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The Horses Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for The Horses College Essay Examples

Essay Instructions: read the poem by Edwin muir 'The Horses' then write a short essay explaining what the poem is about and consider whether you think the poem is more traditional or dissenting.
guidance note:
start your work asking yourself what sort of a poem is it-does it tell a story, or is it a reflection on an incident or object?these questions should lead you to two connected questions: how Miur bescribes the horses, and whether the poem as a whole is traditional or dissenting.
- think about how you would characterise the situation described in the first verse paragraph: what has happened?
-how would you describe the condition of the people who are imagined to be speaking the poem, the 'we' of the fourth line. look particularly at lines like 'we listened to our breathing and were afraid', and 'we leave them where they are and let them rust'. look closely at the terms in which the relationship between the speakers and the horses is described in final paragraph:'long-lost archaic companionship', 'free servitude'.
-why do you think the horses appear?are they something new, or a return to the past?
-what do you thinl has changed in the world of the poem?is it a change for the better?
how would you describe the poem formally?the poem is actually written in a version of blank verse as used by Marlowe, but significant differences such as the short lines like'on the second day'and 'we saw the heads'. does the form of the poem help you to gauge whether it is a traditional or dissenting text?

don't attempt to comment on every detail in the poem. you should be able to answer this question without necessarily getting into the deatail of the argument about the anthropomorphic tradition: the key task is to convey the meaning of the poem as clearly as you can.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: thermoregulation

Total Pages: 9 Words: 3016 References: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Part A
Discuss mammalian thermoregulatory processes that occur in response to heat.
Part B
Applying the concepts from Part A discuss: The physiological and or anatomical thermoregulatory responses that allow sustained exercise in horses.

