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Essay Instructions: Why do you want to attend a physical therapy program with a strong problem based curriculum design? Give examples from your life of how you have demonstrated the independent thinking, problem solving abilities, group interaction skills, and self discipline necessary to succeed in a problem based curriculum.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: misc

Total Pages: 1 Words: 427 Sources: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: I need a Rebuttal for each of the 5 debates below. Each rebuttal should be 50 words minimum and reflect a reading of the entire debate.

Debate 1
?Family Child Care is Better Than Center Child Care?
Childcare centers are very highly recommended by some parents. Family childcare is also very highly recommended by some parents. In infancy thru toddler stages much research proves that family care is the best all around care during these stages. Newborn babies need much attention as also toddlers do. Parenting is very highly enforced thru these very important stages of a child?s life. Newborns also need specific care that only their mothers can give them. Such things as breast feeding and nurturing are very key ingredients that babies need from their mother and only her. During this infancy period babies need the touch, feel and sensitive attributes that a mother can give to her child. This is the most important time for attachment between the mother and the baby. In a childcare center the child ratio for kids to caregiver is very high. Being a newborn or infant in this setting would be very difficult and very unusual for them.
During infancy and toddler hood all senses and body systems operate at birth to varying degrees. The brain grows in complexity and is highly sensitive to the environmental influence. For a baby to be in a child day care during this period could have great effects on the brain growth. Attachment is also very important during this stage. The best solution is for the mother to nurture the baby and be there for them regularly. Sigmund Freud based his ideas on psychosexual development. He believed that biological drives must be redirected to make it in society. He also concluded that the source of emotional disturbances lay in repressed and traumatic experiences of early childhood. For example: Babies in early infancy experiencing care by childcare centers would be very uncomfortable and the caregiver would not have enough time that the baby needs. This baby could have emotional disturbances later in life because of the nurture displayed by the child day care was not enough to satisfy the child and lead on to the child having problems later in life. The caregiver has other responsibilities such as the other 20 plus kids in her day care center so she really does not have time to nurture an infant like her mother could. This could lead to the child being fixated. Fixation is an arrest in development that can show up in adult personality. Freud also explained that ?gratification is delayed as it is when infants are not fed a on time and have to wait to be fed, they begin to see themselves as separate from the outside world. In a family care setting this is more likely to not happen vs. a childcare center where this probably happens regularly. Parents should be able to think logically when understanding how important it is for them to nurture their child thru these important periods of the child?s life. Day care centers are very helpful but should not be administered through these periods of a child?s life because of the great emotional stress it could have on the child and the day care provider.
As parents one of the most important things is the relationship between them and the caregiver. In knowing that when groups are kids are together in the same place accidents are bound to happen. As a parent you must go to the provider and see what problems need to be identified because the child comes home telling you how this kid hit him or her. Altercations may follow and negative actions may lead to dangerous things between the parents and the caregiver. As parent things like this happens every day in today?s day care center settings. As a parent these things are preventable if you only consider that family day care is the best option for your child. Other things such as day care fees, sick days, vacation days, policies, about diapers, hours, late fees would be very stressful to both the parent and caregiver. For a mother and father to put their newborn, infant or toddler child in a day care center setting would be very unusual and not common. The care of complete strangers is another factor in why parents should have family care set up for their child or children. During toddler stage which is a stage of growth development of the brain. The growth of the brain both before birth and during childhood years is fundamental to future physical, cognitive, and emotional development. Some people may say that family daycare has many negatives also. Parents who favor child center care may say that many good attributes came thru center day care. Attributes such as, good structural learning, socialization, and awareness. Child day care center does have these great qualities and it also has a sense of real classroom settings, which can prepare them for future public school settings. As a parent when you look at all these find qualities of center care you need to realize that your child is in the hands that are not his mother, father or close relatives. This is great assurance that your child is in good hands when they are in a situation that they can fully be taken care of in a family setting. Many serious things have happened in day care settings. So as a parent you need to be sure that this will not happen and the best way to ensure this is keeping your child in a family care setting. For the caregiver to have the ability to fully take care of your child as the mother or family member is almost impossible to do. The number of kids in an average day care is about fifteen to twenty kids. A caregiver center mainly work to fulfill the immediate needs of the children rather than any personal needs.
In The Bible there are many teachings of how kids are raised by parents or family members. In Genesis Chapter 4 it teaches that Adam lay with Eve and Eve bore Cain and Abel. Cain and Abel were raised by their parents and received many blessings from God through their hardships. Really it is all about how two parents produce children and how they commit their lives to the raising of their children by loving caring and being there for them in all situations good or bad. For a mother and a father to have children it is a great gift from God. To have someone else raise your child except you would be very not normal. The love for a child should be forever and ever AMEN.

