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Essay Instructions: Self directed learning and the assumptions of andragogy
Section: I: Self directed learning
1. What do you think about self-directed learning in what and how we learn?
2. Can or should all learning be self-directed, why or why not?
3. Within the self-directed learning process, discuss the three types of models: Linear, Interactive, and Instructional.
4. How can adult learners be supported as participants to self-directed learning; by family members, employers, friends, instructors?
Section II: Andragogy
5. Malcolm Knowles describes four assumptions of Andragogy. Discuss those four assumptions and implications for the design, implementation, and evaluation of learning activities with adults.
This paper should adhere to APA style standards including the following: Double space,1? margins, New Times Roman 12pt font. No reference. Paper will be submitted through turnitin and must be less than10%

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Andragogy and Self Directed Learning

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1467 References: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: This is a research paper that should include two topics, Andragogy and Self Directed Learning. Both are theories that need to be looked at with a high level of criticality for understanding what the theories are. The text that I have used for learning is LEARNING IN ADULTHOOD 3rd edition, author Merrian I would suggest that there are ample citings in the research paper that relate to this text since it is the one I will be using for my final assignment. There is no set amount of quotes to be used or citations, however it is a 700 level course and a high level of understanding and criticality will be expected. It is a basic research paper on these 2 topics. They can be intermingled, but can also be looked at thorugh seperate lenses for this paper. I appreciate your help with the initial research!! Thanks!

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Teaching Adults by Griff Foley

Total Pages: 3 Words: 998 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: None Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: You are to write a 3-page paper. Please read the article below and answer the discussion questions. State The Question First and Then Continue to Answer. Do Not Use Outside Sources.

Discussion Questions

1.How does Foley’s perspective on teaching compare with your own understanding of teaching adults?
2.What is your reaction to Foley’s emphasis on the idea that good teaching must be grounded in the passionate dedication of the adult teacher to his or her values?

Teaching Adults: by Griff Foley

Real Teachers are those who think and act strategically and with comment. These teachers are technically proficient they can present a lively and interesting session or effectively facilitated discussion. When we watch such teachers we can see and admire their grasp of technique. But these people are much more than a bundle of skills. They think and act at a number of levels. They have a deep understanding of themselves and their students and of the organizational context in which they work. They think strategically they think on their feet and they have a long-term view of the work. It also relate their teaching to some sort of bigger picture or two put it another way their work is determined by a particular values. These values may be individualistic or collective, conservative or radical, altruistic or hedonistic. But whatever the values are these teachers are passionate about them. Techniques, context, strategies, values these concepts provide a framework for understanding teaching and they are not a recipe for success. The first thing to understand about teaching or any educational activity is that there is no formulas. Teaching is far too complex for that but what we can do is build up our picture of teaching. This chapter surveys some of the research and scholarships that have influence of adult educators and trainers understanding of teaching. While the major schools of thought are covered in the survey is inevitably selected. The literature of teaching is huge and what is included here is shaped by my experience and values. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first looks at some ways in which classroom research has illuminated our understanding of teaching. The second examines insights into teacher draw from psychological and social theory.

