Next, flip each of the remaining heads-up coins once and place it back in its original location. 1.4 billion years have now passed (2 Ã??" 700 million). Record the number of remaining heads below. Repeat this process until all coins are tails-up.

_______ Original number of U-235 atoms
_______ Remaining number U-235 atoms after first flip
_______ Remaining number U-235 atoms after second flip

Add additional lines as needed.

How many half-lives did it take for all of the atoms to decay? To how many years does that equate? Do you think everyone in class will get the same answer? Why or why not?

Stage 3

1. Data and results from your star count activity:

Location of observation (1): ____________________________________________

Date ____________________time __________ p.m.

Calculated number of visible stars ___________

Location of observation (2): ____________________________________________

Date ____________________time __________ p.m.

Calculated number of visible stars ___________

Location of observation (3): ____________________________________________

Date ____________________time __________ p.m.

Calculated number of visible stars ___________

In which of your three locations were you able to see the most stars? Explain (in some detail) why you were able to see the most stars there.

2. Exoplanets, or extrasolar planets, are planets that orbit stars other than the sun. Do a web search on exoplanets. How many of these planets are thought to have been detected? How were they detected? Do any of these planets orbit stars similar to the sun? Are any of these planets similar to Earth in terms of size and mass?

List some of the issues that make human space travel within the solar system difficult. What are the factors that make human interstellar space travel unlikely even for the distant future? What implications does the difficulty of interstellar space travel have for contact between advanced civilizations in the universe (if these exist)?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: earth science astronomy

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1330 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Answer the following in a short paragraph of 3 to 12 sentences:

1. Claude Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer, produced a 13 volume work in A.D. 141. It suggested the geocentric theory, which became known as P tolemy's model. What was Ptolemy's geocentric theory?

2. Describe the earth's principal motions.

3. The change from ancient to modern astronomy wasn't easy.It required considerable work and commitment by five key scientists. List the contributions made to modern astronomy by Nicolaus Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Sir Issac Newton.

4. Identify the planets of the solar system and provide a brief description of each.

5. Describe stellar parallax and explain how it's used to measure the distance of a star.

6. Discuss the earth's moon. Elaborate on the following: maria craters, regolith, highlands, and theories on the moons origin.

7. Describe the major types of galaxies.

8. List and explain the stages of the life cycle of a star.

9. Describe the properties of main-sequence stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Describe White dwarfs and red giants.

10. Discuss the Big Bang Theory and how some scientists regard it as an adequate explanation of the origin of the universe.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Questions

Total Pages: 2 Words: 688 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: OPEN TO ALL WRITERS!!


Important: Please choose any 10 out of the following 20 questions below.

Answer the following content questions. Your answers must be at least 50-75 words per question. Do not include the question in your answer.

1. Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation. What are electromagnetic waves, and what other types are there besides light? Compare their wavelengths.

2. How can the temperature, composition, and motion of an object be determined from its light spectrum?

3. Why do astronomers infer that the Sun?s energy comes from nuclear fusion reactions? How do we know it does not come from chemical burning?

4. Explain how the Sun produces energy by nuclear fusion.

5. When we look at stars in the sky, we see a wide range of brightness. Explain the factors that would make one star appear brighter than another.

6. Compare the Sun with other stars.

7. Consider a star at the upper part of the main sequence (label it Star A) and a star in the lower part of the main sequence (label it Star B). Which is:
a. Larger?
b. More luminous?
c. More massive?
d. Hotter?

8. Compare the life spans of low mass stars and high mass stars. Explain why they are different.

9. What would an imaginary terrestrial observer see as the Sun runs out of hydrogen? If life is confined to Earth when this happens, would life perish from heat or from cold? Explain.

10. What kind of stars eventually become white dwarfs? What kind eventually become supernovae? What will be the ultimate fate of the Sun? Why?

11. Compare the solar system with the Milky Way Galaxy. (They are very different, but the terms are often confused.)

12. Describe the nature of the material between the stars and how it is observed.

13. Why are O and B stars the brightest in open clusters? Why are red giants the brightest stars in globular clusters?

14. Evidence is strong that the formation of the Sun (and its family of planets) happened by the same processes as the formation of stars. Explain.

15. How are planets detected around other stars?

16. Did the Sun and solar system form in the first half or last half of our galaxy?s history? Explain.

17. Compare the stars found in the galactic disk (where the Sun is located) with the stars in the halo of our galaxy.

18. How many years would a radio signal take to reach the nearest large galaxy to us, the Andromeda galaxy? (Hint: Consider the nature of all electromagnetic waves.)

19. Why is the study of the most distant galaxies we can see related to the study of conditions around the time that our galaxy (and perhaps others) was forming?

20. What observational evidence supports the Big Bang theory of cosmology? Explain.

Excerpt From Essay:

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