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Sexual Politics Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Sexual Politics College Essay Examples

Title: Sexual Topics

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1509 Bibliography: 2 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: A comprehensive treatment of the problems treated in contemporary European Literature and/or postmodernism culture. Also sent fax: two movies i have to use are Swept Away and Pulp Fiction: talking about Sexual Politics!
There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Essay Instructions: plesae i want this researcher to write this paper for me.Is a research proposal paper.The researcher name is Writer?s Username: researchpro.
This is the criteria to use

Research Question and Justification
On average, women make up about 7 percent of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women?s Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60 percent of the population. In fact, over 30 percent of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men ? issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
The rapid increase of female prisoners in a male-dominated system has left fewer adequate resources available for women. In addition, most research shows that women?s prison experiences differ drastically from those of men because their relationships inside and outside prison tend to shape the culture then enter into in prison. Women tend to form differing structures than men, finding roles similar to that which they would undertake outside prison. In addition, over 60 percent of women in prison were the primary guardians for their children, causing women to experience a higher degree of trauma and separation anxiety as well as a differing view of the judicial system and their own roles (Women in the Criminal Justice System, 2007).
Because of these divergent issues, our research will ask: which rehabilitative programs and theories have been the most successful for women?. To do this, we will survey the literature as well as develop a qualitative instrument to administer to a sampling of prison psychologists and/or criminologists. Independent variables in this case will be individual experience, opinions and differences in experts approach to the issue, dependent variables will focus on the outcome ? our explanation of divergent needs for women in prison. Our primary theoretic base will focus on appropriate gender-response theory and programs that allow for gender differences within their structure.

Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2007). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:

This is a work from the research and advocacy for reform project, but meant for the scholarly audience. During the last two decades, there has been a rather profound change in the way in which women are treated within the criminal justice system. Thankfully, the system has listened to what sociologists have said, but more expansive law enforcement efforts, increased drug-related penalties, and post-conviction barriers to reentry into society sometimes uniquely affect women. The report is more a broad statistical overview of the issues faced by many women than a solution. Although the material points to ways society can ease the burden of the taxpayer from incarceration to rehabilitation, the primary purpose for this report is as a basic, and initial, overview of the issue.

Bloom, B. (2001). Gender-Responsive programming for women offenders: Guiding Principles and Practices. Correctional Service of Canada. Retrieved from:

This is a scholarly work from an academic at San Jose State University. It reviews the situation of correctional programs for women being based almost exclusively on mal pathways to crime, and therefore treatment being focused on the same. Instead, the article discusses the relevance of gender-responsive program designs, interventions and evaluation. The findings are robust ? cultural and gender differences are clearly needed in both therapy and the general approach to criminal justice for women.

Freudenberg, N., (2005). Coming Home from Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women. American Journal of Public Health. 95 (10): 1725-36.

In general, when female prisoners are released, they have high rearrest rates, low employment, and almost no social service outlets. Much of this stems from not having appropriate services while incarcerated. It is interesting that overall drug use and criminal activity diminish the first year after release, but then grow if no opportunities for advancement present themselves. Post release employment and health insurance were significantly associated with lower rearrest rates and drug use. Housing, counseling, and other treatments will improve successful reentry into society, which suggests that new public policies are needed to improve issues regarding women and incarceration.

Morris, A.;Wilkinson, C. (2001). Responding to Female Prisoners? Needs. Crime and Deliquency. 47 (3): 368-89.

Of the many psychological and psychsocial approaches used to counsel the incarcerated population, which approach does one take? It certainly depends on whether one believes that the basic psychological make-up between genders differs. If we take the prison population of women, however, we do see that there are fundamental differences in race, education, and acculturation than that of the overall female population of the United States. Thus, it would make more sense to focus any therapy or rehabilitation philosophy specifically on the manner in which women approach incarceration, how we might engender more success and community, and ways that women can feel safer and adapt better to uncomfortable situations. Most scholars agree that women who are in the criminal justice system have different needs than their male counterparts (racism, sexism, economic oppression). When dealing with these larger issues, then, it is more desirable to use a framework in which the chance of success by focusing on specific issues is paramount

Van Gundy, Yoder, A. (2010). Gender-Responsive Programs: Addressing the Special Needs of Incarcerated Women. In R. Muraskin, ed., Key Correctional Issues. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Because female incarceration is different, there are several rehabilitative programs and theories that may have special use for women: gender-responsive and/or cognitive based. We know that males and females develop cognitively in different ways, react to certain stimuli in divergent ways, and even communicate in slightly different fashions. It therefore stands to reason that any therapeutic or rehabilitative approach would also take into consideration gender as part of its paradigm. This is a scholarly, peer-reviewed publication with authors that are focused on criminology and societal consequences. It is well documented, and meant for the active professional.