Understanding teaching from classroom research
It seems logical to begin a discussion of teaching by looking at what research tells us about it. But for the adult educator there are number of problems with the research on teaching much of it examines the teaching of children and youth in classrooms and soul does not reflect the diversity of student ages and classroom settings that is found in Adult Education teaching is such a complex activity that is difficult to devise reliable and valid ways of researching it there is so much research on teaching that is difficult for the practitioner to get access to it and to know what is useful in it the endless the bait among researchers about their findings make it difficult for the practitioner to make judgments about the soundness of research much teaching research has been constructed around a quite narrow notion of teacher effectiveness. Teachers, administrators and policymakers want to know what works and teaching. So it is understandable that the bulk of research on teaching has been into a teacher effectiveness into what teachers can do to help the students to learn. This research tries to establish links between teacher to end classroom the processes of teaching and the product or outcome of the teachers work student learning. The assumption is that differences in teacher skills clarity of presentation, structuring and of lessons, verbal fluency and qualities enthusiasm, warmth, confidencewill have different effects on student learning. The researchers task is to carefully study classroom behavior using category observations skills to record what the teacher does. In this way, it is argued teacher behavior that leads to student learning can be identified and teacher systematically trained to master these behaviors. The preferred form of training is my group teaching that is laboratory practice of particular teaching techniques such as introducing more concluding a lesson more questioning students and supervised practice in real classrooms. The result of this work give rise to pessimist. The Canadian adult educator Brundage and Mackeracher concluded in their survey that research on teacher effectiveness show only that most teaching behaviors is unrelated to the outcomes. The findings of the massive Coleman report on educational opportunity in the US appear to support this view implying as bait theater that there was no relation between quality of teaching and student achievement. Biddle and Dunkin concluded that most studies of teaching effects provide little evidence that the effect in question was produced by teaching and not some other causative factor but teachers and students know that there is a relationship between the way teachers teach and wants to learn. The crux of the problem this the way he teacher effectiveness research is constructed. Teacher and learning are such complex context specific activities that it is impossible as the sympathy to reach any of the most general conclusions about what constitutes effect teaching behavior. My favorite finding from teaching effectiveness research comes from a survey of research on teaching of adults, which concluded that an effect in presenter of knowledge measured by student satisfaction and increase instant knowledge and understanding was one who was precise and clear in their presentations and alive and moving. The fairly meager findings of the teacher effectiveness research program at the experience of most of the educators. There implications for practice are clear. Thorough preparation and careful structuring of session will help precision and clarity and presentation. The emphasis on the systematic structuring of education experiences is associated with objectives approach to course design, which has been enormously influential in Adult Education. The more time you spend with each student and a livelier and engaging you on the morgue effect of your teaching. But these findings merely confirmed teacher’s experience. The effectiveness paradigm leaves out so much. It says nothing about the content of teaching more about how teachers and students make sense of their work more about the ways teaching and learning are affected by social and cultural factors. More insight into these issues we have to turn to other writers. One group with useful insight are those experienced adult educators who have lost on the experience to write practical handbooks. Mike Newman’s tutoring adults is a practical and clear guide to session preparation and teaching. A comprehensive US manual, Malcolm Knowles, is the modern practice of Adult Education, which is heavily influenced by humanistic approach to education. The English Adult Education Jennifer Rogers adult learning is also systematic but less like a manual. It begins with the chapters on learning characteristics and learning styles and has a number of how to chapters.

Teaching functions
Possibly the most useful outcome of the teacher effectiveness research is that it documented some of what teachers actually do. They show that they do not just present information but perform a number of roles or functions. The teacher effectiveness were also show that what researchers called indirect teaching student work organized by teachers contributed more to students learning and then direct didactic teaching. This insight has been developed by other educators. Ira Shor who teaches working-class students at the city University of New York and to whose work we referred later in the chapter says that his classroom he performs the following nine roles: librarian, clearinghouse, mediator, recorder, lecturer, adversary of oppressive behavior, advocate of missing perspectives, facilitator, and convenor. John Heron, who trains adult educators and other professionals in England, he developed the notion of teaching functions and interestingly. John argues that there are only six authentic interventions that a reader more nervous, working with clients one-on-one or in groups can make. Three of these interventions Jong calls authoritative because they involve the practitioner in trying to influence the individual or group. The of the three interventions are facilitative or indirect. John a skilled practitioner is one can from one intervention to another as the developing situation and the most purposes of the interaction I. John has found the most practitioners use only a small number of the six categories. He and his colleagues conduct a workshop in which practitioners are given opportunities to use the six categories and to expand their repertoire of interventions. A more conventional development of the insight and teachers perform various functions is and work with you as teachers: Finkle and Monk maintain that teachers have an Atlas complex that is they feel they have control and be responsible for everything ankles on the classroom. The weight album of the strap is for teachers to identify the teaching and learning functions associated with particular pieces of learning and working out which of these functions can form by the students and which can perform by the teacher. Through such means a worksheet, reading, question and answer sessions and small work groups, teachers can move away from reliance on didactic teaching methods.