Thermoregulation is the control of body temperature within certain limits even when temperature surrounding is very different. This enables the body to function effectively and is known as maintaing homeostasis. Homeostasis is a dynamic state of stability between an animal's internal environment and its external environment.
A relatively constant body temperature is necessary for the efficient functioning of the complicated brain of higher animals. Extreme temperatures alter biological molecules and disrupt body functions resulting in illness such as hyperthermia or hypothermia and if not treated death can occur. Mechanisms have subsequently evolved in mammals to enable body temperatures to stay within certain limits. All mammals are endothermic meaning they maintain and regulate their own body temperature. Mammals and birds maintain a constant body temperature and are described as homeothermic, Body temperatures of homeotherms are usually above the environmental temperature. Living in widespread environments around the world, mammals face daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperatures and some, for example those living in harsh arctic or tropical habitats, face extreme cold or heat. To maintain their correct body temperature, mammals must be able to produce and conserve body heat in colder temperatures as well as dissipate excess body heat in warmer temperatures.
Some mammals have adapted to their environment by increasing their surface area in the extremities such as large ears on the Zebou cattle.
Organs are heavier in animals exposed to cold.
Skin colour
Dependent on the amount of radiation
Provides insulation under the skin but Zebra cattle deposit fat deep in the body to aid greater heat tolerance. Camels deposit fat in the hump.
Dissipating Heat
In warmer climates, excess body heat can accumulate and cause life-threatening problems for a mammal. Circulation near the skin's surface releases heat into the environment. Moisture from sweat glands or respiratory surfaces evaporates and cools the animal. Unfortunately, evaporative cooling is less effective in dry climates where water loss is also costly for mammals. In such situations, mammals often seek cover during the hotter daylight hours and resume active at night.
Body Temperature Results from a Balance Between Production and Loss of Heat
? Heat is constantly produced and lost
? In a balanced state production and loss of heat will be equal and the temperature will be constant
Temperature is Controlled from Sites in the Hypothalamus
? Temperature control requires sensors, a control center, effectors
? Temperature sensor are found throughout the body: skin, body core, brain
o Two types- respond to hot and cold
? Control center is in the hypothalamus of the brain
o Hypothalamus acts as a thermostat- has a temperature set point
? Efffectors:
o Produce more heat (increased metabolic rate, shivering, brown fat metabolism)
o Change heat loss (blood vessel dilation or constriction, erection of hair, curling up, sweating)
Skin is the Primary Organ for Removal of Metabolic Heat
Skin acts to cool the body, sudoriferous (sweat glands). Two types are apocrine which secrete pheromones and eccrine which secrete sweat respectively.
Eccrine glands are tubular and found over the entire body of most farm animals.
? About 90% of body heat is lost through the skin
? If body temperature is too high the skin can dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow by 150 times to loose excess heat
o In cold weather skin will constrict blood vessels and release heat loss
? Heat loss is by radiation, conduction, convection and sweating
? Sweating can be used to lose enormous amounts of heat
o Sweat glands originate in the dermis- ducts penetrate epidermis, releasing secretion on skin surface
o Heat of vaporization of water is about 580 Calories/liter
o If the ambient temperature is higher than the body temperature, sweating is the only way we can lose heat
o Sweat glands are activated by nerves from the sympathetic nervous system-
? Skin also contains muscles (arrector pili) that erect hair shafts (piloerection), increasing insulation.
List these mech. Discuss effectiveness and include some animals can use this but it is not effective in others because?And contrast/explain. Under what conditions could those mechanisms be reduced in effectiveness? Explain why.
Physiological mechanisms
Dry heat loss(dependent on the temperature gradient between the animal and the environment) and total boy insulation(core to skin-only area with ability to make rapid adjustments, heat loss through control of pheripheral blood flow, skin to fur, fur tip to environment))-radiation(gain-uv, lost when outside temp is lower than body temp.), conduction(heat gain/loss from a hotter surface), convection(from air currentsgained). Lost also by evaporation from respiratory passages, excretion of faces/urine. Radiation and convection depend on temp. gradient. With high humidity and hot air temp. sweating doesn?t work and the animal absorbs heat respectively.
Blood flow
Sensory nerves in the pheripheral nervous system detect heat and send messages to the anterior hypothalamus, which directs the blood vessels to dilate when hot, or constrict if cold.
Evaporative heat loss (dependent on the latent heat of vaporization-licking, sweating, panting.
Panting is a very effective heat loss mechanism.
Licking is less so and results in a high loss of electrolytes.
Behavioural mechanisms.
Heat gains and losses in animals
Heat is gained by metabolic processes and conduction - heat escapes or enters your body when you sit on a cold or hot rock.
1. convection - cooler air currents remove heat from the surface of your skin.
2. evaporation - evaporative cooling occurs when water (often from perspiration) leaves the skin surface as a gas, lowering the body temperature by cooling blood vessels in the dermis.
3. radiation - e.g. acquisition of heat from solar radiation (e.g. snakes "sunning" on a cold day).
Types of thermoregulation
There are two types of thermoregulation that are used by animals:
1. physiological regulation: This is when an organism changes its physiology to regulate body temperature. For example, our body tends to sweat inorder to cool our body down. Another example is when our bodies get cold, it likes to shiver so that the body can create some heat.
2. behavorial regulation: This is when an organism changes its behavior to changes it body temperature. For example, when your body starts to get hot because of the sun, you may want to find a shade to cool yourself down.
Behavioral temperature regulation-feeding, activty and specific(nest building/burrowing, growing coat by shortening day length
In warm environments, birds and mammals avoid overheating by:
1. behavioral adaptations like living in burrows during the day and being nocturnal
2. evaporative cooling by perspiration and panting
3. storing fat reserves in one place (e.g. camel's hump) to avoid its insulating effect
4. elongate, often vascularized extremities to conduct body heat to the air. , ears-cows,rabbits mice-tail, low resting metabolism to reduce heat
Many desert mammals are nocturnal to avoid the heat of the day. Others store the heat from the hot days and dissipate it at night when the temperature has dropped. Desert animals are unable to use evaporative cooling because of the absence of large amounts of available water.
Control of hair/feather growth depends on day length and temperature. When daylight hours become longer a winter coat is shed and replaced by a summer coat.
Effect of size, configuration and composition.
Body size
-in heat small animal has advantage over large because of the larger surface area to volume ratio allows for greater heat loss as long as the environmental temperature is lower than the internal animal temp.
In cold therefore a large animal has the advantage of exposing less skin to the elements.
Failure of Temperature Regulation on Hot Days Can Cause Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke
? Animals can lose as much as 1.5 liters of water per hour as sweat
? If this water is not replaced blood pressure will fall and heat regulation will fail and body temperature will rise
? This is heat exhaustion- skin will be wet and cool from sweating- treat by replacing water and salt that has been lost
? Heat stroke is a failure of the sweating mechanism- skin will be dry and hot- very dangerous, treat by rapid cooling.
Heat cramps:
Heat cramps are muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are an early signal that the body is having trouble with the heat
Heat exhaustion:
Heat exhaustion typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim may suffer heat stroke
Heat stroke:
Heat stroke is life-threatening. The victim's temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly
Part B
Applying the concepts from Part A discuss: The physiological and or anatomical thermoregulatory responses that allow sustained exercise in horses.
During the 1992 Barcelona Olympics several horses suffered from heat exhaustion. Climatic conditions in the 1996 Atlanta games were even more severe and there had been talk of the equestrian events having to be modified or even cancelled. The Animal Health Trust in Newmarket, England set up a project in order to make recommendations on transport, acclimatization periods and modifications to the competition required to ensure that horses were not placed under unnecessary stress.
Temperatures were expected to have a daytime peak of 30-35?C, with high humidity, little wind and strong sun in Georgia in July and August, and in shadow of Barcelona, it was always known that the eventing competition would present a challenge, especially with the intense media focus.
The conclusion of the research that had been undertaken was to translate the acquired knowledge into practical recommendations for the teams and officials. Prior to departure, all countries competing were circulated with detailed recommendations relating to preparation (including diet, training, cooling and pre-acclimatisation), transport and subsequent acclimatisation in the USA. There was also additional advice on management of horses and riders before, during and after competition (e.g. rehydration, cooling, etc).
