Essay Instructions: The Research paper MUST STAY in the silent film era. I have 2 possible research topics I thought of for the era:
1) How silent movies allowed stars to blossom, even though their real life voices and singing skills were unacceptable. I thought maybe the paper would talk about actors and actresses during the silent film era and how even ordinary actors seemed more than that when effectively presented in a silent film because their own specific identity was somewhat nebulous.
2) A second possible topic could be how silent films allow viewers to envisioned the omitted aspects of reality according to their own, personal feelings. Which made silent film a particularly potent devise from an artistic perspective. Silent film left a lot to the imagination.
Either topic could be chosen or combined as long as thesis and paper is clear.
Types of Sources: Find at least three different types of sources from any the five types listed below. Each source must be of a different type
one scholarly article (Cinema Journal, Journal of Film & Video)
one article from a periodical (Motion Picture Times, Film Daily)
one review of a silent film from either the New York Times or Variety
a database search (Access the databases on a college libraries’ website. General search engines like Google or Yahoo are not acceptable.)
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: The professor would like for us to choose any one of the following topics and write a research paper about it in any format we please ... THANKS
1) Research the popular silent film comedians Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin. How did their comedy differ? And how did each of them transition from the silent to the sound era?
2) Research and discuss the most complex director of silent film in Russian cinema, Sergei Eisenstein, who is best known for the film "The Battleship Potemkin." What was his "Theory of Montage?"
3) Research and discuss the importance of the filmmaker Dziga Vertov. What was he trying to accomplish with his film-making? What were his theories concerning the medium of film?
4) What were some of the technological problems associated with bringing sound to film? Discuss the Vitaphone, the film "The Jazz Singer" and the process of conversion in theaters from silent to sound presentation.
5) Research and discuss how sound changed the business of film-making in this country and structured the studio system.
6) Research the Production Code System introduced to Hollywood in the 1930's.
7) Research and discuss the filmmaker Robert Flaherty who made the film "Nanook of the North." Do you consider it a documentary?
Customer is requesting that (writingptb) completes this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: I will be sending in a sample of what i need to be done
i will also be sending in the assignment and what it entails
i will also be sending some annotation books
i will also be sending in reading toes and lecture notes - the lecture notes will help with the overall knowledge of silent film in the era
look at the cite below and i am required for pages 3, 4, and the end of 29
it should be general to specific, write about dates, players, and then funnel it down to line by line reading, and talk about knowledge of the silent film world from notes form lectures
AS A STARTING OFF POINT LOOK AT:
look at who created the source and why, did the recorder have first hand knowledge, was the recorder a neutral party, did the recorder produce the source for personal use, was the source meant to be public or private, did the recorder wish to persuade others, what sort of bias doe stem author have, and was the information recorded during the event?
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: You are to write a 2-page paper. A Summary of the article. Read the article below. Do Not Use Outside Sources. I quoting from article use APA format.
Video-Based Instruction in Distance Learning
Video base instruction is a common denominator in many forms of distance learning. Although correspondence courses have played a large overall role instruction delivered through video has in a mainstay in distance learning since the early days of the black and white educational film. The Internet is revitalizing the use of video form structure and purposes. The races on to create streaming technologies using Internet protocol packets for delivering high Fidelity, full-motion video to the desktop. Throughout the past century and underlying assumption has been that video can be a virtual ingredient learning. There is little doubt that a well-designed video component stimulates the interest level of students. Plainly though video is not essentially for all distance learning. Successful examples learning from phonographic recordings, educational radio, tape-recorded lectures, and audio teletraining have demonstrated the efficacy of voice alone or voice with printed materials, to name just a few alternatives to video. How necessary the inclusion of video for truly high-quality video is to the process of learning from a distance is debatable. As with many issues the answer depends. It depends on the types has been talked the individual characteristics of the student, the role of the instructor, and the instructional alternatives available. The important findings on the impact of video base instruction on learning. The main focuses on distance learning but there are many forms of learning. These include the psychological, persuasive, and vicarious aspects of video communication. Considered to a lesser extent, is the impact of learning from exposure to match video communications such as learning casual television viewing. Although such environments might like the formal structure and design of distance learning they can sway opinion, influence behavior, and alter mannerisms and attitudes. These also are examples of learning from video. The acquisition and modification of knowledge must be enduring and learners most become capable of performing actions they could not perform beforehand. Distance learning refers to learning without the physical presence of an instructor. A more precise description includes the use of specialize course development techniques; specialize in structural techniques, and the application of a communicative technology as defining attributes of distance learning. Our interests are to offer a historical perspective on the empirical evidence of learning from video base and structure. This review spans nearly a century from empirical investigations of learning during instructional silent fumes to prescription for is use in on-demand learning portals on the Internet. Our review concentrates on motion video and animation rather than still pictures or graphics. One interpretation of video base instruction regards it generally as the branch of educational. And practice concerned primarily with the design the use of messages, which controlled the learning process. Within the framework of our review videotapes and instructional message that is conveyed through a communication technology. Communicative technologies are the physical means by which instructional messages are transmitted to the learner. Examples relevant to the motion video include educational films, instructional television, video disc, CD-ROMs, and digital video over the Internet.