The social dynamics of classrooms and schools
Dissatisfaction is a qualitative one-dimensional study of teacher-student interaction laid in the 1970s to a spate of studies generally carried out in school settings which tried to capture more completely the dynamics of teaching and learning. Approach classrooms schools and groups of students open-mindedly as anthropologist with an approach people in another culture, researchers used methods of participant observations to discover boathouse students and teachers made sense of educational situations and the social outcomes of those situations. Many of the studies show that students often seek education as a matter of completing set and achieving grades rather than as the attainment of understanding. Other researches have done into the deeper dynamics of institutionalized education showing how it often reduces relations and of exploration and oppression. Out of many such studies eight you will illustrate the that makes of social reproduction. In the late 1960 Rist an African-American sociologist studied the first eight days of classroom life or group of African-American kindergarten children in Harlem. Within a few days to African-American university educated teachers had streamed the children according to their racial and class characteristics and hand them reproducing or failing to reproduce the roles of white middle-class. In the mid-19 70s was spent a year with a group of northern English teenagers in their final year of high school. The coal heron working-class culture of these lads centered around alcohol, tobacco, girls and having a LAN, so successfully resisted the attempted imposition by the school of an academic and achievement oriented middle-class culture that the boys all did badly scholastically and wound up low skills/ low-paying jobs. Spender and Sarah, and many others, have shown how patriarchal practices and ideology some uses education and work against women. The idea of social reproduction was centrally to the studies. It was argued that whatever the intentions of educators in any society education reproduce social relationships. In the tradition of respect for age as the primacy of maintaining the relationships among people and communities. In these ways education helped who use the economy, society and culture. In contemporary society it is argued education helped him reduce countless social relations by socializing student in allocating them among jobs. Bowles and Gintis maintain that the authoritarian teacher dominated approach to education produces obedient and passive workers who expect to be disciplined from without. Newer child-centered and approaches to teaching also domesticated students but they do so by getting students to internalize such norms as the importance of working without supervision behaving predictably and knowing what is expected without having to be told. Bowles and Gintis correspondence theory arguing that the social relation of education mirror bills of the workplace has rightly been criticized for being over deterministic. Educational institutions in our society certainly to socialize students and ways of thinking and acting that help to maintain capitalism, but they do sell in more suitable ways than Bowles and Gintis realized. Later work has shown that the dynamics of reproduction are complex and contradictory and open to resistance and change. This work shuttles that an understanding of these dynamic requires analysis at many levels including: the political economy. How is education shaped by the economy and my politics? How does education help to reduce and/or alter economic and political relationships? Teacher-student relationships, what shape these? How do they affect educational process and outcomes? Teacher and ideologies, how do these affect educational processes and outcomes? The curriculum, how is knowledge constructed in education? How is the construction of knowledge legitimized and/or challenged? What are the social outcomes of the ways in which knowledge is constructed? The complexity of the analysis is accentuated by the fact that each of these levels has a history through which the content reality must be understood and by the possibility that behavior has an unconscious that mention. We do not only need to understand what appears to be going on now we also have to understand how things got to be the way that they are, and that they maybe an unconscious psychological dynamic in teaching and learning.

Understanding teaching from psychological and social theory
In the 1960s and 70s in Adult Education and to some extent in school education the attention of researchers and practitioners moved from trying to develop more effective teachers to trying to reduce more effective learners. This change in the way we look at teaching and learning has been of enormous importance to Adult Education and has a number of theoretical trends which we now examine.

Cognitive psychology and its pedagogies
A major contribution to the interpretive understanding learning and teaching has been made by cognitive psychology studies by German to Gestalt psychologist early this century showed that people are constantly confronted as they are with a mass of stimuli in post more on it in predictable ways. In other words people have cognitive frameworks which helped them to make sense of the world. This finding is that implications for teaching. It means that learners are fact that they do not passively absorb information to process it in their own ways. It follows from that it is important for teachers to understand how students think and learn apart from work of the US progressive educators notably John Dewey in the 1920s and 30s the insight of the gestalists were overwhelmed by behaviorist psychology until the 1950s when the development of computers revived interest in how people process information and there was a surgeon of research in cognitive psychology. From the perspective of the Adult Education of one of the most interesting cognitive development theories is that of William Perry through interviews with Harvard undergraduates and 1950s and 60s show that they move through nine epistemological position all ways of knowing. Kerry maintains that in their cognitive development students moved from seeing knowledge is something that is handed down to them by authorities to seeing knowledge as relative everyone has the right to their own opinion to seeing that knowledge is constructed by people in particular social context in accordance with particular values. In recent years a lot of work has been done on cognitive and learning styles the distinctive and varied ways in which people think and learn probably. Probably the best-known of the learning style theorist is David Kolb with his colleague Ronald Fry developed a learning style profile a way of identifying people learning styles. Underlying Kolb’s understanding of learning style is a sophisticated theory of experiential learning which attempts to integrate insight from cognitive psychology education theory social psychology psychoanalysis and Buddhism. Kolb’s theory can be summarized in the following eight propositions: People’s primary mode of adaptation to the world as learning, learning involves two basic processes grasping prehension and transformation. People learn four ways: through immediate concrete experience, through observation and reflection, through abstract conceptualization, the active experimentation. Effect of learning is cyclical beginning with concrete experience and holistic involving all four learning moments. Learning is developmental people go through three stages in their learning: acquisition, specialization, integration. Learning is social. The sort of like experience people have shaped the way they learn. People are likely to develop one mode of learning more than a mother: they develop dominate learning styles. People’s education and occupation tickly and owns their learning styles. Learning is interactive. It involves interactions between individuals with other biological potentialities and the society with symbols, tools and other cultural artifacts. Learning is a dialectical process. It involves people acting and meet acting to the environment.
Ausubel and others have examined the relationship between learning context the way knowledge is presented to learners and the learning strategy the way learners learn. A distinction is made between this section learning in which one is to be learned is talk directly to learn and discovery learning in which learners unable to end a complete build up their own understanding it is argued that either of these types of learning can be rote more surface or reproductive more meaningful. Meaningful learning occurs on learners I really do knowledge to their existing cognitive frameworks. Learners can not do this they must learn by rote. Whether meaningful or rote learning occurs depends both on knowledge is presented to the students and on the sorts of learning strategies used by system. A general understanding of such concepts as learning style epistemological position discovery and reception learning meaningful and rote learning can help us to become more sensitive to how our students learn. And a more systematic level understanding of the ways learners think enable educators to help students develop learning strategies ways of understanding and acting on their learning. For example, basking all but ended rather than close questions in turn can give learners opportunities to develop meaningful rather than a surface or reproductive orientation to learning. Again by encouraging the use of mind maps adult educators can encourage students to develop their own ways of grasping and using knowledge. To take a third example, in 1980 many adults is learning English as a second language work taught in ways that enabled them to understand their own learning styles and to expand their repertoires of learning strategies.