Note: This should be primarily distributed to criminology scholars, psychologists or psychiatrists who work in the prison population, or potentially to case workers or parole officers with a background in sociology who counsel or work with women prisoners.

1. What do you consider to be the primary challenge for women prisoners in the contemporary correctional system?
2. What trends have you seen evolving over the last decade regarding psychological issues that pertain specifically to female prisoners?
3. On average you believe the female prisoner has a significantly different psychological make-up than a male prisoner? If so, why? If not, why not?
4. Do you believe that gender-representative services are appropriate for women prisoners? Do you use them? Why or why not?
5. Do you believe that cognitive based therapies and services are appropriate for women prisoners? Do you use them? Why or why not?
6. What do you believe is the most effective way to help the female population within the prison system?
7. In general, what do you believe is the greatest need women prisoners have within the correctional system?
8. How do you approach reintegration of women prisoners back into society?

National Women?s Law Center. (2012). retrieved from:

Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2007). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:

Bloom, B. (2001). Gender-Responsive programming for women offenders: Guiding Principles and Practices. Correctional Service of Canada. Retrieved from:

Freudenberg, N., (2005). Coming Home from Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women. American Journal of Public Health. 95 (10): 1725-36.

Morris, A.;Wilkinson, C. (2001). Responding to Female Prisoners? Needs. Crime and Delinquency. 47 (3): 368-89.

Van Gundy, Yoder, A. (2010). Gender-Responsive Programs: Addressing the Special Needs of Incarcerated Women. In R. Muraskin, ed., Key Correctional Issues. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Zaitow, B. and Thomas, J. eds. (2003). Women in Prison: Gender and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishing.

Please use the above information and the references you used for this research question and annotation including the sample survey to write an 8 page research proposal on the topic women in prison and which rehabilitative programs and theories have been the most successful for women?. please use the references you used above to write the research proposal
This is the giudelines for the research proposal

1. Statement of Research Question: What will you study? Why is it important? Which theory is your research question based on?
2. Literature Review: Include background information on the topic. What does the literature say about your topic? What previous research has been conducted and what were the results? Why is there a need to do further research on the topic?
3. Research Methods: This section should be a very detailed plan on how you will carry out your study. This should include: statement of hypothesis; defining variables; operationalization (how will you measure variables); unit(s) of analysis; how you deal with issues of reliability and validity; data collection method; sampling strategy; etc.
4. Ethics Section: (see chapter 3) Be sure to explain how you will protect participants if your study includes participants. You may want to develop a consent form, although this is not required.
5. Practical Implications: Discuss how your research would be applied to practice. How will this project advance the field of criminal justice?

Other paper requirements: (points will be deducted for failing to follow these requirements)
1. Double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font.
2. Include a reference page & a title page ? these pages are NOT included in the page count.
3. Follow APA formatting guidelines (detailed information may be found at:
4. FIVE references. You may only use academic sources to reach this quota ? books, journal articles, organizational websites. You may NEVER cite Wikipedia or any other non-official website. You may use newspapers or other media content, but only AFTER your five academic source quota has been met. You must cite every source within the text of the paper. You may use the textbook in your seven reference count.
5. Spelling, grammar, and writing style DO count. Please proof read!

Plesae this is a research proposal paper

please it will also be turned into for plagirism.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Feminism and Gender Theory

Total Pages: 3 Words: 1083 References: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: In the introduction to her book As Long as it's Pink: the Sexual Politics of Taste (1995) Penny Sparke explains that commercial objects are often gendered according to conventional understandings of "innately" male of female tastes and behaviour. Gender studies have since shown how these constructed ideas "linger on in our cultural system subliminally influencing our daily lives" (Sparke 1995:6).

Find an example from popular culture and media, or art, which perpetuates or challenges gender stereotypes. Identify the stereotype in your example and explain how the artist or designer has manipulated or subverted this stereotype.

Read Cecile Whiting's "Borrowed Spots: The Gendering of Comic Books, Lichtenstein's paintings and Dishwater Detergent" (1992) to give you a sense of how to construct your argument.