Debate 2
The Training of Discipline
The most prevalent question among Christian parents today is how to discipline by grace. Discipline is defined by Webster as training that corrects, molds, or perfects. Discipline is used to affirm appropriate behavior and teach children to be children of God. The ways to discipline and control children are endless. Some parents use punishment, others rewards, abuse, time out, spanking, or grounding. A balance of rewards and loving punishment should constitute the training of discipline. The only way to train your child is in the Lord. Train a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not turn from it, Proverbs 22:6.
Rewards are one form of discipline for a child. Rewards encourage children to behave in specific ways. Rewards aren?t bribery but are a means of reinforcement. Rewards make responsible effort worthwhile. Adults are rewarded at work with a paycheck, soldiers are rewarded with medals. In the world this isn?t considered bribery but is a system of reinforcement (Dobson, 1992). A basic principle concerning discipline is behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated (Gordon, 1989).
Young children do best with immediate praise. When they say please and thank you or pick up the toys in their room they will receive a star on their chart. The most effective form of rewards is verbal praise. When giving rewards or praise parents should be specific and consistent. The more you praise good behavior the more likely it will happen (Muscari, 2002). Using encouragement instead of actual rewards helps put an emphasize on the actual act. You are focusing on what the child did well instead of primarily just the child. Children long for love, hugs, smiles, or even just quality time alone with the parent. All of these can be used as methods of rewarding a child?s good behavior (Leman, 1999).
In order for rewards to be effective the reward must be granted quickly. This way a connection is made between the desirable behavior and the reward given. Rewards do not always have to come in a material form. Anything that is considered desirable to an individual can serve as positive reinforcement for his behavior. Parents often reinforce undesirable behavior and weaken behavior they value. It is important for a parent to listen to their child?s argument and then decide on the discipline. Once a decision is made, stick to it and be consistent (Dobson, 1992).
The use of rewards to control behavior is very controversial today just as the issue of punishment. There are many psychologists, Christian leaders, teachers, and parents who have strong views on each side. Jesus was the best model of discipline during His ministry on Earth. He disciplined His disciples to be responsible and to choose for themselves. Ephesians 6:4 tells us to bring our children up ?with the loving discipline the Lord Himself approves? (Leman, 1999).
The basic principle by which punishment operates is behavior that brings punishment tends to be discontinued. In order for punishment to work the punishment must immediately follow the undesired behavior. An undesired behavior once punished must always be punished. When a child is being punished make sure it is away from other children. An undesired behavior should never be rewarded. Finally, punishment should not be too severe or to often or they may withdrawal. In order for punishment to be effective all of those principles must be reinforced (Gordon, 1989).
Another way of punishing is positive discipline or reinforcement. Discipline is guidance that enables children to learn to care for themselves, get along with others, and behave in a socially acceptable manner. Effective discipline takes place all the time and not just when the child is being naughty. It is a system of attitudes, instructions, models, rewards, and punishments designed to help your child learn to control there behaviors. Discipline your child with empathy and nurturing. Punishment should be an unpleasant response to negative behavior. Punishment should be used to help children learn self control, respect, and right from wrong, although it should be a very small part of discipline (Muscari, 2002).
Children need to feel the consequences of what they do in order to learn and grow. Punishment focuses on the past where discipline focuses on the future. When a child is disciplined one asks ?what will she learn from this?? When a child is punished one asks ?what does she deserve?? Punishment focuses on the child. Discipline focuses on the behavior itself (Crase & Criscoe, 1986). Discipline your son, for in that there is hope, Proverbs 19:18.
Parenting by grace helps children to learn from their mistakes. It is a parent?s responsibility to help their child learn. In the book Discipline and Spiritual Growth it gives parents Christian guidelines to help deal with inappropriate behavior. First identify appropriate behavior for your child. Give your child an alternative and encourage them to behave differently. Make sure you state the boundaries for your child. Don?t wait for them to mess up to then tell them the rules. Live by your own boundaries. Parents can?t expect from their children what they aren?t willing to do themselves. Respect your child and figure out why the behavior happened. Make sure your expectations fit your child?s age. Know what you can and cannot expect from your child and do not punish a child for something she cannot understand. Label the behavior, not the child. Whether you are praising a child or fixing a problem, be specific. Make sure responses are swift and sure. The reward or punishment should be made quickly after the behavior to establish a connection. Also it is important to stay consistent. Make discipline understandable and fit the crime (Crase & Criscoe, 1986).
Theorist Lawrence Kohlberg described three levels of moral reasoning. He believes that a child?s moral development corresponds to the development of her intellect. The following stages help us to understand why children think and behave the way they do. During ages 4 to 10 they are in the preconventional stage. The child perceives rules as absolute and unchangeable. Punishment and rewards prompt moral behavior. For example they believe ?do right or be punished? along with ?do right to earn favor or rewards.? Between ages 7 and 11 children are in the conventional stage of morality. Moral development is based on the perception of rules as existing for the good of all, to preserve order, and to protect people. Children comply with rules as a desire to please or help others and avoid feelings of guilt. The post conventional stage of morality is evident after age 12. During this stage of development, children accept rules on the basis of their own judgment of what is universally ethical. Their own judgments are made on the basis of principles of right, fairness, and justice and based on personal experience. (Muscari, 2002).
Children need to learn right from wrong and learn to face the consequences for their actions. If children are always rewarded, they miss out on many of life?s lessons. Children need to realize that we are not always rewarded in life. They need an understanding that they are misbehaving, their behavior is not pleasurable and their actions are affecting others. On the other hand when children are only punished for all of their wrong doings, it begins to crush their self esteem at such a young age. If they are only told the bad and never the good, they will begin to feel worthless and like a failure. Children definitely need a balance of rewards and punishment. They will soon realize what is acceptable and what is not. They will enjoy the positive and the little rewards they get for doing right. They will also realize when their behavior is unacceptable and deserving of punishment (Gordan, 1999).
For any form of discipline to be effective they must be done with careful technique and guidance from the Lord. God has shown us that discipline by grace builds us up. Punishment that tears down the spirit of a child has no place in a Christian home. We do need to correct our children but make sure you do it with loving discipline. The basic tool of discipline by grace is affirmation and encouragement. Be firm but also loving and nurturing. The spiritual growth of a child depends on parents who affirm appropriate behaviors, one that teaches self control and self discipline (Crase & Criscoe, 1986).
Disciplining your child means teaching them responsible behaviors and self control. With appropriate and consistent discipline, children can learn about consequences and taking responsibility for there actions. The ultimate goal is to encourage children to discipline and control themselves. Discipline should reward children for good behavior and discourage bad behavior by using fair and positive means. Parenting by grace means focusing your child on the Lord with loving discipline and encouragement (Leman, 1999).