Humanistic psychology and associated pedagogies
Cognitive psychology has encouraged educators to shift their attention from developing direct teaching techniques to understanding how learners learn and to facilitating that learning to teaching course design and encouraging learners to understand and develop their own learning strategies. The movement of attention from teaching to learning has also been encouragement humanistic psychology. The roots of this psychology lie in the existential philosophy of writers like Kierkegaard and Buber who maintain that individuals are both free to choose which course of action they will take and responsible for their actions. Philosophy contrasted with the determinism of behaviorist and Freudian psychology and much of sociology. Humanistic psychology flowered in the optimistic atmosphere of the postwar United States. There and particularly in California a range of alternative therapies dedicated to the development of human potential emerge ranging from the Gestalt psychology of Fritz Perls to the bodywork of Patricia Rolfe. Humanist psychology has also made a great impact on education in particular through the work of the therapist and educator Carl Rogers. If one figure can be said to have influence contemporary Adult Education in English-speaking countries more than any other it is probably rockers. His notion of meaningful learning and facilitation turn conventional wisdom about teaching and learning on his hit and encouraged a shift from direct teaching to teaching learners how to learn.

Carl Rogers: meaningful learning and facilitation
Rock your cell therapy and education as potential agents of individual social change. He distinguished between meaningless, oppressive and alienating learning which he maintained constituted the bulk of the formal education curriculum and significant meaningful experiential learning which was self initiated and involved the whole person. But the dilemma of the humanistic educators as Rogers saw it was to devise alternative ways of working with an education system characterized by a prescribed return on similar assignments for all students lecturing as the only mode of instruction standards by which all students are extremely evaluated an instructor chosen grades as the measure of learning all of which precluded meaningful learning. Rogers critique of the dominant telling mode of teaching was one strand in a radical analysis of education that developed in the late 1960s will and early 1970s. Notable among the critics was Paulo Freire who contrasted thinking and never rating education, Illich and Goodman with their ideas of replacing oppressive institutionalize education with voluntary networks, John Holt with his practical ideas for more creative and participatory classroom teaching the accounts of the difficult and inspiring work in liberatory of Kohl. Although the critique articulated by this body of work is now part of the thinking of many educators some of the 1960 ideas are still directly relevant to the project them from dominating to a good rating form of education one which encourages individual development and contributions of the building of a more just society. Rogers idea of the facilitation of learning is particularly important. Rogers starts from the position that the focus of work and learning groups should be the most honest artistry of interpersonal relations and not the facilitators predetermined aims for the group. Rogers maintains that he usually has no specific goals for particular group although he hopes for some sort of process movement in the group. In working with the group Roger trust it to grow and a healthy direction and to recognize and eliminate unhealthy elements in this process. This trust in the group is symptomatic of optimism of humanism reflecting as it does the confidence of the postwar USA, and contrasting with psychoanalytic theory which focuses on both the destructive and contract of potential of the unconscious and which takes deeply and critically into the dynamics of learning and teaching. He also aim to be calm as much as a participant in groups as a facilitator willingly carrying PA share of influence in and responsibility for the growth of the group but not wanting to control it. In the course of doing this he seeks to present his authentic self is whole personality and to allow others to do the same. He also hopes that his lack of precise aim and his trust in the group process will create a climate of openness and the group allowing people to express their feelings and learn from their experience. He seeks to make the climb and psychologically safe for the group members. He listened carefully but selectively to what people say all the single demeaning experience have for people and the feeling they expressed. In this way he claims to affirm and validate people and to be a companion to them as they experience the joy and pain. Rogers spoke directly from his position as a therapist for him most of what went on in education that transmission of acquisition of skills and knowledge the vocational and intellectual dimension of education or unimportant. Important learning was which heighten your awareness of yourself and others and which gave you the option of changing your behavior. Nobody could tell you about such learning you had to experience it as a person doesn’t psychotherapy. Rogers critique of conventional teaching and his concept of facilitation has been a dumb influence of Adult Education for the past 30 years most of the education now see themselves as facilitators of learning rather than as didactic . Rogers education. Also helped generate a home literature on experience based learning. The influence of Rodgers and ideas can be seen in two other major contemporary developments and that of education self-directed learning and adult learning principles.