- Read and refer to Penny Sparke's As long as it's pink and or its introduction.

- Research you example. Explain its derivation, and the history of the references it contains (for example, the use of Latin wording, certain font, or material such as black leather. Think about and research each element in your chosen example)

- Explain how your chosen artwork may be suggestive of "masculine" or "feminine" qualities. Are these associations factual or do they seem to be defined by general social agreement?

This essay should
- Show evidence of thorough research.

- Clearly demonstrate your understanding of the terms gender, masculinity, femininity and stereotype.

- Include an image of your chosen art work, correctly referenced.
- Demonstrate your critical thinking and insight.

- Always reference any used material IN TEXT indicating the page used, as well as in the Bibliography as shown above. (Sparke 1995:6).

- Failure to reference correctly in-text or in the Bibliography will be considered as plagiarism and you will be given a 0.

- Your essay must be well written and constructed.

Excerpt From Essay:


Total Pages: 6 Words: 1903 Works Cited: 3 Citation Style: Harvard Document Type: Research Paper


An essay presented in academic form with referencing and bibliography 1,500 – 2,000 words in length

Answer the following question:

How is fashion and appearance central to the construction of social identities? Discuss, with reference to specific examples

Your answer should include:
- Reference to key themes, debates and concepts raised in the unit
- Referenced quotations (using Harvard referencing) from at least four academic texts – at least two of which should be from the unit reader - to support your argument
- A critical analysis of examples relevant to your degree subject


Baldwin, E. et al 1999 Introducing Cultural Studies London: Prentice Hall
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach.

Barker, C. 2000 Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice London: Sage
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach.

?Breward, C. 1998 ‘Cultures, Identities, Histories. Fashioning a Cultural Approach to Dress’. in Fashion Theory Vol 2 No 4
Invaluable (and short) introduction to Cultural Studies approaches to studying fashion

Breward, C. 2003 Fashion Oxford: Oxford University Press
Invaluable introduction to understanding fashion, introduces many of the key issues that are central to this unit.

Entwistle, J. 2000 The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress and Modern Social Theory Cambridge: Polity
Hugely useful overview of many of the issues covered in this unit. Do not be put off by chapter one which is far more complex than those that follow.

?Dant, T. 1999 ‘Wearing it out: Written clothing and Material clothing’, in, T. Dant, 1999, Material Culture in the Social World Buckingham: University Press
Clear and very useful discussion of many of the key ideas that underpin this unit.

Finkelstein, J. 1996. After a Fashion Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Short, lucid and accessible introduction to many key approaches to understanding fashion.

Storey, J. 1997 An Introduction to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture London: Prentice Hall.
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach.

Strinati, D. 1993 An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture London: Routledge
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach

Taylor, L. 2002 The Study of Dress History Manchester: Manchester University Press
Overview of approaches to the historical study of clothing.

WEEK 2 The Fashioned Body

Brush Kidwell, C. 1989. ‘Gender Symbols or fashion details’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Examines ways in which the fashion industry has repeatedly redesigned the shape of the human body.

Breward, C. 1995. The Culture of Fashion Manchester: Manchester University Press
Social history of fashion from the Medieval period to the present, useful for its attention to situating clothes in their cultural context.

Curry, D. 1993. ‘Decorating the body politic’ New Formations 19
Why body modification - in the forms of piercing and tattooing - is experienced by many as a political act.

Davis, K 1995 Reshaping the Female Body: The Dilemma of Cosmetic Surgery New York: Routledge
Engrossing study of cosmetic surgery.

Gilman, S. 1999 Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery Princeton: Princeton University Press
Self explanatory title – particular fascinating in its global and historical perspective.

Hall, S. 1992 The Question of Cultural Identity, in S. Hall et al (eds). Modernity and its Futures Cambridge: Polity
Not fashion focused but a very useful overview of ways of understanding identity

?Macdonald, M. 1995. Refashioning the Body. in Representing Women: Myths of Femininity in the Popular Media London: Edward Arnold
Short discussion of the relationship of women to fashion and the feminine ideals circulated by fashion.

MacKendrick, K. 1998. ‘Technoflesh or, “Didn’t that hurt?”’ Fashion Theory 2 (1)
Cogent theorisation of body modification - in the forms of piercing and tattooing etc

Steele, V. 2001, The Corset: A Cultural History New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Self explanatory title - highly readable and beautifully illustrated.