Crase, D.R., & Criscoe A.H. (1986). Discipline and spiritual growth. Nashville: Life Way Press.
Dobson, J. (1992). The new dare to discipline. Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.
Gordon, T. (1989). Teaching children self discipline at home and at school. New York: Times Books.
Leman, K. (1999). Making children mind without losing yours. Michigan: Fleming H. Revell
Muscari, M. (2002). ?Not my kid?.Scranton: The University of Scranton Press

Debate 3

All children have one thing in common they love to play. Infants respond by smiling and babbling while they become more familiar with their parents. Preschoolers begin to familiarize themselves with what make them happy. By playing they develop creativity and imagination, which better equips them for learning. Thus, learning can be influenced mostly by play at home and therefore enrich development.
Play is considered a very natural display of child expression. Since development of the child starts at home, parents should be aware of the stages of development in order to assist the child.
During infancy, the child and mother begin to bond and the infant develops a sense of trust. This stage of development is what Erik Erikson calls, Basic trust vs. mistrust, the infant develops a sense of whether the world is a good and safe place (Papalia, 2002). Now that the child has this trust, he or she will be more receptive to encouragement form the mother.
It is apparent that mothers are familiar with the stages of development might be more likely to create an environment that is appropriate to their children?s developing abilities
(Tamis-LeMonda, Chen, & Berstein, 1998).
Play is beneficial for the child because it shows cognitive development. From birth up to two years children go through the sensorimotor stage. This is a cognitive stage of development accessed by the psychologist Piaget, which states that infants gradually become able to organize activities in relation to the environment through sensory and motor activity (Papalia, 2002). Towards the end of the first year, children begin to engage in nonsymbolic play, such as activities that include objects that have pressing buttons or nesting barrels (Tamis-LeMonda, Chen, & Bernstein, 1998).
Children one to two years of age often show cognitive and social development by imitating their parents. Development is centered on how children relate to maternal control (Forman & Kochanska 2001). Young children have a willingness to imitate their parents. This shows cognitive and social skills and emotional expression as well as social responsiveness.
Since children display responsiveness by imitation, parents can use this as an opportunity to teach the child how to speak or pronounce words properly. Children can learn social skills by playing along with the parents on certain learning exercises such as having a ?Tea party,? where the child learns to pour tea, stir it, and drink. Pretty soon, the child can play alone and have a, ?Tea party,? which would involve imagination.
Nevertheless, imagination involves cognitive mechanisms that might facilitate learning
(Cooper, Tindall-Ford, Chandler, & Sweller, 2001).
Play is essential for all children because children need a way to express themselves. It can be integrated in various aspects of child development and it also enhances learning and development for children of all ages (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 2002).
Since most play often involves physical activities, children begin to refine gross and fine motor skills, and also, their body awareness (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 2002). The result is developing skills that enable them to feel confident, secure, and self-assured.
Parents should take time to ensure that the child has an opportunity to develop properly. The choice is to make sure that play is something that the child must be involved in whether or not it is at home. Children can benefit by play at home because they have the opportunity to interact with the environment. Play comes from nurture, children explore their surroundings and learn from the experiences they have in these environments. Parents can guide the child in these environments, so that they can get the most out of them. The Bible states that, ?Train up a child in the way he should go; and when he is old he will not depart form it (Proverbs 22:6). Spiritual guidance is crucial to the child?s development and with out it parents will be held liable.
Children are very impressionable and parental guidance, teaching and play, are crucial and essential to the child?s physical, cognitive, social, and spiritual development. If the child does not have parental and spiritual guidance, and does not get to experience the benefits of play at home, the child will not learn to form relationships and interact properly with other children. The result is emotional maladjustment, delinquent behavior, and school failure (Coolahan, Mendez, Fontuzzo, & McDermott 2000). Various types of play include sensorimotor play, accessed by Piaget, in which infants and toddlers experiment with bodily sensation, motor movements, and with objects and people. Infants experience the pleasure of pushing and grasping objects to experience movement.
Pretend play involves representing experiences symbolically, unlike nonsymbolic play, when the child experiments with toys that have buttons, symbolic play enables the child to take on roles, and carry out action plans as they express their idea and feelings about the social world. Pretend play allows the child to learn social skills such as sharing and cooperation, language development, imagination and emotional expression (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 2002).
Games allow children to develop problem-solving skills and abstract reasoning. When children begin to learn how to play games with friends, their cognitive skills are increased because they begin to think logically and develop ways for them to play games together (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 2002).