The effectiveness of these measures was to a large extent dependent on acceptance, interpretation and implementation by individual teams and was therefore essentially optional. In addition to these recommendations, a large number of other measures out with the control of individual teams were introduced on account of the climate. These included air-conditioning of the quarantine station at Atlanta airport to assist rapid post-transport recovery, provision of large, high roof, well ventilated (but not air-conditioned) stables, portable shade in the form of mesh screens, fans and a large covered warm-up area. Whilst the format of the Dressage and Showjumping competitions was not changed (the duration of actual competition being relatively short in both cases), a number of changes were made to the format of the Three-Day Event Speed & Endurance test. In addition, environmental conditions were monitored in the main arena and on the speed & endurance course using the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) Index instead of the comfort index that had been used at previous competitions, including at the Barcelona Olympics.
The Three-Day Event Speed & Endurance test commenced at first light, was reduced in distance, included cooling stops on the second roads and tracks and had an extended '10 min box' to allow more time for cooling and monitoring of horses.
There were only minor, non-heat related problems with horses competing in the Dressage and Show jumping competitions. There was only one case of tying-up and no cases of anhidrosis (loss of sweating). In the Three-Day Event Speed & Endurance test, two-thirds of the horses starting the cross-country finished in both team and individual competitions. This is what would normally be expected for an International Three-Day Event competition and injuries were nearly all minor.
It was generally considered that one of the best teams (Australia) and one of the best individual riders (Blyth Tait) won the Gold medals and there was no charge that it had been an 'easy' competition. Examination of the body temperatures of horses throughout the day showed that horses that started early, finished with very similar temperatures to those that went late. This was good evidence that the effects of the climate on the horses had been greatly reduced.
Cold water-cooling is a method that, if it is applied correctly, can cool down hot horses rapidly after competing, speeding recovery and reducing the chances of heat stress.
Horses that are hot (above 40 degrees C) and competing in hot environments (above 26 degree C) and are cooled quickly during or after competition are less likely to suffer heat stress, will recover more quickly, will not become as dehydrated and are almost certain to perform better.
The cold water cooling technique cools horses using two of the three ways they normally lose heat - convection and evaporation. You need the following equipment:
1. Large buckets to hold 40 - 50 litres of water and large blocks of ice.
2. Supply of more water close by - hose or tanks
3. Small buckets (5-10 litre) - supplement tubs are ideal!
4. Assistants - three is ideal - one to hold the horse and one person to cool each side.
5. A shady spot to carry out the cooling.
Start to cool the horse immediately it finishes exercising, while taking the rectal temperature. Liberally apply cold water to all parts of the body including the quarters (this is where most of the large muscles used for movement are located and so is an area that gets particularly hot).
Do not scrape of excess water after each application, it is more important to continue to apply cold water. Carry on cooling the horse, alternating 20 - 30 second cooling periods with 20 - 30 second walks in a circle. The walking and cooling sequence is important.
The walking promotes blood flow to the skin and cooling by convection; the movement of air aids cooling by evaporation.
Check the horse's rectal temperature at intervals. The temperature should fall by around 1 degree C in 10 minutes. Allow your horse to drink small amounts of water (half a bucket) during competition (eg, during the 10 minute box in Three Day Eventing), between rounds (eg, Showjumping), during long warm-up periods (eg, Dressage) and immediately after exercise - it will help to cool the horse down and reduce the effects of dehydration.
Stop cooling if the rectal temperature is less than 38 - 39 degree C, the skin over the quarters is cool to touch after a walking period, if the respiratory rate is less than 30 breaths per minute and if the horse shivers continuously.
concentrate on cooling as much of the body surface as possible with cold water.
Excessive application of grease prior to cross country limits sweating. The grease acts as insulation, prevents sweating and limits sweat evaporation.
Do not let horses stand still for prolonged periods.
Do not prevent the horse from drinking small amounts of water (eg half a bucket) during competition. Water should be left in the stable until 15 - 30 minutes before exercise. Water is emptied very rapidly from the stomach.
Muscles work more effectively when they are warm, so horses should be warmed up before exercise, and a moderate increase in body temperature will do no harm. Remember however that when the weather is hot the horse will warm up faster.
For the first time in Olympic history, distances in the three-day cross-country equestrian event will be shortened, and cooling stops will be added to guard the health of horses in the hot Georgia climate. In addition:
? equestrian events will be run before 11:15 a.m.;
? veterinary checks will be required after the third phase of the event; and
? horses will spend three weeks in Georgia before the Olympics to recover from travel and to adapt to the heat.
If intense heat prevails, further reductions to the course can be made.
These recently announced changes were based on recommendations from the International Equestrian Federation (FEI), the co-ordinating body for international research projects on equine exercise physiology, in conjunction with the 1996 Olympic Games.
The two projects that contributed to the recommendations found that horses have a marked reduction in exercise capacity in extreme heat and that the optimum acclimatization period is 10 to 14 days. The research team - Prof. Mike Lindinger, Human Biology and Nutritional Sciences; Gayle Ecker of the Equine Research Centre; and Profs. Jill McCutcheon and Ray Geor, Clinical Studies - exposed thoroughbred horses to high heat and humidity and measured various physiological responses.
To determine if and how much acclimatization could occur over a three-week period, horses were exposed to four hours per day of high heat and humidity, and exercised for the entire second hour of that monitored period. Prior to starting the study, the horses were exercise-trained on a treadmill for eight to 10 weeks. Detailed physiological measurements were taken at rest, during a standardized exercise test and during recovery on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the three-week period to determine acclimatization responses. The horses exercised until their core temperature reached 41.5 C.
"Our main criterion was how fast did the body temperature increase," says Geor. "If it was slower at the end of three weeks, it would indicate better heat dissipation."
The researchers were also interested to see if horses have acclimatization responses similar to those of humans. After 20 days of acclimatization, humans have an increased exercise capability through an integrated series of physiological responses. Horses and humans are the only mammals that primarily use sweating as a cooling mechanism. Horses sweat at two to three times the human rate, but they have less surface area over which to lose it.
The recommendation that horses spend three weeks in Georgia prior to the Olympics was based on acclimatization needs as well as recovery time from transport. The average temperature in Atlanta in July and August is 30 C with humidity levels of 65 to 70 per cent.
Use of grain and fat in the diet, which have a lower heat increment than fibrous feeds such as hays, may benefit horses in hot climates.
Heat Stress occurs when heat production exceeds evaporative capacity of the environment or evaporative mechanisms become impaired due to great loss of body fluid and reduced blood volume. Whole body cooling must be undertaken.
Heat stress-distressed, tired unwilling to continue exercising, lethargy, blowing hard continuously, standing without showing interest in surroundings, or interest in grazing.
Heat Stress can lead to a life-threatening condition called "Heat Stroke". The best prevention for equine owners, is to know how to identify heat stress in a horse before it progresses to heat stroke. If a horse is being exercised on hot days, extra care and attention must be given because there is a significant increase in the amount of heat produced by working muscles. Heat production can increase as much as 50% during intense exercise as compared with heat production when the horse is at rest. A horse increases its sweating rate to move more blood to the capillaries under the skin and breaths much harder in an effort to release this build-up of heat. The most commonly observed signs of "Heat Stress" are profuse sweating, rapid breathing, and a rapid heart rate. Some horses have a condition leaving them little or no ability to produce sweat, these horses are called "Anhydrotic". Since heat loss is mainly dependent on sweating and its evaporation, anhydrotic horses are prime candidates for heat stress. It's important to know if your horse falls at risk due to this condition, and take proper precautions to protect it from overheating. When you work or exercise your horse in hot weather, watch carefully for the signs of "Heat Stroke" which can include; skin that is dry and hot, a pulse and respiratory rates much higher than normal and unusually high rectal temperatures. While you are waiting for your vet, move the horse to a shady area with fans or wind to provide cool ventilation. Spray cool water on the horses legs and body to help lower the internal temperature. In critical situations, ice packs or cold water soaked towels should be placed on legs and other areas that exhibit large veins surfaced on the horse. (if cold towels are used, make sure to change them often because the horses extreme heat will quickly turn the cold water hot) Normally, a horse's rectal temperature is around 101 degrees Fahrenheit, if the rectal temperature is around 104 degrees for any length of time, it is characteristic of a life-threatening situation. When a horse is suffering from heat stress, stop working the horse and begin cooling