Self-directed learning
The idea of learning being facilitated rather than talk has been linked to Adult Education. Practice to the notion of adults directing their own learning rather than having it directed by teachers. It is now accepted that the bulk of adult learning is informal and self-directed. There is a long tradition of odd anonymous adult learning trekking back to working-class auto-didactics and beyond. The US data from the 1970s suggest that more than two thirds of total of the learning efforts are self-directed. Research conducted by the Canadian adult educator Tough revealed that they’ll spend about 700 hours each year on learning contexts of systematic learning activities planned and conducted by the adults themselves . Tough’s findings have been supported by numerous studies of mainly middle-class learners in a range of occupations. This research together with the human potential and empowerment ideologies are referred to and the Adult Education professions desire to stake out a distinctive territory led to self-directed learning becoming the adult education fad of the 1970s and 80s. Many educators came to be seen as an inherent cognitive and/or personality characteristics who the emergence was to be facilitated by the adult educator through a process which Knowles populararized as andragogy. Measurements were developed which purported to measure the readiness of people to undertake self-directed learning. To date research on the characteristics of self-directed learners has told us little and the validity of measurements of readiness for self-directed learning has been rushed. Despite these doubts the commitment of many adult educators to the notion of self-directed learning remains strong. There is now a large literature on the theory and practice of self-directed learning. For many adult educators the most interesting question about self-directed learning is how can teachers devise a way of giving students greater control over their learning? To to this is much harder than it made at first appear. Particularly important factors working against self-directed learning are the structure and culture of institutionalized education and workplace training in turn shaped by a broader social and cultural forces which support teacher Mort Turner education and the resistance of students who to the telling mode of teaching and learning. The challenge for educators interested in promoting self directed learning is to create spaces in which it can develop within largely hostile environments.

Adult learning principles
Another adult education concept that is shaped by humanistic psychology but is also influenced by cognitive psychology and by research into teaching and learning is the notion of adult learning principles. These are principles to guide educators when they’ve worked with learners. They are based partly on evidence of what constitutes effective than satisfying learning and teaching but they are just as much statements of the value positions are critical of Adult Educators. There have been various explications of adult learning principles. Probably the most comprehensive is Brundage and Mackeraccher’s 1980 survey of miniature on teaching and learning and program development and which they identified 36 learning principles and discuss the implications of each for teaching and program planning. Pay nothing interesting statement of a doubt learning principles is that of Scott which draws on both the North American literature and the experience of Australian adult educators. And also of interest is Brookfield’s discussion of six principles of effective practice and facilitating learning these six principles voluntary participation, mutual respect, collaborative spirit, action and reflection, critical reflection, and some direction, while greatly influenced by the humanistic and cognitive psychology that we have been considering moving beyond them and image trade and awareness of the importance of social context and human agency and of education. We now turn to a consideration of more contextual and critical pedagogies.

Critical theory and critical pedagogies
Critical pedagogies developed out of the radical critique of education of the 1960s and 70s discussed earlier in the chapter of rejects the determinism of that critique. Critical pedagogy also finds fault with both the teacher effectiveness and humanistic approaches to teaching because of their failure to address social and technical issues related to teaching and learning. The main theoretical tenets of critical pedagogy and their implications for the practice of teaching can be summarized as follows: critical pedagogy places teaching and learning firmly in their social context. Critical attention is paid to the interaction of teaching and relations of class, gender and race. It is also concerned with the ways in which meaning is produced, mediating, legitimate and challenged in a wide range of formal and informal educational meetings. It also focuses on relations of domination on the ways in which the capitalist society, culture, ideology, power intersect and control people in such sites as the workplace through the hierarchical management abort, the marketplace through consumerism facilitated by advertising and educational institutions to teaching methods the overt and hidden curriculum teacher ideologies etc. it seeks to help students to see through and challenge dominant meanings and practices. It also seeks to identify, celebrate, critique and built on Poplar and subordinate cultures and a common democratic culture. This conducted and Democratic pedagogy works from students experience but moves beyond it to expose the dynamics of everyday social reality that’s all for learners choices for action. The mold of teaching is dialogical . Teacher puts the student experience back to them in ways which enabled them to analyzed and discussed the reality critically and consider ways in which they might act on and change the reality. Teachers both support and challenges her students.