Steele, V. 1999 ‘The corset: fashion and eroticism’, Fashion Theory 3 (4)
Examination of how the corset was implicated in nineteenth century conceptions of female erotic beauty.

Steele, V. 1989. ‘Appearance and identity’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Explores the way in which appearance is linked to the concept of identity with particular reference to historical conceptions of gender and power.

Summers, L. 2001. Bound to Please: a History of the Victorian Corset Oxford: Berg
Detailed historical analysis of the corset in the Victorian period.

Thesander, M. 1997. The Feminine Ideal London: Reaktion Books
Changing ideals of the female body situated in historical and cultural context.

WEEK 3 The Great Masculine Renunciation?

Chenoune, F. 1993. A History of Men’s Fashion Paris: Flammarion
Exactly what it says on the tin - highly engaging and lavishly illustrated.

?Craik, J. 1994. ‘Fashioning masculinity’ in J. Craik The Face of Fashion London: Routledge
The fall and rise of male fashion.

Gottdiener, M. 1995. ‘Unisex fashions and gender role change’ in Postmodern Semiotics Oxford: Blackwell
Exploration of the social processes governing clothing and gender roles and the uneasy development of unisex styles.

Hollander, A. 1994 Sex and Suits New York: Kodansha International
Historical study of the relationship between tailoring and gender, contains material relevant to many aspects of this unit

Steele, V. 1989. ‘Clothing and sexuality’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Addresses, as the title suggests, the relationship between clothing and sexuality offering a useful commentary on how we do, or do not, dress to be sexually attractive.

Vinken, B. 1999. ‘Transvesty - travesty: fashion and gender’ in Fashion Theory 3 (1)
Explores the historical relationship between clothing and the performance of gendered identity.

WEEK 4 The Great Masculine Renunciation? - Renounced?

Ash, J. 1989. ‘Tarting up men: menswear and gender dynamics’ in J. Attfield and P. Kirkham eds., A View from the Interior: Feminism, Women and Design London: Women’s Press
The menswear ‘revolution’ of the mid 1980s.

?Barker, C. 2000. ‘Youth, style and resistance’, in, C. Barker, Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice London: Sage
Very useful overview of approaches to understanding youth subcultures.

Breward, C. 1999. ‘Renouncing consumption: men, fashion and luxury, 1870 – 1914’ in A. de la Haye and E. Wilson eds. Defining Dress: Dress as Object, Meaning and Identity Manchester: Manchester University Press
Short essay which explores the specificity of changing male fashion conventions in the period following ‘the great masculine renunciation’.

Cole, S. 2000. ‘Macho Man: Clones and the development of a masculine stereotype’ Fashion Theory 4 (2)
The development of ‘macho’ gay male fashion and its influence on mainstream ‘straight’ male fashions.

Edwards, T. 1997. Men in the Mirror: Men’s Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society. London: Cassell
Useful study of contemporary male fashion in relation to debates around identity and consumer society.

Gelder, K. and Thornton, S. eds. 1997. The Subcultures Reader London: Routledge
Collection of extracts, with helpful commentary from the editors, which explore the question of subculture from a range of differing theoretical and historical perspectives.

Hebdige, D. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style London: Methuen
A very influential book that conceives of youth subcultures as authentic forms of resistance to dominant culture. Now the subject of considerable debate - are subcultures still like this? Were they ever? What is ‘authenticity’ anyway? etc, etc.

Jobling, P. 1999. ‘Statue men: the phallic body, identity and ambiguity in fashion photography’ in P. Jobling Fashion Spreads: Word and Image in Fashion Photography Since 1980 Oxford: Berg
Sophisticated discussion of the representation of the male body in contemporary fashion photography.

Malossi, G. ed. 2000. Material Man: Masculinity, Sexuality, Style New York: Abrams
Collection of short accessible and sumptuously illustrated essays exploring fashion and masculine identity.

McRobbie, A. 1981. ‘Settling accounts with subcultures: a feminist critique’ in T. Bennett et al eds. Culture, Ideology and Social Process London: Batsford
Critical of Hebdige above. Why when men dress up are they theorised as authentic rebels given that when women do the same they are often considered exploited bimbos? etc.

Mort, F. 1996 Cultures of Consumption London: Routledge
Epic study of the changing role of consumption in the performance of masculinity, paying particular attention to issues of fashion.