the animal's body with fans and shade to help stop the onset of heat stroke. Also, pay careful attention to make sure that the horse doesn't become dehydrated during long bouts of exercise, large amounts of fluid can be lost through sweat. In most cases, horses should be allowed to drink as often as they desire, even during exercise, unless they are showing signs of heat stress. A "hot" horse has the chance to colic if given lots of water while they are hot. Small amounts of water should be offered to the horse in frequent intervals before, during and after exercise. A simple test that can be used to determine marginal water loss in a horse is the pinch test. When a section of skin on the neck or shoulder is pinched, the skin recoil will be immediate in normally hydrated horses. Dehydration will delay skin recoil. It is important to make sure the horse is properly cooled-down following exercise work-outs. The built up heat must be released from the horse's body through respiration and sweat. Heat loss through sweat requires moving air and evaporation. Walking a hot horse allows the air movement to continue to help evaporate heat, if left standing still, the lack of air movement could force the internal temperature to rise even higher. Air flow is vital to remove heat off the horse's body. The length of cool-down will depend on the amount of work, the environmental conditions and the individual horse. Horse owners who know the signs of heat stress in horses can help prevent heat stroke in their animals, so becoming aware, can reduce the chance of injury, or even worse, death. If you use common sense and good judgement, this all can be avoided, so watch for the signs!
This is the time of the year that severe heat-related stress occurs in equine athletes. Symptoms such as reduced skin elasticity and capillary refill time, anhidrosis (failure of the sweat glands), colic due to decreased water content of digesta, and hyperthermia may all be due to heat-induced disruption of the horse's normal water and electrolyte balance. Many horse owners don't realize that only about 25% of the energy used in the performance horse's working muscles is converted to actual muscle movement. The remaining 75% loss of efficiency is represented by waste heat that becomes very difficult for the horse to dissipate in hot and humid weather.
The immediate need for performance horses to rid themselves of highly detrimental waste heat is accomplished through four main routes. These include evaporation, convection, conduction, and radiation.
By far, the most important mechanism for heat dissipation in horses is evaporation. Conversion of the water in sweat (or other sources of water placed on the horse's hot skin) into gas consumes heat and cools the horse's skin. During and after exercise, the horse's skin is laden with dilated capillaries carrying overheated blood from the body core. The blood in these capillaries is cooled to help maintain a reasonable body temperature that will allow the horse's nervous and muscular systems to function normally.
horses working under hot and humid conditions were better able to maintain core body temperature within an acceptable range or even reduce it during rest periods after intense phases when ice water baths were used. Liberal application of icy cold water to overheated horses helps to dissipate heat not only by providing more water to evaporate from the skin, but also by direct conduction of the horse's body heat into the water which runs off the horse, carrying away excess heat in the process. cold water baths were used with significant decreases in core temperatures and heart rates.
During the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games, 85 misting fans were placed at shaded recovery areas throughout various phases of the equestrian courses to allow these elite athletes to stabilize and lower their body temperatures. Regular dry fans work to both increase evaporation, and also dissipate heat by the cooling process known as convection. Misting fans take advantage of the additional cooling property of blowing water onto the horse that is in the process of changing from liquid to gas. The shaded areas guard against additional heat load through solar radiation. Although radiation of heat from the horse's body into the atmosphere is a potential mode of heat dissipation, it most often works in the opposite direction during sunny days, with horses (especially dark ones) gaining radiant heat from the environment.
horses are adequately hydrated before exercising in hot and humid conditions and providing as much water as possible between bouts of exercise is an important strategy for maintaining the critical sweating mechanism. Realistically, only a portion of the fluid losses incurred during long term exercise in hot and humid conditions can be replaced immediately. However, providing plenty of electrolyte-rich, high quality hay and fortified grain along with free-choice trace mineralized salt and water in the days after intense exercise should fully replace both the fluid and electrolyte losses. Additionally, taking advantage of conductive heat loss through cold water baths, convective heat loss through fans and natural air movements and avoiding radiant heat gain through the use of shade are effective methods to minimize the chances of excessive heat stress in performance horses during hot and humid conditions
The single most important means the horse has for getting rid of the enormous heat load generated during exercise is evaporation, accounting for about 65% of the heat dissipation. Sweat is evaporated off of the skin surface and cools the horse. The lungs account for about another 25%. This capacity of the respiratory tract in dissipating heat from the body becomes very important under conditions of high humidity and high temperature when evaporation conditions are not favourable.
Sweating can only occur at a significant level when the horse is not dehydrated and has plenty of fluids in its body with which to produce sweat. When the horse is dehydrated, the lungs play an even more important role. Even so, the dehydrated horse is severely handicapped in ability to rid the body of any excess heat.
Let's complicate this process one more step and take a look at what is happening to the circulation. The blood that the horse has available to circulate is what gets the nutrients and oxygen to the individual cells and takes away the waste products of that cellular metabolism, i.e. the wastes, toxins, and heat. It gets rid of much of the waste through the kidneys. In order to get rid of the heat, the circulation to the skin is greatly increased and brought closer to the surface. The surface veins dilate so they can bring even more of the hot blood to the surface for cooling. This is all well and good up to a point; but suddenly we have a strong and literally heated competition going on for who gets the blood - the skin for cooling or the muscles and organs for metabolism and work required to uphold the requested level of performance.
Add dehydration to the picture and there is even less circulating fluid volume available to accomplish the demands for both metabolism and heat dispersion. At this point, the skin loses out and sweating rapidly diminishes, even though the need for heat dissipation remains critical. If work continues, the animal experiences heat exhaustion, or heat stroke and the likelihood of death.
Fluid lost in sweat is not just water - it contains a lot of salt. These salts, when they are broken down into their chemical components, are referred to as electrolytes. These are typically groups of different salts that contain such electrolytes as sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium and calcium. Each one of these individual components or electrolytes carries an electrical charge (when they are considered or discussed in terms of charged particles, they are referred to as ions). By means of these electrical charges, electrolytes govern the transfer of water through cell membranes into or out of the cells. Thus, they function in getting the nutrients in and the waste products out. They are responsible for getting nerves to fire and muscles to contract. Essentially all of the physiological actions in the body require electrolytes. And importantly, they need to be present in the fluids in the appropriate amounts for these biochemical reactions to proceed in an orderly manner.
If the horse sweated out these electrolytes in the same percentages in its sweat as in its circulating fluids, the body's concentrations of these electrolytes would remain in balance even though there would exist a depletion of both total fluids and electrolytes. However, this balance is not maintained. The horse's sweat is more concentrated in electrolytes than the electrolytes in its circulating fluids. This is referred to as being hypertonic. Human sweat, in contrast, is hypotonic, i.e. containing a lesser percentage or concentration of electrolytes than in the circulating fluids. This difference between the two species is a compensating mechanism for the poorer ratio of body surface to mass in the horse.
If we don't provide at least a minimum electrolyte replacement, horses show up with such medical conditions as metabolic alkalosis, inefficient transport of oxygen and energy substrates, poor tissue perfusion, thumps, muscle spasms, exertional rhabdomyolysis, cardiac arrhythmias, gastrointestinal stasis, anhydrosis, kidney impairment, and poor recoveries. (Actually, poor heart and respiratory recovery is one of the key signs that can lead you to recognize the problems associated with the task of accomplishing thermoregulation.) The point is, most of these problems mentioned stem from the resulting dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. It is nothing short of amazing how much loss and imbalance the horse can endure not only without dying, but often they even continue at a credible performance level. The real question becomes, how much better could the horse do if it were in a state of ideal electrolyte and fluid balance? How many of the horses who fade in the last third, or have prolonged recoveries after the event, could be winners if their electrolytes and fluids were balanced and at appropriate levels?
1. ?Despite having a sweating capacity that is almost twice that reported for humans, the low surface area-to-mass ratio of this species imposes great demands on the thermoregulatory system during moderately intense exercise.?