As you can see, play at home is very beneficial to child development. It allows the child to develop social skills by bonding and interacting with parents, physical skills by playing in the environment, and cognitive skills by modeling or imitating parents. Since play is used as a vehicle for learning, children are more receptive to what parents incorporate into the play environment such as Bible study and moral teachings. Play at home is a good way to ensure that children get the opportunity to develop up to their own potential.

Debate 4

Rewards for Behavior and Success, a Necessity?

As humans, we all like to be rewarded for good behavior and success, but is it necessary to reward a child for his or her accomplishments? Every parent who has ever sought to raise a child has faced the very difficult question of whether to reward the child?s good behavior with some type of award, and to get more specific with this question, should children be rewarded with money for achievement in his or her academics? There are good and bad points for both arguments, however, for the purpose of argument, there are more bad things than good. Rewards and punishments are commonly seen as the only two possibilities for motivation.
Being rewarded produces an upswing in productivity. If you reward a child for cleaning his room with a dollar, he will want to clean his room everyday to get the dollar. From a young age we have been trained to perform in exchange for monetary rewards. Such incentives do not end up stifling our intrinsic interest and curiosity.
As a future parent I believe that rewards have bad consequences. The bad consequences are: thoughts that are the child may think that you are trying to manipulate them by giving them rewards, also teaches the child that their success is contingent upon someone else?s idea of success, and finally, rewards can be viewed as a tool of control. Another bad possibility of rewards is that rewards may deter the child?s risk-taking and creative abilities. Another consequence of rewards is that rewards encourage competition. Inspiring competition could be detrimental to a child?s development because their motivation for succeeding could be just to win and might later foster a desire to always be better than others. This could be very dangerous later in life for when they fail at something in life (which they will) they could become very self-critical and think of themselves as failures among other things because the only reward they had been receiving was success (victory). A child may also feel intimidated by a reward rather than motivated.
Dr. Gina Green, a researcher for the New England Center for Children states that ?The best way to reduce misbehavior and motivate a child is to provide abundant positive reinforcement for good behavior.? (2003 Green 5) Dr. Norine G. Johnson, a past president of the American Psychological Association states, ?If you want a loving, respectful, self-disciplined child you will not use punishment. You will use appropriate parenting tools. You will use diversion, structure, limits and withdrawal of attention, also you will set expectations and spell out the rewards or consequences.? All of the researchers I have read about all state the same thing, as parents we should set a positive example for our children and they will follow. Proverbs 22:6 says ?Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it.?
An important lesson to instill into children is the fact that most things you do in life you do not want to do, and do not get rewarded for. If we constantly reward our children monetarily for being good or doing something we asked them to do; we could severely handicap them because they may develop the notion that if they are not getting compensated for something they do not have to do that task. They may learn to think that life is just a series of tasks that you want to do. But everyday at work we do things we would rather not do (not bad things) but things like reports or filing etc. At home, we cook and clean and most times there are no rewards, not even a thank you. Every person, each day is going to do extraordinary things that are going to go unnoticed without any recognition, that is a fact of life. People who are chronically upset probably have not come to the realization that we can not control most things in life, sometimes we will fail, sometimes we will be told to do something we absolutely loathe, or maybe not be able to do something really special for the ones we love because of lack of resources, etc. Disappointments will come; it is those individuals who realize this are better able to deal with situations that were not planned for when they arise. Teaching children early that money is not the most important thing in life is vital; being responsible and morally centered should be the rewards that we want children to seek after. Children will not be able to understand these concepts at early ages, but we can help them imitate these behaviors; kids will not generally agree with these truths but it is essential to get the message of Matthew 10:38 ?and anyone who does not take up His cross and follow me is not worthy of me? engraved in their hearts. This attitude says, ?You know I am tired but my mother asked me to clean the table off anyway.? The message in this verse is put others before yourself. Granted these are lofty goals but is it not true that every parent wants the best for their children, is it correct parents want their kids to excel and not just be mediocre?
Parents devote a lot of time into praising and acknowledging children?s outward advancements: academic, physical and so on, but little attention is paid to the child?s inward growth. How about rewarding a child for showing empathy to someone else or for sacrificing time playing video games for time tutoring someone for free (that should warrant a monetary reward). After all, we want our children to grow up well adjusted physically and mentally; a stage in Piaget?s psychosocial development is empathy; therefore, we should be jubilant when a child shows this character trait because this shows that the child is progressing normally.
Rewards for children doing their chores and getting good grades are not a good motivator for good behavior. Parents should be engaged in their children?s life by getting involved in all aspects of their life. It is so much easier to give a child a dollar for making a good grade instead of taking the time out of your busy schedule to sit down with your child and ask how his day was; did he help somebody out, did he make somebody smile, did he enjoy his day, etc. A parent should decide to take a child out for ice cream instead of giving him money to go get ice cream. It is a fact that children learn mostly by observing our actions, so instead of paying kids for proper behavior, we should emulate that behavior. Would you prefer to have a successful child who did not value other people?s opinions or emotions and was more concerned about himself and making money, or would you rather have a mildly successful child who was more concerned about helping someone and the principle of hard work? When we hand out money for achievement, we are saying success is what I want from you, not morality.

