Essay Instructions: Instructions- Please make this custom/original - Thesis should not be a quote
Stereotypes are made up of generalizations that often have some kernel of truth in them but certainly don't apply to all in the group. choose one of the following topics and write an argument as indicated:
DO NOT WRITE ABOUT STEREOTYPING IN GENERAL OR WRITE ABOUT SEVERAL DIFFERENT STEREOTYPES YOU HAVE EXPERIENCED. CHOOSE ONE SPECIFIC STEREOTYPE, AND INDICATE THAT IN YOUR THESIS.
1. Examine a well known stereotype about a group you belonged to, such as your religion, ethnic group, profession, home town, sex (or sexual preference), age, hair color, and so on. For example, if you are Asian, you might want to explore the causes for the belief that "All Asians are good in math and science." If you are Black, you might want to write about the belief that "Black people are good in sports." If you are a teenager, why do people feel that you are irresponsible and impulsive? If you are gay, what are the perceptions that people have that are unfair? Why do these stereotypes persist? What can be done to change them?
2. If you are not originally from the United States, discuss a stereotype from your nationality about people from a certain region, profession, or group of some kind and explore where that belief came from.
LENGTH: Minimum five paragraphs of five sentence minimum each. Word count: 1000-1200.
Examples of Stereotypes Paper
An Image To Be Proud Of: Karen Ibbitson
Mention the folks of the North of England to any Englishman, Irishman, Scotsman, or Welshman and immediately a visual image will present itself in their minds. True grit. Stoicism and determination in the face of overwhelming odds. Simple, unsophisticated people, molded and shaped by the harshness of a life fashioned over the centuries, a life that has not changed much at all over the generations of time. Authors such Charles Dickens, the Bronte sisters, Mary Stewart, and Catherine Cookson have been inspired to write about the fates and fortunes of the northern classes. The veterinarian James Herriott made his readers laugh and cry with his stories of life in the northern countryside, and lately even the film industry has brought the raw emotion of northern life home to us in films such as The Full Monty and Billy Elliot. Unassuming northerners cannot understand this sudden surge in popularity. They have always been stereotyped as blue collar and working class. They have been coal miners, ship builders, fishermen, mill workers, and farmers for as long as anyone can remember. They could be considered simple, unsophisticated folk, nothing special. They are not ashamed of what they are yet they give the impression that they are somewhat apologetic. This stereotypical image of the northern native as a down-to-earth, lower class, lower educated, blue-collar worker that has persisted for so many years is evolving, however. These labels may still hold more than a grain of truth, but the northern man and woman emerging today is educated, professional, and is breaking out of the stereotypical mold, while being proud of the northern heritage and traditions.
One is led to ask the question, "What is it that made the people from the north of England the way they are? Centuries ago, the Vikings descended upon the northeast coast of England in their long boats. Later, a longstanding feud with "those marauding Scots" to the north and the advance of the Roman Empire threatened the land that northern folk had known for so long. External difficulties were not the only factors that strengthened the northern character and resolve. Up until the last hundred years or so, members of the British aristocracy owned the mines, shipyards, and textile mills in which the northerners toiled for extremely long hours and with little pay. Children were put down the mine at the age of nine, or sent to work "up at the big house" as a "boot boy" or "scullery maid". What little schooling they did receive did not get them very far. They usually followed in the footsteps of their parents, and families were so big that every child had to work to help feed the family. Add to this the harsh climate that existed on the windswept moors of northern England, and one can see that the northern people were made "from sturdy stock". With the rise of the trade union within the last century, however, northern workers were able to campaign and negotiate for better working conditions and pay. The dynasties of the aristocracy faded out, and child labor laws were passed, along with laws to provide the underprivileged with "public assistance". Education and medical care became more available to all social classes, and today the Geordies could hold their own against any other sector of British society. Despite all this, the northern stereotype of the hard-working, manual laborer still persists.