Selective brain cooling occurs in the nasal cavity of the horse and serves to cool venous blood. The potential for SBC in the horse is up to 2C during exercise. Sympathetic control of selective brain cooling
2. During heat stress, several mammals, including cats, sheep, oxen and antelope, lower the temperature of their brain below that of their body core.
3. Sweating decreases temp in horses by 2.5C and dissipates 60% of total heat produced. ( McConaghy 1994)

Part B
Discuss mechanisms used by horses. How effective? What can be done to enhance the effect. Tying up, heat stroke, hyperthermia, dehydration
Horses exercising in hot and humid environments produce large amounts of heat from skeletal muscle work-80%.
Latest research shows?, arguments for and aginast, your viewpoint from your experience. Revolutionary ideas-footballers ice blanket.
Tell reader what you said you tell them

Tell the reader what you have told them
It could be concluded that ?thermoregulation is an effective means of maintaining homeostasis. In horses sweating is the main mechanisms whereby heat is dissipated. This is effective in Then summarise important parts of part B with your conclusions as to the effectiveness of such mechanisms.


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Austin, H & Sillence, M 2004, Animal physiology: study guide, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW.

Causey, G & Whittow(eds) Vol.1-3, 1973, Comparative Physiology of thermoregulation, Academic Press, New York.

Clayton, H. 1991, Thermoregulation, pp. 61-70 In Conditioning sport horses. Sport Horse, Saskatoon.

Cunningham, JG (ed.) 2002, ?Thermoregulation? in Textbook of veterinary physiology 3rd ed, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

Geor RJ, McCutcheon LJ 1996, Thermoregulation and clinical disorders associated with exercise and heat stress,
Compendium on continuing education for the practicing Veterinarian 18 (4): 436& APR

1.Hodgson, DR, McCuteon, LJ, Byrd, SK, et al.
Dissipation of metabolic heat in the horse during exercise,
Journal of Applied Physiology 74 (3): 1161-1170 MAR 1993

2. McConaghy FF, Hales JRS, Rose RJ, et al.
Selective brain cooling in the horse during exercise and environmental heat stress
Journal of Applied Physiology 79 (6): 1849-1854 DEC 1995

McConaghy, F. 1994, Thermoregulation, pp. 181-204 In The Athletic horse: principles and practice of equine sports medicine, ed. DR Hodgson. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.

Marlin, D. 2002, Thermoregulation, pp. 133-150 In Equine exercise physiology, Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass.