Debate 5

Effective Discipline: Rewards and Punishment
Humans have a sin nature that makes them prone to acts that are unpleasing to God and harmful to themselves and others. This fact is as true of children as it is of adults. Children cannot be trusted to always be good on their own, a fact any parent would affirm. Punishment and reward go hand in hand to produce a child that heeds God, obeys his parents, and can be a welcome member of the larger society. Using punishment is an idea found in scripture, affirmed by theories of child development and supported by research.
In Proverbs 15:5 Solomon writes, ?A fool spurns his father?s discipline, but whoever heeds correction shows prudence? (NIV). Discipline is clearly to be a part of parenting. Most people are familiar with Proverbs 12:24 ? He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him? (NIV). While the benefits of corporal punishment are in question, this biblical principal reinforces the idea that parents are more than just encouragers of their children. They are to encourage them to do what is right and defer them from doing what is wrong through punishment. Allowing a child to do as he wishes will cause the child problems later on in life.
Parents are given a responsibility to raise their children in a Godly path. Solomon writes in Proverbs 22:6 ?Train a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not turn from it? (NIV). As many developmental psychologists now know, the early years provide an important foundation for behaviors and attitudes later in life. This important role of parents does not go unrewarded. Proverbs 29:17 ?Discipline your son, and he will give you peace; he will bring delight to your soul? (NIV). This scripture shows that taking the time and energy to discipline is a reward to parents as well.
God both blesses and punishes his children. Many times he allowed his children, the Israelites, to go into captivity because of their disobedience to him. God spoke through the prophet Zephaniah, in Zephaniah 1:12-13b ?At that time I will search Jerusalem with lamps and punish those who are complacent, who are like wine left on the dregs, who think ?The LORD will do nothing, either good or bad. Their wealth will be plundered, their houses demolished...? (NIV). The message is clear; God will punish those who are disobedient. He realizes the faultiness of human nature and knows that blessing alone is not enough to result in good behavior.
As the learning theory asserts, the purpose of a reward is to increase the frequency of a behavior. The result of punishment is a decrease of a particular behavior. The two used together is clearly the best way. Take for example a child who bites other children. Rewarding the child when he plays nicely with his friends is a good idea, however it does not give him a reason to stop biting. That is where, according to operant conditioning, punishment comes in. Punishment is helpful because it give the child a reason to stop the behavior, while rewards encourage him in a more helpful direction. Using only punishment ?leaves the development of desirable behaviors to chance? (Maag, 2001, p. 5).
According to Erikson, children must resolve the conflict of initiative versus guilt (Papalia, Olds and Feldman, 2002, p. 268). Most children demonstrate an inborn tendency (nature) to desire the approval of others. They want to be active, but they are also held by the constraints of doing what is socially appropriate. Parents have a responsibility to play on these tendencies, in other words nurture the existing nature by teaching their children what is socially appropriate. This teaching occurs through the use of rewards and punishment. For example, Tom might be angry because another child started playing his toy. He may have more of an inborn tendency towards having a bad temper. Tom may choose to strike the child who was playing with his toy. Tom?s parents decide to punish Tom with a timeout (nurturing). This timeout can have benefits to Tom in all aspects of his well being. Punishing Tom may prevent him from engaging in further aggression that could lead him to be an aggressive youth, therefore protecting his physical body. Cognitively Tom will learn that his aggressive act has a negative reaction. Tom will hopefully learn to find more socially appropriate ways of dealing with his anger to avoid future punishment. And finally, discussing with Tom why his behavior was unacceptable may lead his parents to a discussion of showing kindness to others and sharing therefore helping understand spiritual principals as well. An act of his nature met by nurturing correction can be beneficial to him.
Piaget studied the morality of young children. They tend to see things in black and white, right and wrong. He believed that children under the age of seven have a morality of constraint, where the child?s thinking is ?characterized by rigid egocentric judgments? (Papalia et. al., 2002, p. 317). Piaget also noted that even children in their preschool years are beginning to understand the connection between actions and reactions (Papalia, et. al., p. 237). Since they know that bad things should be punished and that causes have effects, they can understand that certain behaviors may lead to a time out or the removal of a special privilege. To keep children safe and to teach them appropriate behaviors, parents can administer punishment and children can understand the relationship between their behavior and the resulting punishment. Punishment is appropriate within the cognitive abilities of the children.
The effectiveness of rewards combined with punishment is substantiated with research. One study reported, ?Parental failure to follow through with commands resulted in reinforcement of child noncompliance, thus increasing the likelihood that non-compliance would be repeated and might escalate? (Stormshak, Bierman, McMahon, and Lengua, 2000, p. 18). In other words, the mother who tells Susie to clean up her toys, but then does not actually enforce the command may cause Susie to ignore future commands. A study of 631 behaviorally disruptive children found that ?Punitive discipline is clearly a core parenting deficit and may be the most relevant parenting problem to work on with children and families in clinical settings? (Stormshak et. al., p. 27). This study defined punitive discipline as ?yelling, nagging, threatening? (Stormshak et. al., p. 18). Threatening, nagging and yelling are not effective ways to train a child. Experts recommend ?combinations of positive reinforcement logical consequences and/or natural consequences, time-out, and empathetic communication and reasoning? (Bartkwoski, and Ellison, 1995, p. 7).
Another study found that reasoning alone was not enough to bring out proper behavior in toddlers, but when reasoning and punishment were combined the results were much better (Larzelere, Sather, Schneider, Larson, and Pike, 1998, p. 2). Their review of other studies showed that ?the combination of punishment and reasoning was associated with longer delays before recurrences of toddlers? misbehavior than was the case for punishment alone or reasoning alone? (Larzelere et. al., p. 2). Their study found that ?If reasoning is never backed up with punishment, then it becomes neither a conditioned punisher nor a signal of impending punishment. Preschoolers can easily ignore such reasoning, which is likely to develop into nattering (i.e., ?to nag or scold irritably?)? (Larzelere et. al., p. 15) .
Punishment is evident in the Bible, addressed in major psychological theories and proven by studies. Solomon wrote, ?The rod of correction imparts wisdom, but a child left to himself disgraces his mother? (Proverbs 29:15, NIV). The Bible is clear; parents are responsible to correct their children. Without discipline a child never learns what is right and wrong, and both the parent and the child will bear the consequences. The learning theory discusses the effectiveness of rewards and punishment, while Piaget and Erikson show that children are socially and cognitively primed for both encouragement and correction. Finally, the American Family Physician reports, ?Punishment is sometimes a necessary element of discipline, but to be an effective tool it must be coupled with rewards for good behavior? (Banks, 2002, p. 3). For parents to raise children that are well adapted to society, they must use discipline in combination with rewards to help their child learn appropriate behavior.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Values Army