Midwife teachers are the opposite of Baker teachers. While bankers deposit knowledge in the learners hand, midwives draw it out. They a systems and giving birth to their own ideas and making their own tacit knowledge explicit and elaborating it. They support their students thinking but they do not do students thinking for them more expects to think as they do. There are some detailed accounts of critical teaching with adults for example, Shor’s analysis of his New York University English classes discuss of his community development work in Liverpool, England account of teaching English to immigrants in California.

Feminist pedagogies
The development of feminist scholarship has been one of the most significant intellectual developments of the late 20th century an aspect of the second wave of feminism that emerged in the 1960s and which has been concerned with enlarging the concept of politics to include a personal, and cultural and the ideological from the 1960s onward in many countries women study courses were establishing an adult in higher education often developing from informal consciousness raising efforts and women groups. As the discipline of women’s studies was established and universities from the 1970s onwards important pedagogical issues had to be confronted. Primary among these was a relationship teacher and student. Women wanted to move away from the dominant hierarchical pedagogical relationship which involve teachers and transmitting their knowledge distance and assessing whether the students had absorbed the teaching. The great contribution of feminist pedagogy to Adult Education. And practice had been its problematic of the hierarchical teacher-student relationship and its expert mutation with alternative practices such as join SA and presentation, team teaching, autobiographical writing and collective marking. feminist educators have sought to build safe spaces in which women students can analyze their experience and find their authentic voices. As they have done this teachers and students have had to work through difficult issues. How can such work to be done in male-dominated, hierarchical , rationalizing, certifying institutions? How to reconcile a desire to work in women’s Center cooperative and nurturing ways with the desire to make your way in a patriarchal competitive world? How to work in the classroom with differences of among women by class, race, sexuality, ability and age? Women’s struggles with these issues have produced a largely body of literature. It has also as we see in the next section generated a challenge to the very notion of critical and feminist pedagogy.

The critique of critical and feminist pedagogy
In 1989 and a detailed case study of media study courses and US University Ellsworth pointed out that students can experience and oppressive attempts by teachers to empower them. Ellsworth’s critique resonated with many feminists educators and there is now a develop critique of critical and feminist pedagogy. To date probably the most developed argument is that of Jennifer Gore who using Foucault’s concept of regime of truth examines in great detail the theoretical and value assumptions the techniques and practices the institutional relationships the mold of knowledge formation and ethical effects of these pedagogies. Gore concludes that these pedagogy’s are powerful as a property that can be conferred by teachers on students, are based on abstract philosophical assertions about qualities as the Mills experience and authentic womanhood rather on empirically developed and contexts specific evidence, have revelatory, supervisory and self styling effects on both students and teachers, demonstrate little or no awareness of these potentially dominated effects we teachers have constituted ourselves as bearers or holders of knowledge… rather than as agents subjected to knowledge. While some readers may be repealed by Gore’s dense post-structuralists language I find her argument compelling at going as it does earlier reflection of adult educators discuss below and the unintended and potentially oppressive outcomes of their attempts to rate or improved students. Her critique also connects with some recent writings on workplace change and learning with the deconstruction subjects to critical scrutiny taken for granted terms and practices like empowerment, teams, quality and the learning organization and which proposes approaches that take the town of the harness diversity rather than seeking to impose a vision or strategy.