Nixon, S. 1996. Hard Looks: Masculinities, Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption London: UCL Press
In-depth analysis of the increasing centrality of fashion consumption in the construction of male identities.

Nixon, S. 1997. ‘Exhibiting masculinity’ in S. Hall ed. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices London: Sage
Theorises male gender identity as cultural construction with particular reference to fashion and the ‘new man’.

Nixon, S. 2001 Resignifying Masculinity: From New Man to New Lad, in, D. Morley and K. Robins (eds). British Cultural Studies Oxford: Oxford University Press
Short and accessible discussion of changing representations of masculinity in the style press.

Pumphrey, M. 1989. ‘Why do cowboys wear hats in the bath? Style politics for the older man’ Critical Quarterly 31 (3)
Useful discussion of changes in male fashion. Examines, among other things, why the displayed male body has so frequently been conceived of as a homoerotic object and asks if this is changing?

Thornton, S. 1995. Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital Oxford: Polity
Detailed study of nineties youth subcultures exploring their relationship to various forms of media and how they are used by their participants.

Week 6 Representing fashion

Arnold, R. 2001 Fashion, Desire and Anxiety: Image and Morality in the 20th Century London: I. B. Tauris
Accessible discussion of fashion trends and photography, focusing, as the title suggests, on issues of desire and anxiety. Notable in its detailed attention to specific examples and cultural context.

Berger, J. 1972 Ways of Seeing London: Penguin
Clear and lively account of the gender imbalance of gaze in relation to both fashion advertisements and fine art nudes

?Branston, G. and Stafford, R. 1999 ‘Representations’, in The Media Students Book. London: Routledge.

Breward, C. ‘Fashion on the Page’, in Welters, L. and Lillethun, A. (eds) 2007 The Fashion Reader. Oxford: Berg.
A short accessible excerpt that outline the representation of fashion in magazines from the early 19th century to Dazed and Confused.

Buckley, C. and H. Fawcett. 2002. Fashioning the Feminine: Representation and Women’s Fashion from the Fin de Siecle to the Present I. B. Tauris
Explores the ambiguous sexual politics of fashion in a number of twentieth century historical contexts - chapter 5 - which explores young women’s fashion in contemporary Newcastle - is particularly relevant.

Hall, S. 1997 The Work of Representation. in, S. Hall (ed) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices London: Sage
Almost certain to ‘do your head in’ on first reading but a very valuable introduction to ways of understanding representation and its full significance.

Hall-Duncan, N. (1979) The History of Fashion Photography. New York: Alpine Book Company.
Clear illustrated comprehensive history of fashion photography.

Mulvey , L. 1989 ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’, in Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Mulvey’s seminal essay on the gaze and a template for any analysis of the representation of women in conventional narrative

?Sturken, M. and Cartwright, L 2001 ‘Spectatorship, Power and Knowledge’, in Practices of Looking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Excellent wide ranging discussion of spectatorship

Tseelon, E. 2000 Women and the Gaze, in, D. Fleming (ed). Formations: a 21st Century Media Studies Textbook Manchester: Manchester University Press
Focused on film and not the most accessible text listed here but a usefully critical introduction to a key concept in the study of fashion and gender.

Tudor, A. 1999 Decoding Culture. London: Sage
Clear critical discussion of theories of active readership.

Wallerstein, K . 1998. ‘Thinness and other refusals in contemporary fashion advertisements’ Fashion Theory 2 (2)
Like Jobling above offers interesting discussion of recurring themes in contemporary fashion advertising, addressing obvious issues - anorexia, heroin and pornography - without coming to obvious conclusions.

Week 7 Consuming fashion

Abbott, P. and Sapsford, F. 2001 Young Women and Their Wardrobes, in, A. Guy et al (eds). Through the Wardrobe: Women’s Relationship to Their Clothes Oxford: Berg
Short and accessible study of the place of fashion in young womens lives and the influences on their purchasing decisions

Beckingham, C. 2005 Is Fashion a Woman’s Right? Brighton: Sussex Academic Press
Very useful discussion of the relationship between feminist values and fashion in both historical and contemporary contexts, concluding that it is a “potential source of joy”.

Church Gibson, P. 2000 Redressing the Balance: Patriarchy, Postmodernism and Feminism, in S. Bruzzi and P. Church Gibson Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations and Analysis London: Routledge
Discussion of the shifting, and often ambivalent, feminist view of fashion.