Video and learning: a cognitive perspective
Instructional messages on those patterns of signs and symbols to modify behavior in any one of these three instructional domains cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Video-based instruction is a form of an instructional message that has with few exceptions to components a video component and a verbal component. The verbal component may take the form is captioned tanks or as a typically the case the spoken word carried through an auditory channel. The inception of silent educational films at the start of the 20th century had a curious theoretical rationale for reliance on the visual approach to instruction; experts believe that visual material served as an antidote for the verbal component of the classroom. Other pioneering approaches had the instructor explained that visual context while a silent film played or offered an explanation immediately after. When sound was introduced in late 1920s the verbal component became predominantly auditory. In terms of an instructional message, video-based injunction is really a form of multimedia. For example in video teletraining an auditory narration serves as the verbal component while video images are displayed. The importance of quality audio has been recognized in the distance learning research literature. Indeed education programs available through cable television rely on audio as much as videos delivered the instructional message. Instructional CD-ROMs often include an audio component to motion video. In contemporary distance learning applications the end instruction from a video component is mediated by an audio component.
Video and audio integration
a practical framework for understanding the mental integration of video and audio as a mediator of learning his research reported by Professor Richard Mayer and colleagues at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The model stems from laboratory experiments that investigated learning outcomes while a student view computer-generated animations. The independent bearable was the verbal component which was conveyed by auditory narration or on-screen text. The central issue was how best to bundle for learning the instructional message to video and verbal components in light of the limitations of the students working memory. A larger implication is that the effect of this memory limitation ranges well beyond laboratory, extending to any video base learning environment. The psychological theory underlying Mayer research is a dual process of working memory. This theory stems from Paivio’s research on a dual coding approach to mental representation. Working memory eight has shrunk from an information processing framework of cognition, refers to the early, fragile, and temporary storage of perceptual images. It is an initial step of the learning process it holds both visual and auditory images independently but has a limited capacity for each. While the images briefly persists in working memory learners attempt to promptly organize them into court term representations before they quickly disappeared. It essential for learners or sound is referential connections between the visual and auditory stores and to do so within a few seconds. Mayer’s investigations were conducted in control laboratory conditions the subjects areas included the understanding of natural phenomena lighting formation or the understanding of the mechanics of everyday things the operation of a car's break system. In one conditions students view the video computer animation with on-screen text as the verbal component. In another condition the same video was view with the auditory narration as the verbal component. Learning outcomes were obsessed through a retention test, a matching test, and a transfer test. In each content area learners exposed to the auditory narration condition outperform their counterparts on all three tests. Mayer’s interpret this as the split attention defect in which multimedia learners can more readily integrate video with auditory narration while they maintained separately in working memory. The importance of Mayer’s research is that one cannot exclude the contribution of the audio component when assessing the impact of video on learning. Unfortunately the research in distance learning usually neglects the properties of the audio component. In some circumstances it might be possible that the audio component contribute more to learning and the video component does not. Video however often receives much of the credit.
In structural video examples in higher education
The large majority research on video base instruction has been conducted in educational settings. An analysis of the hundreds of no-significant-difference studies reported by Russell 1998 determined that 87% were conducted in an educational, rather than training, environment. Three examples a deal with educational concerns mainly instruction in abstract topics, the retention of knowledge, and student attitudes toward video base instruction are offered. Abstract topics, a study by Ketcham and Heath 1963 investigated the effectiveness of college-level educational films that do not utilize direct visual presentation of content. The purpose of the investigation was to create a film to teach in abstract topic whereby the images and video is no way reproduce the soundtrack. For the experiment 826 minute black-and-white film about the life and the work of William Wadsworth was produced. The film included frequent quotations from Wadsworth forgery and was filmed in England and France. The audio portion of the film recounted events from William Wadsworth life and summarize poems that he had written. The video portion showed scenes that complemented the audio portion but did not add additional information. The undergraduates randomly selected and placed into one of six groups audio and video, single viewing, audio only single viewing, audio and video, you three times, audio only, view or three times; audio and video, view three times, with note taking and study time; and conventional classroom methods. A verbal after to serve as a covariate in the analysis. A knowledge chance that asked questions pertaining only to the audio portion of the film was a ministered following the film. Results indicated that sound with visual images who do not directly to take the content matter of a film, resulted in a greater learning than sound alone. Multiple presentations about the feel with or without pictures produce greater learning than a single presentation. During presentations with audio and video produced the highest achievement but the scores were not significantly different from that three sound only groups, or that three audio and video plus notes group. Study also found that the type of presentation that issues matter less for high at two students then for low aptitude students. The author concluded that films can work well under both normal and optimum viewing conditions for abstract materials.