A stereotype can be defined as a "set image". When applied to people, it refers to forming an instant or fixed picture. Stereotypical images are mostly negative, sometimes positive, and almost always contain a kernel of truth. The recent movie, Billy Elliot , was a particularly moving and poignant reminder of the violent struggles during the miners' strike in the 1970s. The film's director, Stephen Daldry, steers clear of any glitz and romance and juxtaposes Billy's struggle with hardship and following his passion for dance. Let's make one thing perfectly clear. Northern men do not dance! If they do dance, it most certainly is not ballet! More importantly, miners' sons do not grow up to be ballet dancers, and yet that is what this film is about. It is about a tough little kid who is sent to boxing lessons, stumbles upon a ballet class, and discovers his true vocation. His single parent father, who has obviously been through the " school of hard knocks ", finally comes around to the idea, and risks breaching the miners' picket line and being labeled a " scab ", just to send his son to ballet school. This story is about defying the northern male stereotype and daring to be different. At the end of the film we see Billy as an adult. As he is just about to make his stage entrance to play the leading male role in Swan Lake , he discards a white, silk robe, as a boxer would before entering the ring. As he soars across the stage, his burly father cries tears of happiness and pride, even though all northern boys are told growing up, that "big boys don't cry". In a recent interview with British Airways Inflight magazine, fourteen-year-old actor Jaimie Bell who played the part of Billy Elliot, described his experience. Jaimie is a northeasterner, and he said that when he first started to dance, his friends told him to "stop poncing about". He said, "they wanted to keep me just like they were". Of course, Jaimie is proud of his achievement and has broken away from the stereotypical northern teenager image.
In another northern film, The Full Monty, we are introduced to six out-of-work Sheffield steel workers, one of whom is desperate to earn some money in order to pay child support. After hearing about an American group called "The Chippendale's", Gary, ("Gaz", if you're a northerner), decides that stripping would be a good way to earn some money! He rounds up his mates, and what follows is a hilarious account of these six men learning to dance ? and strip. If one puts the comedic aspect aside, a pathos lies underneath. These stereotypical northern males put dignity aside for the sake of their families. They have to search deep within themselves, and they realize that they have held certain attitudes towards homosexuals, women, and children without knowing it. They have to come to terms with the idea of their bodies being put on display for all to see, and, as funny as it is, it is not just the nakedness of their bodies but the nakedness of their souls that speaks to us.
If a visitor wanted to experience the true British culture, he would find it in the northeast. The southern city of London is a melting pot of cultures and ethnicity's. The north, however, is simply generations of the same bloodline. It is easy, therefore, for a stereotype to persist. Children take on the beliefs, attitudes, characteristics, and behaviors of their parents and then pass them onto their own offspring. Northerners don't usually move away from the area, and if they do, they usually return within a few years. Northerners therefore are characterized by their Geordie dialect, their wicked sense of humor, a love of soccer, fish and chips, and a decent pint down at the local pub. Habits and attitudes are formed over generations and a stereotype is born, and that stereotype will last for many generations to come. Today, however, a new northerner is emerging. The coal mines, shipyards, and textile mills have closed. Taking their place is small business, private enterprise, and computer technology. The inner city slums have been bulldozed away and new shopping centers, sports stadiums, corporate developments, and beautiful homes have taken their place. Universities are filled to capacity, and northern pride is flourishing. Even if the stereotypical image persists, and it will for a long time to come, it is an image to be flaunted
A Woman's Role: Rachel Empey (example 2)
"A man's self-evaluation is strictly dependent on how successful he is in his work. A woman's self-evaluation is dependent on the kind of man who chooses her." This "educated" statement was written by Theodore Reik, a mere four decades ago in 1961, and actually published in This Week magazine. The fact that this declaration was made is not nearly as disappointing as the realization that this was a stereotype accepted by American society. Women were believed to be less than men in many ways?including their intelligence level. Here is what Robert Briffault had to say in a 1963 publication of The Mothers: "Women are innately conservative and, if it is true that a man learns nothing after 40, it may be said that a woman learns nothing after 25. Her intelligence differs in kind from masculine intelligence." Isn't it astounding that such an idea was so accepted? These stereotypes have been a part of our culture for centuries. In 1566 Martin Luther's Table Talk contained the following entry: "Men have large and broad chests, and small and narrow hips, and more understanding than the women, who have but small and narrow breasts, and broad hips, to the end they should remain at home, sit still, keep house, and bear and bring up children?.A woman is, or at least should be, a friendly, courteous, and a merry companion in life. They are inclined to tenderness, for thereunto are they chiefly created, to bear children, and be the pleasure, joy and solace of their husbands." There it sits, blatantly announcing the inferiority of women, a sad way of thinking that went so long without being questioned. One might think it would be easy to quickly disregard such an uncomfortable thought by arguing that these ideas are no longer alive within today's society. Would it really be that easy, though? Are these ideas completely buried in the past? Has the population completely accepted women as contributing and capable members of society? Looking into these questions might leave us all a little bit surprised. While much of the thoughts and structures of today's communities no longer make such prejudiced proclamations, an underlying stereotype of women still exists.