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1324 References: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: This paper asks you to describe and analyze an institution of some sort that you knew well as a child. You have two specific tasks to accomplish: clear description of what it was like to be a member of the group at the time, and an assessment from your mature persective of the meaning of the group''s values. You must describe a meeting or group gathering as specifically as you can (Physical fitness 6-8AM Situps pushups and running(Hardship))

If anything below this line is hard to read email me and I can respond with an attachment of its original counterpart.

An outline of some of the key values that one acquires within the army:

?h Describe and analyze an institution of some sort that you knew well. ARMY
?h Clear description of what it was like to be a member of the group at the time. Oct79 May00 (minority-spanish Puerto Rican), melting pot
?h Make an assessment from your mature perspective of the meaning of the group??s values.
Loyalty: Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, your unit, and other soldiers.
Duty: Fulfill your obligations.
Respect: Treat people as they should be treated.
Selfless-Service: Put the welfare of the nation, the Army, and your subordinates before your own.
Honor: Live up to all the Army values.
Integrity: Do what??s right, legally and morally.
Personal Courage: Face fear, danger, or adversity (Physical or Moral).

?h The leadership framework is based on what a leader must "Be", what they must "Know", and what they must "Do".
?h "Be" is a leader??s character, or inner strength. It helps us know what is right, and gives us the courage to do what is right regardless of the circumstances. It serves as the basis of knowing and doing.
?h "Know" is a leader??s competence. It is a level of knowledge a leader must have and a mastery of skills essential to succeed in peace or war.
?h "Do" is a leader??s ability to perform acts that achieve excellence by providing purpose, direction, and motivation.

?h Army values form the foundation of character. They are not new, they have evolved over time. Here you can see where they came from.
?h Soldiers enter the Army with their own values, developed over time by what they have seen, learned, and experienced.
?h Army values form the identity of America??s Army as an organization, and are the glue that binds us as individuals together into a profession. These values tell us what we need to be in every action we take. They are non-negotiable, and apply to everyone all the time in every situation.

By providing purpose,
direction, and motivation.
Values Attributes Skills Actions
??BE?? ??BE?? ??Know?? ??DO??

Loyalty mental interpersonal influencing ?V operating ?Vimproving
respect Physical conceptual communicating-planning-developing
Selfless service
Honor Emotional technical decision making-Executing- building
personal courage tactical motivating-assessing-learning

1. The mental attributes are will, self discipline initiative, judgment, confidence, intelligence, and cultural awareness.
2. The physical attributes are health fitness, physical fitness, military bearing and professional bearing.
3. The emotional attributes are self-control, balance, and stability.
4. The required interpersonal, conceptual, technical skills, and resulting tactical skills are different for the direct, organizational, and strategic leaders.