Knowledge retention a study by Jacobs and Bollenbacher 1960 examine whether there were differences in the amount of subject matter retained the students in the biology class talked of television versus students attending their traditional classroom course. Participants have of whom attended the traditional course. The other half was given television show action for additional classroom instruction on alternating days. Results of the final test image treated at the learning outcomes for the two delivery methods were not significantly different for students of the below average or average ability. However for above average students television group scores in the way higher than the traditional group. 22 months after the course and did students were given an alternative form of the final test. There was no significant difference in retention between the groups.
Video teletraining is a modern use of instructional television often using compressed video signals transmitted directly over telephone lines or over and along core digital satellite transmissions into classrooms equipped with a downlink capability. A 2-way audio connection is nearly always available and a two-way video between instructor and student sizes become increasingly common.
Video and learning: the computer era
The introduction of computer to mediate learning was a turning point in video base instruction. Video programs had been limited to a linear continuity with few possibilities for rapid access to specific sequences. The computer ushered in the era of interactive video in which rapid access to video images became a factor in design of instruction. This also represented a shift in the use of video from classroom injunction to individualized learning. The earliest examples parallel developments in program instruction in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The uses of motion video however tended to be dynamic graphic displays illustrating x-y relationships such as the relationship between temperature and relative humidity. The development of the video disc, and analog form of video in the late 1970s initiated the widespread use of full-motion video under computer control. In the late 1980s the development of digital video me the manipulation, editing, storage, distribution, and archiving of video images easier and more convenient. It's most common delivery form is the seedy ROM. The compression and transmission of digital video over the Internet is the next anticipates that in the evolution of video base in show action. The instructional the effect of each of these video technologies is reviewed. Videodisc technology offers rapid random access to a large database of video quality images and sequences. This introduction one-sided with the wider availability of the personal computer to which it became interface creating the interactive videodisc as an educational technology. The videodisc uses metallic plastic disk to hold information as tiny pits in a transparent substrate with a reflective coating during play the pits modulate a laser signal that is decoded into arbitrary and video signals. A 12 inch video just stores up to 30 minutes of full-motion video, or 54,000 frames, on each side along with two tracks of audio. Fletcher 1990 conducted a quantitative analysis of the educational and training effectiveness of interactive videodisc instruction. In that analysis empirical studies comparing interactive videodisc instruction to conventional instructions were segmented into three groups, higher education, industrial training, and military training. The various learning outcomes investigated included knowledge outcomes which assessed the suit was knowledge of fact or concepts presented in the instructional program, performance outcome which assessed the students skills in performing a task war procedure, retention which measure the durability of learning as an interval of no injunction, and the time to complete the instruction. The effect sizes, or the difference between the mean scores of the treatment and comparison groups divided by standard deviation of the control group were computed for each of the 28 studies identify. The conclusion of the Fletcher 1990 analysis is that interactive video instruction is both effective and less costly than conventional instruction and should be routinely considered and used in military education and training.
Learning from CD-ROM
In comparison to the videodisc the seedy rum offers a more convenient package for distribution. The nearly universal availability of the CD drive and most personal computers broadens his acceptance. CD-ROMs can store up to 650 MB of any combination of text, graphics, sound, video, and animation in digital form. Thus it is an excellent choice of multimedia base instructional approaches her it other useful and medications are the storage of reference material, encyclopedias, database, and instructional games. CD-ROMs often use in little of correspondent manuals. We were not able to identify any appropriate meta-analysis of the instructional effectiveness of seedy rounds however we would expect the effects on learning outcome to be comparable to videodisc effects.