It has always been an understanding, whether vocalized or not, that it is a woman's role to be a homemaker. It is clearly evident that this was the understanding in the past simply based on the excerpts already discussed, but this isn't the way that we think about our roles today. Is it? The women of today would like to believe that we are viewed as being equal in all aspects of our daily lives; it would be nice to think that equal contributors are allotted equal rewards. After a long day at the office, we come home, and the whole family pitches in to carry on with the events of the evening?right? Perhaps the reason this could be so easily believed is that it's the women who are too busy to notice otherwise. Recent research on married couples in the United States and Canada shows that women perform about two-thirds of the household chores. This is after they have worked a full day just like their husbands. Why is that? Why is it that we so easily accept the responsibilities of being the primary homemaker? It is just the way it is, right? It is the way we were raised to believe it should be. It is in our nature to "make our house a home." Maybe those ideas about a woman's role are not as distant as we thought.
Okay, so maybe we can accept the fact that we continue to do two-thirds of the household chores because it is "in our nature" to do so. Needless to say, we don't really have more time to spend on that subject because there is laundry to be done. Fair enough, we will move on to another area that warrants consideration--women and politics. On August 26, 2001, women celebrated the eighty-first anniversary of winning the right to vote. We continue to make up more than half of the American population, contributing in the roles of mothers, teachers, lawyers, doctors, plumbers, judges, directors, and just about any other role that can be filled. Despite our many contributions and roles in society, women are still severely underrepresented in politics. In the year 2001, women count for eighty-seven statewide elective executive posts, and seventy-three women are serving in congress (thirteen in the Senate, and sixty in the House of Representatives). This means that although women make up well over half of the American population, we are represented by only 13.6% of the United States Congress. We are definitely making strides in the area of politics, especially considering that we have only been allowed to vote for the past eighty-one years; however, it will be a glorious day when the number of representatives are equal to the percentage of women they represent. Better yet, we will all rejoice when the first woman is elected as President of the United States of America.
Although we continue to do the majority of the household chores, and we are less than equally represented in our government, it is the conditions of today's working environment that seem to invoke the most amount of frustration. This is the area where our society's image of women's capabilities continues to see us as less than men. There are only two women employed as CEOs within all of the "Fortune 500" companies. Recent studies also show that when comparing women and men, women's earnings are approximately 23% less than men's for doing the same job. This standard was accepted for a long time with the reasoning that men were the breadwinners and had families to support. Even though such practices are illegal today, men still earn more than women for doing the same job. It is interesting to learn that as far back as 1978, more mothers were in the labor market than at home. The number of single mothers has risen dramatically over the past thirty years, and yet the standard of less pay for the same work continues. It isn't fair to say that men should be paid more because they are the sole breadwinners anymore. Two-thirds of all mothers are now in the work force, and more mothers have paid jobs than non-mothers. Families with two working parents make up more than 58% of all married couples with children. If theses statistics are true, then why, may I ask, are women still making on average only 75% of a man's income? Why aren't more than 15% of upper-managers in today's largest companies women? The belief that women with children should be at home is still surfacing today. This and the belief that we are simply not as capable as men to perform in the workplace is clearly reflected in the comparison of wages between men and women.