Vaughan, TA 1972, Mammalogy, WB Saunders, Philadelphia. FEI F?d?ration Equestre Internationale, Lausanne

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Socrates defense

Total Pages: 2 Words: 769 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: what is Socrates argument that he does not corupt anyone?
Is his argument a good one why or why not?

In refrence to this passage:

As a result, as I said in the beginning, I would be amazed if I could
rid you of this slander in such a short time, since it has become so
powerful. This, I assure you men of Athens, is the truth, and in speaking I
conceal nothing, either big or small, or hold anything back. Indeed I get the
impression that I am hated on account of these very things, which is an
indication that I tell the truth, and that this is the slander against me and
that these are the causes. And if you inquire into these things, either now
or later, this is what you'll find.
Concerning the charges of my initial accusers, let this defense before
you be enough. Next I will try to defend myself against Meletos, the good
and patriotic man, or so he says, and the later accusers. And once more,
since these are different accusers, let's take up their indictment in turn. It
goes something like this: they say Socrates is guilty of corrupting the
young and not acknowledging the gods that the city does, but other
strange spiritual things. The complaint is something along these lines. Let's
examine this complaint point by point.
It says that I am guilty of corrupting the young. But I say, men of
Athens, that Meletos is guilty, that he jokes in earnest, by carelessly
bringing a person to trial, pretending to be serious about and to trouble
himself over various matters, none of which was ever an interest of his.
This is how it is, as I will try to demonstrate.
Socrates (So): Here, Meletos, tell me: Don't you take as your highest
priority how the young will be as good as possible?
Meletos (M): I certainly do.
So: Come now, tell these men, who makes them better? It's clear that
you know. It's a concern of yours, since upon discovering the one who
corrupts—me, as you claim—you bring me in front of these people here
and accuse me. Come, state who is the one who makes them better and
reveal to them who it is. … You see, Meletos, that you are silent and
unable to speak? Doesn't it seem shameful to you, and sufficient proof of
exactly what I'm claiming, that it meant nothing to you? So tell us, my
good man, who makes them better?
M: The laws.
So: But that's not what I'm asking, best of men, but what man,
whoever knows this very thing—the laws—in the first place?
M: These men, Socrates, the judges.
So: What do you mean, Meletos? These men can educate the young
and make them better?
M: Definitely.
So: All of them, or some can and others can't?
M: All of them
So: Well done, by Hera! And what a great number of benefactors
you speak of. What next? Do these listeners make them better or not?
M: These too.
So: Who else? The councilors?
M: Even the councilors.
So: Well, then, Meletos, surely those in the assembly, the
assemblymen, they don't corrupt the young people? So do they all make
them better, too?
M: These too.
So: Every Athenian, it seems, makes them fine and good except for
me, and I alone corrupt them. Is this what you mean?
M: That's exactly what I mean.
So: You charge me with a great misfortune. But answer me: Do you
think it's the same with horses? That those who make them better consists
of everyone, while one person is their corrupter? Or isn't it the complete
opposite of this: one individual can make them better, or very few, the
horse-trainers, while the many corrupt the horses if they deal with them
and use them? Isn't this how it is, Meletos, concerning both horses and
every other animal? … It certainly is, whether you and Anytos agree or
disagree. It would be a great blessing concerning the young if only a single
person corrupted them, and all the others benefited them. But, Meletos,
you have sufficiently demonstrated that you never before cared about the
young, and you clearly reveal your indifference and that you have given
no thought at all to the matters you indict me on.
Still, tell us, Zeus-swearing Meletos, whether it is better to live
among good citizens or wicked ones? … Answer, my good man—I'm not
asking anything difficult, you know. Don't the wicked always do
something bad to those who are closest to them, while the good do
something good?
M: Certainly.
So: But is there anyone who wishes to be harmed by those he
associates with more than he wishes to be helped? … Keep answering, my
good man, for the law also requires you to answer. Is there anyone who
wants to be harmed?
M: Of course not.
So: Come then, do you bring me here on charges of intentionally or
unintentionally corrupting the young and making them worse?
M: Intentionally, I say.
So: What then, Meletos? Are you so much wiser at your age than I
am at mine that you know that the wicked always do something bad to
those who are very close to them, and the good do good, while I, on the
other hand, have fallen into such great ignorance that I don't also know
this, that if I make one of my associates bad, I risk being harmed by him?
And yet I would do this great evil intentionally, as you claim?
I don't believe you, Meletos, and I think that no one else does, and
either I do not corrupt, or if I do corrupt, I do so unintentionally, so that
you are lying either way. If I corrupt unintentionally, the procedure is not
to prosecute me here for such offenses, but to take me aside privately and
teach and admonish me, since it is clear that if I learn, I will cease doing
what I do unintentionally. You, however, fled from me and were unwilling
to associate with me and teach me, but prosecuted me here, where the
procedure is to prosecute those who need punishment rather than
And so, men of Athens, what I was saying is already clear, that
Meletos never troubled himself about these matters in the slightest.
Nevertheless, tell us, Meletos, how do I corrupt the young,
according to you? Or rather, isn't it clear from the indictment you wrote
that I corrupt them by teaching them not to acknowledge the gods that the
city recognizes, but other strange spiritual things? Don't you say that I
corrupt them by teaching these things?
M: That's absolutely what I'm saying.
So: But by the gods, Meletos, the very gods that the discussion is
currently about, speak even more clearly to me and these people here,
because I can't tell whether you mean that I teach them to believe that
there are some gods—and so I would believe there are gods and am not
entirely godless and am not I guilty of such—but not, however, the gods
that the city believes in but others, and this is what you prosecute me for,
that they are different, or, whether you mean that I do not acknowledge
the gods at all and teach this to others?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Emma's Ride to Freedoms Autonomy and Domination in Madame Bovary analysis of specific passage

Total Pages: 6 Words: 1616 Bibliography: 1 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper


Your paper will be judged for its ideas, eloquence, internal coherence, and engagement with the text. Your paper must have a clear focus, articulated in the introductory paragraph, that is developed in the body of your paper. It also must show an understanding of and appreciation for the complexities of the text. Even when dealing with broad themes, you should sustain your argument with careful exegesis of specific passages. You may draw on related class discussions and lectures, but your analysis must go beyond those conversations.
WORD COUNT 1400 to 1600.