Learning from interactive delivered video
the Internet a none proprietary delivery system has captivated the interest of educators and trainers as the mean to deliver instructional messages whenever and wherever needed. The proliferation of web-based courseware technologies multiply the opportunity and challenges facing higher education as well as training environments. Creator software developers are persistently introducing techniques for the content of web pages to become more dynamic. A streaming video and audio technologies become widely available more distance learning web sites will attempt to capitalize on these dynamic forms of instructional messages. As students access to broadband connectivity increases video will increasingly become integral component of web-based distance learning programs. Video over the Internet is of course a form of digital video. Its implementation has several options and trade-offs. These include image size, resolution, update rate, color resolution, qualitative aspects, accompanying audio, and costs. In order to reduce the size of video files without reducing quality of variety of video compression techniques can be used. Decompression scheme chosen depends on the desire resolution of the image as well as the memory available for video storage. The JPEG and MPEG compression programs are two of the more popular formats. A related option for Internet learning providers is to stream the video/audio to a buffer on a client computer. Video streaming refers to a compressed video file being sent to a streaming server to a client i.e. student. The streaming procedure in response to a student request for a web page containing embedded videos. The student begins to play the incoming multimedia stream from a buffer shortly after the video foundation are received and temporarily stored. The video begins play before the entire download is complete, while pieces that have already played are removed. Video streaming does allow students to view larger files without having to collect and store them. There are currently no standards for video streaming. The real-time streaming protocol is an example a propose standard for the delivery of real-time media over the Internet. How is this technology best employed? Distance learning providers can exploit streaming video and audio to deliver lectures over the Internet to student’s computers at school, work, or home at any time. This technology will clearly widen the access asynchronous inched optional programs. There are currently few examples in the research environments. Ingebritsen and Flickinger document one example 1998 in which biology courses were offered through streaming audio of the instructor accompanied by a series of slides, presented through a Web browser, containing diagrams, photographs, and other visual aids. Another example is a case study on synchronous web-based training for Coast Guard personnel; student performance in the Web environment was comparable to that of the residential classroom comparison group. The use of video however was apparently limited to electronic whiteboarding and two-way document sharing.
Video realism and learning
An inexorable pursued by providers of distance learning is to provide learners with the highest quality video achievable. Although this can bring advantages from a student satisfaction perspective it's learning benefits is less certain. Visual realism may be characterized as the extent to which a visual depicts the real thing or cannot be differentiated from it. DHL can facilitate learning to the extent that certain details are relevant to the other learning outcome. The extension of this qualification is that instructional the effectiveness me be limited it too much information is given as a consequence of realism with high degree of detail. Dwyer 1978 indicates that excessive detail in realistic pictures or models of the heart may be less effect and are perfectly detail line drawings. This observation parallels many of the findings from research on the training effectiveness of simulators which demonstrates that higher fidelity aviation simulations e.g. graphics do not necessarily improve learning or transfer to the actual equipment. Similarly in research on virtual environments, Johnson and Stewart 1990 report data that indicated no improvement in visuals spatial learning when the more immersive, and costly visual display environments argues. In a study by Wisher and Curnow 1999 the visual presence of an instructor and a distance learning program was manipulated as being either on or off. Although students perceived that not being able to view the instructor decreased their ability to learn, to measures of learning outcomes indicated no difference in learning performance between the two conditions of visual presence. As with contractual television, training simulators, and virtual-reality environments, it is not always necessary to increase the video capability of distance learning programs in order to increase training effectiveness. Too often developers and designers become captivated with technical capabilities rather than an examination of the influence of media on the underlying learning process. As depicted earlier in Mayer’s generative model of multimedia learning, the video component must be integrated with the verbal component for learning, retention, and transferred to occur.
Video and learning: what are the lessons?
The research findings on video base injunction on voluminous. The underlying theme of the findings are really quite simple: if the classroom environment is replicating, learning outcomes are replicated, i.e. the no significant difference phenomenon. When the conditions of learning are properly modified notably informative individualized feedback is offered, a learning effect size on the order of one half standard deviation emerges. When the feedback approximates that of a human tutor, as can be the case with intelligent tutoring systems, the effect of size can be one full standard deviation or more. Medial base instruction has progressed from the audiovisual stage 1940s and 1950s to the educational media stage 1960s and 1970s to the instructional technology stage 1980s to mid1990s to what might be called the Internet stage. The antiquated terminology of the audiovisual hay days -- fluorescent chalk, lantern slides, anamphoric lenses, lenticual screams, pantographs, and telemation devices -- has been replaced by a new nomenclature: instant messaging, bandwidth, browsers, video streaming, and graphical user interfaces to name a few. Undoubtedly the future will offer new video avenues for the learner. Virtual reality, the handheld, wireless Web, and spatially immersive visual displays that project stereo images on three walls and floor are examples of the changing medium of instructional video. What has not changed is the nature of the human capacity to learn and remember to acquire and modify knowledge, skills, and beliefs. Clark 1983 has argued for the tremendous influence that instructional design plays in any medium. The video medium can have a facilitative effect on learning, as nearly a century of research has demonstrated, but the conditions of learning will always be important. Whether through video base instruction or other media, researchers and developers in the Internet and the future eras must acknowledge that the medium is only good as the designer of the instructional message it conveys.
Excerpt From Essay:
I really do appreciate HelpMyEssay.com. I'm not a good writer and the service really gets me going in the right direction. The staff gets back to me quickly with any concerns that I might have and they are always on time.
I have had all positive experiences with HelpMyEssay.com. I will recommend your service to everyone I know. Thank you!
I am finished with school thanks to HelpMyEssay.com. They really did help me graduate college..