?h Army values form the foundation of character. They are not new, they have evolved over time. Here you can see where they came from.
?h Soldiers enter the Army with their own values, developed over time by what they have seen, learned, and experienced.
?h Army values form the identity of America??s Army as an organization, and are the glue that binds us as individuals together into a profession. These values tell us what we need to be in every action we take. They are non-negotiable, and apply to everyone all the time in every situation.

Below is my resume in order to give you an idea of my military career and the values it has brought.

* 20 years experience as Imagery Analyst, Computer Operation, Technical Support,
Training and Instruction (tactical and strategic level)
* Supervised and Trained Analysts and Assistant System Administrators
* Extremely sharp at quickly assessing needs and priorities
* Diplomatic and assertive in dealing with people applying TQM techniques
* Committed to producing results above and beyond expectations
* Easy to work with; a cooperative and supportive colleague, team player

Intel Analyst, Imagery Analyst/Collection Management, Master Sergeant / E-8 US Army Retired 31May2000
* Supervise and trained imagery analysts in daily preparation of written and verbal reports, research
focus, & analytical methodologies for DoD, JCS, Unified Commands, all-source analysis, products, and dissemination.
* Research, gathered, and prepared classified reports; personnel security background check, country
studies, fact papers and technical reports for Special Forces Commands and Multi-National Forces.
* Verified information through knowledgeable sources; planned and conducted numerous briefings of a
diverse range of subject areas; outstanding written and oral interpersonal communications skills.
* Proofread technical reports to ensure accuracy and understanding by target audience.
* Outlined information; presented research results for final detailed analysis.
* Communicate information via training manual, policy letters, and visual aids.
* Interview, hire, & train analysts; delegate and outline responsibilities.

Feb00-present -GS13 Intelligence Officer (Imagery), National Imagery and Mapping Agency assigned to HQ SOUTHERN Command, J2, Joint Intelligence Center, Geospatial-DRUID Counterdrug Section. Senior analyst in charge of five analysts in the exploitation reviews, monitoring, and performing in-depth analysis of multi-sensor imagery related to Counterdrug in support of warfighting units and national level agencies. Maintains and updates imagery databases in support of contingency operations throughout SOUTHCOM AOR. Subject matter expert on all imagery derived Intel from theater and national collectors; assists and professionally develops imagery analysts across the COMMAND. Exploitation and software systems include ERDAS IMAGINE, Digital Imagery Exploitation System (DIEPS), Remote View, MATRIX, Dissemination Element Client (DECLIENT), Imagery Exploitation Support System (IESS), National Exploitation System (NES), Requirements Management System (RMS), Image Product Library (IPL), UNIX, NT, and ENVI.
1997-2000 ?V Senior Imagery Analyst (NIMA) Joint Staff assignment at the Department of Defense (DOD) level, Exploits, reviews, monitors, and perform in-depth analysis of multi-sensor imagery related to command, control, communication, computers, and intelligence (C4I) systems, and electronic developments in the Rest of the World region. Provides critical long-term and time-sensitive intelligence support to the Secretary of Defense Joint Chief of Staff, Military Services, Unified Commands, and Defense Agencies.
1995-1997 - Serves as Chief Imagery Analyst assign to the 10th Special Forces Group Intelligence Collection Manager??s subject matter expert on all imagery derived intelligence from theater and national IMINT collectors; locates, coordinates, analyzes, develops film and provides interpretation to users. Maintains and updates imagery databases in support of contingency operations throughout EUCOM AOR. Supervises 8 Imagery Analyst and Detachment Sergeant for 40 all-source intelligence personnel.
1993-1995 - Chief Imagery Analyst in charge of a combined/joint Republic of Korea (ROK)/US Forces Korea, all-source intelligence center at theater level; led 17 US and 64 ROK personnel assigned to the Korean Analysis Center; responsible for analysis, production, and dissemination of third-phase, bilingual, imagery analysis reports in support of warfighting units and national level agencies.