Many of the women and young girls of today's generation take for granted the rights that so many have worked to ensure. This naive attitude is primarily based on trust?trusting that things are equal, as they should be. The amount of money a person makes should be based on the job being done, not the gender of the person doing it. Women should be equally represented in the United States Government; that would seem only fair as we make up more than half of the population of taxpayers. It also seems like a simple given that both a husband and wife who have worked all day would come home and equally share the evening chores. It doesn't take much investigation to see that equality doesn't exist on the level we would like to believe it does. While such an investigation might lead to disappointing realities, it would also offer a great sense of pride for all of the women that have fought so hard to ensure the rights we have today. Better yet, one might hope that seeing the reality of our society might inspire our women to continue to fight for our rights until the day we are considered equal.
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Essay Instructions: Please expand on current paper following. Please feel free to add Italian or Irish immigrants to flesh out paper.
It needs an intro section, lit review, recommendation or findings and conclusion.
This is the 3rd time I have submitted this request.
Stereotyping of Minorities in the Media
The United States is often characterized as a melting pot, unique for the incredible diversity of ethnicities, nationalities, races and religions that are represented across this nation. And yet, in many ways, its populations remain largely segregated, voluntarily inclined toward communities of their own kind and into social circles, organizations and institutions where such is similarly the case. This is an experience which is common for many Americans, who have viewed other groups through the homogeneity of their own experiences. This contrasts the experience of the dominant culture, a white ethnic spectrum which in total constitutes somewhere in the range of 70% of the population. (Day, 1) This is racial dynamic which facilitates a hegemonic approach to defining and conceptualizing other ethnicities, races and cultures. The result is a set of cultural artifacts perpetuating stereotypical composites of various minorities. These are constructed through various media to confirm hegemonic thinking and used to sustain existing racial power dynamics.
Negative stereotyping is typically a product of limited interaction with members of another ethnic or cultural group, which accounts for the correlation between its presence in the media and the segregation which is generally pervasive in American culture. Indeed, according to Fiske (2004), ?stereotyping entails applying to an individual one?s cognitive expectancies and association about the group. As such, stereotypes represent one specific kind of schema.? (Fiske, 398) Such schema are only made necessary by an absence of true understanding or awareness. In a society where segregation does not occur so consistently as is the case in America?where races and ethnicities are often divided along socioeconomic and geographical lines?the tendency to appeal to such schema is likely to be reduced.
According to the study by Cuddy et al, (2007) ?emotions predict behavioral tendencies more strongly than stereotypes do and usually mediate stereotype-to-behavioral-tendency links.? (Cuddy et al, 631) In a very real and problematic way, media outlets tend to exploit these emotions by representing minority cultures in ways that either appeal to our expectations or which manipulate our fears to greater heights.
These effects suggest a reciprocal relationship between our media and our own racial and ethnic biases as a culture. For instance, the well-known inequality faced by African Americans is carried out not just in the judicial system and through economic exclusion, but also by the delivery of negative stereotypes through the media. These have the effect of both informing a negative self-image for African Americans and of perpetuating unfair assumptions by the hegemonic culture regarding the cultural characteristics of the particular group. These abuses were psychological and would help to keep a degrading racist picture of African American people in the public eye. This racist picture would help the reigning political order to justify the oppression of African Americans. In the Kern-Foxworth (1994) article, the author considers the way that advertising after the Civil War would help to keep negative stereotypes and ideas about African Americans alive even after slavery had ended.