BOOK USED-- Madame Bovary, Provincial Lives. Penguin Classics, trans. Geoffrey Wall. -- I WILL FAX THE SCENE

Analyze one of the great scenes of Madame Bovary. What is the significance of the scene? How is it narrated? From whose point of view? How does it fit into the design of the novel?
SCENE SELECTED: Emma??™s ride with Rodolphe, Rodolphe??™s seduction of Emma (from ???Your wife, he said, was telling me about her health??? pg 145, to ???She savoured it without remorse, without anxiety, without worry??? pg 151.

THESIS??"I think it should have something to do with control, exertion of autonomy, how Emma interprets herself to have exerted control over her life by succumbing to Rodolphe, but how the imageries and actions in passage suggest the opposite. She is controlled, dominated. Maybe conclude that Flaubert is implying that a real exertio of autonomy is impossible for women of his time?? This fits into design of novel: questions the success of Emma??™s rebellion, questions her responsibility over her fall, can we blame her or not? Is this the only way she could exert control over her life, an did he manage to exert any control over it at all? Is she blameable?
I don??™t know what to think of the ???how is it narrated and from whose point of view??? questions.

The intro should begin by locating the passage within the novel, and identifying its relevance to the rest of the story (the beginning of Emma's moral fall, etc) and by stating some kind of thesis. The conclusion should reflect some new insight not included in intro. I need quotes, and references to the text, constant references to this passage, and only from them comment on how these observations might be valid for the rest of the novel.
After citing the novel fully once, use parenthesis and page number. eg: "..." (34)
Oh, and my professor doesn't like it when we are too intransigent with our thesis. She prefers us to point at the brilliance of the author in acknowledging the ambiguities of X problem, than for us to make the text fit avery strict thesis.

I will send the notes I've taken about the passage (must use heavily to write paper!!), my notes from our lectures (relevant things are in bold), and an example essay that got me an A in this class, so that you can get a sense of what my writing style is. I will do my best to also upload the passage itself, but it will depend on whether my scanner is working.

Please don't cite any source other than the book itself!

Thanks so much and please email me if you have any questions!

PS. I will include my notes for the passage down here just in case. They're very important, if insufficient; please read! Thanks!!


Narration, POV??"free indirect style at times, ambiguous distinction between narrator and characters. Narrator recounts things from the perspective of characters, aware of their interior feelings??¦ but the situations are full of irony, it is the situations that point at Emma??™s flaws in logic, rationalizations, rather than the narrator coming out and passing judgment about her actions. Narrator makes us judge her without seeming judgmental??¦
Irony, humor. In Rodolphe??™s speeches, Emma??™s interpretations??¦. ???In my soul you??™re a Madonna in a pedesta??? (149) yeah right??¦
Does narrator or Emma tell us that the village is ???dismal??? (147)? Ambiguity?

Affair with Rodolphe in general- full of riding imageries

Horse imagery already introduced by the toubadour poets __ centuries earlier. Alludes to the reign over the passions??¦

MAJOR THEMES: control, obligations, obstacles, freedom, constraints, letting go, ascent and fall.
This scene sustains conflict; a big fight for control between Emma and Rodolphe, Rodolphe taking control away from Emma (even shows his teeth, is aggressive, before settling back into deceptively placid attitude in pg 148-149. Aggressive maleness, phallic imageries: 149- ???Rodolphe, a cigar between his teeth, was mending one of the two broken reigns with his little knife???). Rodolphe leading her to moral doom, ???guiding??? her and her passions with his words as effectively as he makes the horses trot with a click of his tongue (147), Emma is overcome, drowning (148:beneath the waves of the sea??¦ her breathing was quick and broken), she finally yields and exposes her vulnerabilities (stretches her neck 149).
But isn??™t Emma??™s resistance a little contrived? The narrative hints that she will yield from the very start of the scene: pg 146: ???Charles wrote to Monsieur Boulanger that his wife was at his disposal,??? ???she yielded to the rocking motion of the saddle???
Rodolphe must loosen Emma??™s inhibitions, make her forget her responsibilities, take control away from her by letting her passions loose. But he controls her he seeks to control her passions, he ???tethered the horses??? (147)??¦ it is when he can no longer keep a reign over her passions (she begins to dream about running away with him, makes plans) that he gives her up entirely.
Rodolphe must fight against the things that tie Emma down;
her family (Berthe-window-Emma, kiss/riding crop scene pg 146- foreshadows how Emma??™s decisions will lead her away from her child who remains a shackle, anchoring her to Charles, interior spaces, domesticity, her mediocre bourgeoisie life??¦ contrast between kiss and riding crop foreshadows how Emma??™s decisions will end up hurting Berthe.)
Her morals, values, sense of duty, responsibility.
There are things that keep getting in the way of Emma as she rides on with Rodolphe. Stirrup- consciousness? Obligations, constraints of her freedom? 147 ???the tall bracken??¦ kept catching in Emma??™s stirrup. Rodolphe??¦ leaned over and pulled it loose??¦. To push aside the branches, he pressed close to her??¦
Rodolphe overcomes these obstacles through his persuasive words (paralleling his control over his horses: 147: God is with us??¦ come on!.. he clicked his tongue??¦ 148- ???she stopped.-I am tired.. Come on. Keep going!) and by making use of his physical effect on Emma (147 ???to push aside the branches, he pressed close to her, and Emma felt his knee touching her leg???).
Emma??™s feminity itself gets in the way of her rebellion, and of he success of her rebellion (148: but her long skirts hindered her. In the end, it seems that Emma??™s only form of empowering herself is by yielding to another man, by choosing another slave master. Things get caught on her clothing- feminity, role of virtuous woman is an obstacle to freedom? Allude to Emma??™s wish for her child to be a man (). Phallic imageries: 149- ???Rodolphe, a cigar between his teeth, was mending one of the two broken reigns with his little knife???