Reflection, and critical reflection
In the field of professional development over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the concept of reflection. Others have argued that in their practice professionals are faced with messy problems and context. There are best dealt with by people can flexibly and into of the draw on their knowledge from practice more different in formal theory rather than try to apply rules drawn from formal.. The notion of reflection is often linked to the idea of practitioners as action researchers who plan, act, reflect on their practice and play and, act and reflect the can, in a continual spiral. Advocate practitioners learning to monitor their interventions and expand their repertoire of interventions. They argued that as professionals that they should strive to continually aware of the impact of their actions. This, they maintain and can be achieved by asking oneself questions like what happened and what does it mean. Reflecting can also be retrospective process and which practitioner return to the experience akin to their own and others’ feelings about the experience and reevaluate the experience. This approach to examining practice in proving to be of great use to adult educators. It’d enable us to look at our practice is something that is continually and process and can be acted on. Our teaching didn’t become something that we are continually examining and learning from and is no longer seen as a bundle of skills to be mastered.a distinction needs to be made between and the one hand reflection and the associated concepts of action learning and action science as they are used in human resource development and professional development and on the other hand, reflection as it is used in critical pedagogy. The form and this is generally referred to as reflection on action tries to work out how people make meaning in situations and devise strategies for acting on them. It is concerned with effectiveness and manageable change within existing institutions rather with radical institutional social change. It is often called with problem based learning. It is informed by interpretive paradigm and to some extent by the behaviorist framework . Critical reflection conversely has its aim the identification and challenging of people’s assumptions and radical social change in a democratic and often socialist direction. Works such as the Brookfield in 1987 on critical thinking goals partway in the direction of critical reflection concern as it is with encouraging people to analyze the assumptions underlying their traditional beliefs, values, behaviors and social structures, be aware that these assumptions are historically and culturally specific, explore alternatives to the current ways of thinking and living and be skeptical of claims to universality. Brookfield considers the political implications of teaching people to think critically and how educators might contribute to the political education of citizens by teaching them to think critically. In doing so he considers the possible revolutionary outcomes of such work but stopped short of articulating a strategy for leaking education to movements for radical and social change.

Teaching and social movements
The concepts of critical reflection and critical pedagogy are attractive to educators with an interest in social justice and radical social change. But there are many various to the implementation of these ideas such as the isolation in which many educators have to work the individualistic and competitive nature of institutionalized education and the message of the dominant culture transmitted through the mass media, the family, and most education. It is interesting and heartening to find teachers manage despite all the constraints teach critically. It is also stimulating and sometimes inspiring to explore the theory of critical pedagogy which takes us into such areas as socialist theory and feminist theory, and brings us to the optimistic notion of popular education. Popular education emerges from people struggle and mass movement in Latin America and the 1960s and 70s in a sense is educational equivalent of the liberation theology of that era. Its methods are bills of critical pedagogy with an emphasis on working from the learner’s experience locating the experience and a broader social contexts and devising collective strategies for change. But in our society the impact of critical pedagogy has been relative minor and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. This is not to say that critical pedagogy is futile. But it does mean that medical educators need to develop a sophisticated realistic analysis of the social context of their work. It also clears that critical pedagogy will make a significant contribution to troubles for social justice only when it moves beyond its current situation of being practiced in isolated pockets and become a dimension of the work of social movements with a real interest and radical social change such as working class women, aboriginal, gay, disable and environmental movements.

The Democratic imperative
The critical pedagogy is to be emancipated it must be democratic it must entail that genuine sharing of power among learners and teachers. To be a genuinely democratic process and societies and institutions in which there is so much that is un-Democratic and exploitative in a contract from. Fortunately we have some detailed accounts of Democratic education work one of these relates to the work of Myles Horton who founded hide under folk school a residential College in Tennessee which or more than 60 years have provided education for trade unionists, civil rights workers and the environmental activist. Orton and his colleagues appear to have developed a genuinely democratic way of working with adult learners. Their starting point is a deep respect for learners and their life experiences. When they come to high landers learners have experience but lacked techniques for analyzing it the educator teaching the learners how to develop these techniques. What is developing in this sort of education is a genuine dialogue in which each party listens and learns from the other. This is real and difficult education work. The difficulties and gains in this sort of work and the unresolved tensions that arise in it are explored with great honesty and sensitivity. For an adult educator to work with learners and solidarity means to support and provides resources for learners to challenge and extend them but never to patronize or try to control them. It means educators using their power to to create educational situations in which learners can exercise power. This is the most useful meaning of the much abuse and coopted notion of empowerment. Empowerment is not something that educators can do to more for learners. Nor is it a withdrawal by the educator and abandonment of power. This has been one of the great confusions in Adult Education with the past 30 years. It has arisen primarily I think from a miss reading of Carl Rogers approach to facilitating learning groups. Rogers condemnation of conventional teaching his faith in the capacity of groups to develop the healthy direction and his commitment to working with groups and nondirective ways have been misinterpreted as refusal to use power. In fact Rogers like Horton used his power as a counselor, teacher and administrator to enable client learners and staff to exercise theirs. What distinguishes Rogers the humanistic educator from Horton the critical and radical educator is the latter’s social analysis and political commitment. Both direct their educational efforts to helping learners at collectively on their oppression. Both have asked and loudly answered the question holes by an old age union song: whose side are you home? Both have in Cabral’s vivid sins committed classless side they have decided that they want a future in an oppressive social order and have turned their backs or one privileges that the cure to the middle class in that order. And in making bets that they have developed a a democratic approach to teaching. They have ceased to assume that their expertise of use to people and instead of making pronouncements about what they can do for learners have come to ask themselves and their learners what can we do with you?