Two popular ways of showing the African American which were used liberally in the years around the turn of the century would depict him either as very simple or as a backwards and dangerous savage. By the early 1900s, it had become normal for cartoons on products that were for sale and in advertisement illustrations to show African Americans in the negative ways that whites preferred to view them. The Sambo stereotype was used quite frequently and, with serious reflection, remains evident in the self-deprecating humor of many African American humorists today. This image has allowed for the idea by white people that the African American is naturally simple and obedient. This idea facilitates advertisements which show the black man as being ignorant in a way that is meant to be funny. An insulting description of African Americans which comes with a coffee product discussed the article states that ?the banjo is the favorite instrument of the Negro and adds to gaiety of his home life in his cabin. Here while thrumming the notes, and beating time with his foot, he teaches his young pickaninnies to make their crude steps in harmony with the music.? (Kern-Foxworth, 34) The advertisement uses degrading and condescending words like ?crude? and ?pickaninnies.? But also, it shows the African American as being happy without addressing the stark inequalities in his life. This is a false and ironic way of showing African Americans, casting a sharp counterpoint to the lynching?s and other crimes still perpetrated against African Americans.
These associations demonstrate the destructive potential of media stereotyping which today frequently casts African Americans as the criminal villains in a law and order society. Depictions of other groups seem to reflect a similar desire to cast the social ?other? in a villainous role. With respect to the depictions of Jews, for instance, recent cases in popular culture illustrate, there does genuinely exist an often unspoken but continually relevant mistrust of the Jews amongst other cultures. The inflammatory notion that the Jews were responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ is a mythologized over-simplification of history that has helped to sustain an unwavering if often invisible image problem for the Jews. The spotlight created by the situation of conflict in Israel has been very pertinent to this conception of the Jew as deceptive, combative and imbued with a sense of superiority. (Patterson, 1) This notion has been a long-standing provocateur of resentment against the Jews.
In 2004, Director Mel Gibson became embroiled in controversy for producing what may likely be considered the most direct and explicit work of anti-Semitism created for mainstream consumption since WWII. In The Passion of the Christ, which would ultimately gross more than $370 million at the box office, Gibson would retell the story of Jesus with a focus on the myth of the Jew as a weak, effeminate figure whose treachery caused the death of the Messiah. (BOM, 1) The recall of an otherwise fading perspective on the Jews returned the pointlessly divisive question to the public discourse, likewise causing a firestorm that would have a dramatically negative effect on Gibson?s theretofore well-cast public image. The Academy Award winning director would prove with this film that the response from both anti-Semites and Jews would be substantial. Its successful performance in the box office would illustrate that support does still exist for this media depiction of the Jews.
The two examples of African American and Jewish American experiences demonstrate that even as American society appears to achieve ever greater social egalitarianism, its core ethnocentrism still drives a wedge between reality and the impression held of America?s minorities.
BOM. (2004). ?The Passion of the Christ? Lifetime Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Online at
Cuddy, A.J.; Fiske, S.T. & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631-648.
Day, J.C. (2001). National Population Projections. U.S. Census Bureau. Online at < http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop profile/natproj.html>.
Fiske, S. (2004). Social Beings. Hoboken, NJ; Wiley and Sons.
Kern-Foxworth, M. (1994). Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Rastas. Memories of the Way We Were.
Patterson, C. (2006). Mel Gibson and the Gospel of Anti-Semitism. Jewish Virtual Library. Online at < http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti semitism/gibson.html>
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Total Pages: 2 Words: 651 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Define and differentiate between stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. How does prejudice influence social behavior?
(It is Psychology class essay, please relate to Psychology)
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Essay Instructions: Read Stereotyping Has Lasting Negative Impact: Prejudice has lingering effects, study shows and watch How Pre-existing Beliefs Distort Logical Reasoning.
Discuss three stereotypes you encounter in your own life and the effect those stereotypes can have on others. This can be a stereotype you realize you have been guilty of holding or someone else's. Explain (a) what the stereotype is and (b) what sort of argument, no matter how flawed, might be used to support it, and (c) identify any mistakes you find in that argument.
The paper must be two pages in length (excluding title and reference page) and in APA (6th edition) format. You must use at least three resources, one of which must be the course text, and two resources must either be found in the Ashford Online Library or from the provided sources.
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