Evans, C. and Thornton, M. 1989. ‘Feminism, fashion, femininity’ in C. Evans and M Thornton Women and Fashion: A New Look London: Quartet
Useful overview of ‘the feminist rejection of fashion’.

Foote, S. 1989. ‘Challenging gender symbols’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele, eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Study of C19 outrage at women wearing trousers and C20 discomfort at men with long hair.

Jeffreys, S. 2005. Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West London: Routledge
Radical and angry critique of both, a range of contemporary western beauty practices, and, feminist approaches to fashion which foreground issues of choice, pleasure and creativity. Chapter one explores the diversity of feminist approaches to fashion and beauty; subsequent chapters explore these issues in relationship to specific practices including fashion design and make up.

Jobling, P. 1998. ‘Who’s that girl?’ Fashion Theory 2 (3)
Like Wallerstein below offers interesting discussion of recurring themes in contemporary fashion advertising, addressing obvious issues - anorexia, heroin and pornography - without coming to obvious conclusions.

Kunzle, D. 1982. ‘The campaign of the humorists’ in, D. Kunzle Fashion and Fetishism Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield
Argues that C19 tightlacing techniques far from being necessarily oppressive of women allowed them to feel sexual - in transgression of the gender norms of the time - and were widely condemned by those hostile to the suffragette movement.

Lewis, R. and K. Rolley 1997. ‘(Ad)dressing the Dyke: Lesbian looks and lesbians looking’ in, M. Nava et al eds. Buy this Book: Studies in Advertising and Consumption. London: Routledge
Lesbian visual pleasure and female fashion magazines.

McRobbie, A. 1997. ‘Bridging the gap: feminism, fashion and consumption’ in Feminist Review 55
Examines the way in which many women are financially excluded from fashion consumption and exploited in its production.

?Miles, S. 1998. ‘Consuming fashion’ in S. Miles Consumerism as a Way of Life London: Sage
Very useful short overview of some of the key approaches to fashion consumption.

Miller, J. 2002. Beauty and Democratic Power, in Fashion Theory 6 (3)
Short, useful, discussion of the politics of beauty and ‘sexy’ dressing.

Tickner, L. 1977. ‘Women and trousers’ in Leisure in the Twentieth Century: Fourteen Papers given at the Second Conference on Twentieth Century Design History London: Design Council Publications
How trousers ceased to be an emblem of masculinity

Rouse, E. 1989. Understanding Fashion Oxford: Blackwell (Chapters 5-10)
Useful social history of women’s fashion from the Victorian period to the eighties.

Wilson, E. 1985. ‘Utopian dress and dress reform’ and ‘Feminism and fashion’ both in E. Wilson Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity London: Virago
Brief history of C19 attempts to abolish fashion and rejection of the feminist critique of fashion.

Wilson, E. and Taylor, L. 1989. ‘Down with frou frou’ in E. Wilson and L. Taylor Through the Looking Glass. London: BBC Books
The C19 abandonment of corsets and the tentative emergence of women in trousers.

Wright, E. 1989. ‘Objectifying gender: the stiletto heel’ in J. Attfield and P. Kirkham eds., A View from the Interior: Feminism, Women and Design London: Women’s Press
The ambiguous sexual politics of the stiletto heel.

WEEK 9 Producing fashion

Craik, J. 1994. The Face of Fashion: Cultural Studies in Fashion London: Routledge
Multi-perspectival study of fashion, focusing on questions of gender; sceptical of assertions that fashion is - per se - exploitative.

Entwistle, J 2000 ‘The Fashion Industry’, in The Fashioned Body. Cambridge: Polity.
Accessible overview of many issues related to fashion production.

Green, N. 1997 The Sweatshop as Workplace and Metaphor, in N. Green Ready to Wear and Ready to Work London: Duke University Press
Excellent historical discussion of the persistence of the sweat shop in the fashion industry.

Ewing, E. (2001) History of 20th century Fashion. London: Batsford.
Accessible history of British fashion and the British fashion industry

Fashion victims. The True Cost of Cheap Clothes at Primark, Asda and Tesco. 2006. London, War on Want.

Klein, N. 2000 No Logo. London: Flamingo.
Influential and highly readable text on the forces of globalization and more specifically as impacting practices in the field of production of fashion.

Nixon, S. 1997. ‘Circulating Culture’, in Du Gay ed. Production of Culture/Cultures of Production. London: Sage.
Not fashion focused but a useful analysis of how advertising adds cultural meanings to goods.