Fight for control, letting go of control, letting go of responsibilities
???Rodolphe let go of the reigns; they made off together in a single leap??¦??? (146)

???The woolen stuff of her dress caught on the velvet of his jacket.??? (149) Emma??™s dress ends up getting caught on Rodolphe??™s clothing. Her ???freedom??? from what??™s trying her down comes in the form of a new man to which she ties herself down, new constrains. Is this fight for control successful for Emma? Is her rebellion truly her rebellion? Flaubert uses irony: Emma perceives her affair to be her great rebellion (151 ???Emma felt the satisfaction of revenge... this was her moment of triumph, and love, so long sealed in, poured out in a copious fixing rush???) but it??™s not her rebellion at all, she is being led, duped, used, like a horse? She is also being *blinded* ???love blurring her eyes??? (148), ???blind with tears??? (149), ???dazzled her eyes??? (149)

Escape/fall, Ascent, Freedom, Damnation?
Emma later reinterprets her affair with Rodolphe as an exertion of her autonomy, long suppressed. When she is riding with him, she looks down upon her town from the top of a hill, and it is implied that she views her ride as an escape from the mediocrity of her bourgeois life, from her failed dreams, her husband and child, Yonville??¦ ???Emma half closed her eyes to find her own house, and never had this dismal village where she lived seemed to her so small. From the height at which they stood, the whole valley seemed an immense pallid lake, evaporating into the air??? (147).
Escape/ ascent (in Emma??™s rationalized view) or fall? (situations suggest latter: nature recoiling from lovers, rotten flowers in stagnant pond??¦) the high-ground of Emma over her village is not paralleled by a moral high-ground, but by a fall.

148: ???young trees had felled. They sat down on a fallen tree-trunk, and Rodolphe began to tell her about his love???
149 ???rotting water lilies floated, stuck among the reeds???. Innocence tainted by impurity. Emma??™s fantasies corrupted??¦
149 ???At the sound of their steps in the grass, frogs sprang away into hiding??? ?????¦as if humming-birds, in flight, had scattered their feathers.??? -- nature recoils at them.
149 ???The evening shadows were falling???
river of milk??"her body feeds on this moral fall? She becomes more beautiful as she falls deeper and deeper into immorality.

Contrast? Ambiguity of situation? I don??™t know what this shows
Both Rodolphe and Charles tell Emma the same thing. Sort of. That by not submitting/going riding she is making a mistake,
145: C: ???Health comes first. You??™re making a real mistake??? 149: R: ???You are making a mistake???

Homais??™ Advice (146)
To Rodolphe: ???your horses may be skittish.??? Emma is skittish, needs a firm hand. Irony.
To both of them: ???Don??™t take any risks! Stay on the straight and narrow!??? Irony. They will deviate from morality, Rodolphe will lead Emma off the straight and narrow.


Fire (allusion to Aeneas??™ Dido? And she will be consumed by her passions too). ???sat there??¦ between the two burning candles??? (150)
Eating (???her plate???- 150, ???savouring this idea???- 150, ???she savoursed it without remorse, without anxiety??¦.???- 151)

Emma??™s Fantasies
151. Emma elevates her unfaithfulness- she equalizes heroism with unchastity. (link to her cult of Mary Stewart). Laces herself as an equal to these ???sister voices??? (151). Pride, vanity. Excited about having a secret and having a lover rather than because she loves Rodolphe. Allusion to Dante??™s Francesca.
Gaining freedom and control by cheating on her husband??¦

Materialism. Bourgeoisie consumption. Foreshadows Emma??™s bankruptcy and her inhabiity to rid herself of traits of the class that she despises??¦ ???the riding-habit decided her??? (146)

Contrast between Rodolphe (domineering man, rider and lover) and Charles (pg 150 weak-willed, tender, asks for Emma??™s opinion, paradoxically this upsets her. If society prevents her from achieving her goals on her own because she is a woman, at least she wants a successful, forceful lover who will allow her to live these goals through him.

Recurrent motif of Windows! ??" interior/exterior. domesticity, constraints/freedom. Berthe blowing a kiss to Emma from behind window. People looking out to Emma and Rodolphe from inside: ???Eyes examined her from the windows???. Judgment, conventionality, obligations


Emma searching for control. Gender role reversals (Emma wears pants, wants to smoke, is not embarrassed alter wedding night, yet plays a very feminine character.

Fire- femina. Woman not in control of her passions (Eve, Dido).

We get inside Emma??™s head. Interior place. Where does the story take place? We??™re moving to an interior, emocional and interior, domestic space.
Windows??"breaking out, escaping, looking in and out.

Bodiness, sexual symbols, control - riding, rodolphe is leading her astray, she wiil eventually lead anoter astray-leon-when she becomes the seducer
Emma: What are you looking for?
Charles: My riding crop (sleeping with Rodolphe- riding crop)
It had fallen behind the bed

Sacrificial: baring the neck.

cult of Mary Stuart (killed because of affairs), and ???illustrious or ill-fated??? women.

agricultural price scene: Catherine Leroux wins price for ???half century of servitude???. Emma trying to break free from servitude.

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

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