Page 2

1990-1993 - Serves as Senior Imagery Analyst for a Special Forces Group dual-based in CONUS and Europe; subject matter expert on all imagery derived Intel from theater and national collectors; assists and professionally develops imagery analysts across the Group; Serve as primary instructor for the Vehicle Identification Course;
provides support to subordinate Battalions and A Teams; Maintains the Group??s imagery database for real-world contingencies.
1987-1990 - Serves as Chief Imagery Analyst assign to the 7th Special Forces Group, Special Operations Command-South Intelligence Collection Manager??s subject matter expert on all imagery derived intelligence from theater and national IMINT collectors; locates, coordinates for and develops film; provides interpretations to ODA??s deploying in support of national requirements; maintains imagery data base for contingency operations; provides support to JTF-Panama for security enhancement operation. Provides imagery support to Task Force Black during Operation ??Just Cause?? in the Republic of Panama; JTX Fuerzas Unidas 89 in Peru and JTX Cabanas in Honduras; performed as interpreter during interrogations of POW during ??Just Cause??. Support SOCSOUTH in Low Intensity Conflict and Counter narcotic interdiction efforts.
1985-1987 - Senior Imagery analyst and Non-commissioned Officer in charge of a J-series Collection Management and Dissemination section of a separate mechanized infantry brigade S-2 section, 197th Infantry Brigade. I was responsible for intelligence collection planning, aerial reconnaissance mission planning and coordination, imagery analysis, classified material distribution, and maintenance of the imagery library. Supervisory and training responsibility consists of 10 people.
1985-1982 - Infantryman * Custodian Agent - 1/47 ADA US Army Verona, Italy
1980-1982 - Infantryman * A CO 2nd BN 21st Infantry BDE US Army Ft Stewart, GA

Education: Associate in General Studies, Central Texas College (GPA 3.60) and, BS in Liberal Arts NY Regent University, Completed March 2000 GPA 3.20, pursuing BS in Management/Computer Information System, Park University, Expected April 2002 (187 credits with 3.07 GPA-required one class in which I am currently enrolled at Florida International University).

Training: Basic Infantry Course, Fort Benning GA; Basic Imagery Training Course, Fort Huachuca; Technical Basic Course, Fort Huachuca; Primary, Basic & Senior NCO Courses; Advance Imagery Interpretation Course, Fort Huachuca; Defense Sensor Interpretation & Application Tng Course, Goodfellow AFB; All Source Analysis System-Remote Workstation Operators and System Administrators Course, Fort Hood TX; Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System, Fort Clayton, Panama; Introduction to Modular Architecture for Exchange of Intelligence (MAXI), Korea; Fulcrum Advanced Applications Training Course, Ft Devens MA; European NATO Training Course Specialist Recognition, Weingarten Germany; Alcohol and Drug Coordinators Course, Corozal, PM; Special Operations Command Research, Analysis and Threat Evaluation System (SOCRATES), Ft Bragg NC; Special Forces SERE High Risk, Ft Bragg NC; Airborne & Jumpmaster Course; Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System-JDISS; Aires Life Extension-ALE; Digital Imagery Exploitation and Production System-DIEPS; Support for the Analyst File Environment-SAFE; RMS Course; Collection Management Course; NSA Orientation Course; Special Operation Middle East Course; NES Course; Latin American Orientation Course; NIMA Intel communication Workshop, DIAC Warning Analysis Course, Damneck Counterdrug Basic Intel Course, Geographic Information System and Remotely Sensed Imagery, NIMA College; ERDAS Imagine, Sub pixel Classifier; Counterdrug Intelligence Analysis Course (CDIAC) Bolling AFB, Battle Damage Assessment Course, NIMA.

Military Awards & Decoration: Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, 2 Army Meritorious Service Medal, 4 Army Commendation Medal, Joint Service Achievement Medals, 3 Army Achievement Medal, Army Expeditionary Force Medal, Humanitorious Service Medal, South-West Asia Service Award, Kuwait Liberation Medal, 1 Army Superior Unit Award.

MISC: Combat Veteran: Just Cause in Panama with 7th Special Forces Group (Airborne) Desert Shield / Desert Storm & Operation Provide Comfort with 10th SFG (A).

LANGUAGES: Fluent in Spanish 3-3 and Italian 2-2; read, write and speak

SECURITY CLEARANCE: Current Top Secret/SSBI Active

If any questions at all feel free to send me an email and I''ll respond as soon as possible.
There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Marathon

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1765 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Why people running marathon. Thesis statement: The marathon as a sport is so popular and growing faster every year, because the people who start running soon realized that the marathon offers ennormous health benefits and metaphysical rewards.
1. Introduction
B.the name marathon came from ...
C.The biggests marathons in USA are New York City and Boston- 30,000 people on the start line.

A. physiology
a.Improve your health
b. Cardiac strengthening
c.Superior cholesterol levels
d.Effects of running on your immune system
f.promotes personal weight loss and decreases body fat

B.Often it's the "intangible" benefits of running that keeps runners coming back for more.
a.running will improve your attitude and clear your mind possitive outlook in dayly life.
b.Great mysteries of life: runners feels as he has more energy after run than before.
c.stress and depression release.
d.good night sleep.
e.self discipline

C.FORCE, cancer-support program. Jeff Berman, founder of the FORCE program, is cancer survivor to distance himself from his disease through running. And more FORCE members who are going strong.

D.Nutrition and diet-importance.
a.a balance eating plan
b.the body nutritional needs.
d.fats and protein
e.hydration and dehydration

today, marathon are an increasingly popular version of a sport in which long-distance running is done for recreation in competition.People run on ages 20 to 90.
SOURSES: MAIN 1.Marathon Runner's Handbook by Bruce Fordyce with Marielle Renssen. 2. Articles from 3. 4. Articles from 5. 6. book The marathon footrace: Performers and performances by David Martin and Poger Gynn

Excerpt From Essay:

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