Phizacklea, A. 1990 Unpacking the Fashion Industry: Gender, Racism and Class in Production London: Routledge
Detailed analysis of ‘sweated’ labour in fashion production, also worth reading for the insight it offers into the industrial structure of British fashion production.

Ross, A. ed. 1997. No Sweat: Fashion, Free Trade and the Rights of Garment Workers London: Verso
Highly accessible and wide ranging collection examining the use of ‘sweated’ labour in fashion production.

?Rouse, E. 1989. ‘Fashion for all’, in Understanding Fashion Oxford: Blackwell (Chapter 11)
The production of the mass market for fashion.

Wilson, E. (2003) ‘The Fashion Industry’, in Wilson Adorned in Dreams. London: Virago
Short, useful overview of the historical development of the fashion industry

Week 10 Globalisation, nation and ethnicity

Crewe, L. and Goodrum, A. (2000) ‘Fashioning New Forms of Consumption’, in Bruzzi, S. and Church Gibson, P. (eds) Fashion Cultures. London: Routledge.

Crewe, L. and Lowe, M. 1996 United Colours? Globalization and localization tendencies in Fashion Retailing, in N. Wrigley and M. Lowe (eds). Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the New Retail Geography Harlow: Longman
Useful introduction to issues of globalization (and localisation) in the fashion industry.

Eicher, J. E. and Sumberg, E. (1995) ‘World Fashion, Ethnic and National Dress’, in J.B. Eicher (ed.) Dress and Ethnicity. Oxford: Berg.
Very short, very clear, discussion of the terms in the title, clarifying the significant differences between these.

Dickerson, K.G. (1999) Textiles and Apparel in the Global Economy. Upper Saddle
River: Prentice-Hall.
Detailed study of the global textile and apparel industry.

Goodrun, A. (2005) The National Fabric: Fashion, Britishness, Globalization. Oxford: Berg.
Useful study of the specificity of British dresss in the context of globalisation.

Kondo, D. 1995 ‘The Aesthetics and Politics of Japanese Identity in the Fashion Industry’, in Roach-Higgins et al. (eds) Dress and Identity. New York: Fairchild.

Kondo, D. 1997 About Face. London: Routledge
Both of the above have interesting discussions of the links between Japanese identity, culture and fashion in the context of globalisation.

Lury, C. (2004) Brands: The Logos of the Global Economy. London: Routledge.
?Maynard, M. 2004 ‘Theorising Global Dress’, in Dress and Globalisation. Manchester University Press.
The entire book is an invaluable and accessible overview of fashion and globalisation, this chapter provides a clear introduction.

Nakagawa, S and Rosovsky, H/ 1995 ‘The Case of the Dying Kimono’, in Roach-Higgins et al. (eds) Dress and Identity. New York: Fairchild

Niessen, S. et al. (eds) 2003 Re-Orienting Fashion. Oxford: Berg.
Wide ranging collection of essays exploring the globalisation of Asian Dress.

Rabine, L. (2002) The Global Circulation of African Fashion. Oxford: Berg
Stimulating discussion of the flow of fashion commodities in the global economy.

Robertson, R. (1998) Globalization. London: Sage
Influential theory of globalization.

Skoggard, I (1998) ‘Transnational Commodity Flows and the Global Phenomenon of the Brand’ in Brydon, A. and Niessen, S. (1998) eds Consuming Fashion. Oxford: Berg.

Taylor, L. 2000 The Hilfiger Factor and the Flexible Commercial World of Couture, in, N. White and I. Griffiths The Fashion Business: Theory, Practice, Image Oxford: Berg
The reorganisation of the couture industry in the face of the rise of the global fashion brand.

Waters, M. (1996) Globalization. London: Routledge.
Discussion of the key debates on globalization.

WEEK 11 Haute couture vs. mass fashion

?Braham, P. 1997. ‘Fashion: unpacking a cultural production’ in du Gay, P. ed. Production of Culture/Cultures of Production London: Sage
Invaluable study of the production and consumption of clothing commodities.

Crane, D. 2000 Fashion Worlds and Global Markets: From ‘Class’ to ‘Consumer’ Fashion, in D. Crane Fashion and its Social Agendas: Class Gender and Identity in Clothing Chicago: Chicago University Press
The increasing diversification and complexity of fashion and its role in lifestyle and identity.

Davis, F. 1992. ‘Fashion as cycle, fashion as process. Stages of the fashion process’ in F. Davies Fashion, Culture and Identity Chicago: University of Chicago Press
How do clothes become, and cease to be, fashionable?

de Marly, D. (1980) Worth: Father of Haute Couture. London: Elm Tree Books.
Lively and engaging biography of Worth and the birth of Paris haute couture.

Evans. C. 1997. ‘Dreams that only money can buy... or, the shy tribe in flight from discourse’ Fashion Theory 1 (2)
Highly recommended overview of debates around youth subcultures and the specificity of these in the 1990s.

Evans, C. 1997. Street Style, Subculture and Subversion. in Costume Vol 31 pp 105-110
Short, useful, discussion of the changing nature of subculture, with particular reference to rave culture.

Fine, B. and Leopold, E. 1993. ‘Systems of provision in food and clothing’ in B. Fine and E. Leopold The World of Consumption London: Routledge
Economic history of the production and marketing of fashion.

Godley, A. 1996 The Emergence of Mass Production in the U.K. Clothing Industry, in I. M. Taplin and J. Winterton Restructuring Within a Labour Intensive Industry: The UK Clothing Industry in Transition Aldershot: Avebury
Short and straightforward account of the emergence of mass production in the manufacture of clothes at the end of the 19th century

Leopold, E. 1992. ‘The manufacture of the fashion system’ in J. Ash and E. Wilson eds., Chic Thrills London: Pandora
The development of mass market fashion production.

Lipovetsky, G. 1994. ‘The enchantment of appearances’ in G. Lipovetsky The Empire of Fashion Princeton: Princeton University Press
Detailed history of fashion moving from its emergence in C14 through to the decline of the influence of haute couture and the pluralism of today.

Tarrant, N. 1994. ‘Ready made clothes’ in N. Tarrant The Development of Costume London: Routledge
Straightforward narrative history of the development of the ready made clothing sector.

Wark, M. 1991. ‘Fashioning the future: fashion, clothing, and the manufacture of post fordist culture’ in Cultural Studies 5 (1)
The reorganisation of fashion production and markets - away from mass production and towards a more flexible consumer led mode.

Wark, M. 1997. ‘Fashion as a culture industry’ in A. Ross. ed. No Sweat: Fashion, Free Trade and the Rights of Garment Workers London: Verso
Flexible specialisation in the global fashion industry.

Wilson, E. 1985. ‘The Fashion Industry’ in E. Wilson Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity London: Virago
Short, useful, overview of the historical development of the fashion industry

Wilson, E. and Taylor, L. 1989. ‘Style for all. 1960-1990’ in E. Wilson and L. Taylor Through the Looking Glass London: BBC Books
The shift from the look to looks.

WEEK 12 and 13 Postmodernism

Appignanesi, R. and Garrett, C. 1999. Introducing Postmodernism Cambridge: Icon
Part of the famous ‘Introducing’ comic book series: witty, comprehensive and very readable

Barnard, M. 1996. Fashion, Clothing and Postmodernity, in M. Barnard Fashion as Communication London: Routledge
Short examination of aspects of postmodernism in relation to fashion.

Berthens, H. 1995. The Idea of the Postmodern: A History London: Routledge
Admirably clear account of the issues, movements and events associated with the term.

Kaiser, S. 1999. ‘Identity, postmodernity, and the global apparel marketplace’ in M. Damhorst, K. Miller, and S. Michelman (eds). The Meanings of Dress New York: Fairchild.
Short discussion of the relationship between fashion choices and identity in the context of postmodernism and globalisation.

?Kratz, C. and Reimer, B. 1998 Fashion in the Face of Postmodernity, in A. A. Berger (ed) The Postmodern Presence: Readings on Postmodernism in American Culture and Society Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press
Useful and accessible introduction to the manner in which postmodernism has impacted on fashion and the role that fashion plays in our lives

Muggleton, D. 2000 Inside Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style Oxford: Berg
Subcultures reconsidered in the light of postmodernism.

Wilson, E. 1990. ‘These new components of the spectacle: fashion and postmodernism’ in R. Boyne and A. Rattansi eds. Postmodernism and Society London: Macmillan
What light do theories of fashion and postmodernism shed on each other?

?Wilson, E. 1992. ‘Fashion and the postmodern body’ in J. Ash and E. Wilson eds., Chic Thrills London: Pandora
Situates fashion in debates around postmodernism and argues it is one of those practices through which we perform our selves.

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