Discussion groups
A common thread in the various forms of critical pedagogy is the use of discussion. Facilitation, self-directed learning, andragogy and adult learning principles all focus on the importance of developing a teaching and learning process that supports and encourages adult learners. This humanistic tradition in adult education has been criticized for its lack of interest and the content of education and its consequent naivety about the social and ethical outcomes of education. An examination of discussion group tradition in Adult Education help us to see that in teaching and learning mode con tent and process are important to features are generally seem to be central to the concept of discussion in Adult Education purposeful conversation… about a topic of mutual interest and a notion of equal participation in a roughly equal sharing of conversational time. The goals of discussion are both cognitive and affective development of participants analytical capacities of their increased appreciation of the complexities of issues there increased identification with subject matter, and their increased tolerance of opposing viewpoints. And Brookfield drawing on studies of discussion groups and action emphasizes that particularly in our competitive and individualistic culture of the attainment of these goals is problematic. As he builds discussion groups often become an arena of psychodynamic problems in which students will be alternative defensive and aggressive. Brookfield argues that meaningful and productive discussion is more likely to take place at the following four conditions prevail: the discussion topic is stimulating, the group leader is well-versed in both group dynamics and topic under discussion, group members possess recently develop reasoning and communication skills, group members have devised an agreed on an appropriate moral culture or the discussion. For Brookfield the last condition is crucial it means that the group must spend some time agreeing on a set of procedural rules concerning the manner in which equity of participation is to be realized. These procedural rules will in turn be based on the sort of ethical principles identified as being essential to the functioning of discussion groups; reasonable openness to others’ arguments and perspectives, peaceableness and orderliness, truthfulness, freedom, equality and respect for persons.

Real teachers
There are some good teaching autobiographies and biographies. Adams is an excellent educational biography of Myles Horton’s autobiography, the long haul, was published just before he died in 1990. There is also a two-hours videotaped interview with Horton in which he talks at length about his approach to education and other interesting on a private reason our Jane Thompson’s 1983 accountable who work with women in Southampton, Mike Newman’s 1979, 1993 lively accounts of his experiences as a tour and organize some adult classes with the inner London education authority in the 1970s and with Australian trade unionists in the 1980s and David Head’s 1977, 1978 analysis of his work with homeless and working-class people and London during the same.. accounts of the work of educators like Horton and the recollections and polemics of the radical educators of the 1960s and 70s band of teachers from an earlier generation, have confirmed for me that good, great, excellent more real teachers called them what you real art fills with honesty, compassion, Kumar and passion. It is also clear to me that in teaching as with any other human activities the sum is greater than the parts. While it is useful to analyze what, say, Horton does and to examine the theory behind his practice, Horton the teacher and the human being is more than technique in theory. This is an optimistic realization and one of its implications is that while we can learn a lot from studying real teachers we should not try to model ourselves on them. We should be ourselves.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Successful steps to transition through Self Advocacy and Self Determination

Total Pages: 10 Words: 2911 Bibliography: 15 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: 2. A curriculum development project. The project would be curriculum you have developed to teach one particular topic or content area. Some examples of areas to focus on include study skills, social skills, affective training, self-advocacy training, functional skills, career exploration, fractions, phonological awareness, and so on. Note that the curriculum components do not have to all be original documents created by you, but can be a compilation of resources you have put together in a systematic lesson format. The project would include a list of references for sources that you include that are not your own creation.

3. An in-service or workshop on a particular topic. This project would include both developing the in-service or workshop and presenting it at least once. The written part would include a description of the in-service/workshop and a summary of the presentation of the in-service/workshop (e.g., your perceptions of how it went, what you learned).

Project requirements..I've agreed to do a literature review and include a's listed here

Note that for any of the scholarly project options you must complete a literature review. A literature review is an examination of the journal articles, ERIC documents, books, and other sources related to your topic. The purpose of this is to set your project in a theoretical context, making the connection between theory and practice. The number of sources for a literature review for a scholarly project are typically between three and fifteen. The literature review should be either embedded in the project or attached to the project. See the attachment regarding sources for a literature review.

The scholarly project needs to include a Literature review and a powerpoint based on the research. Lesson plans for incorporating the self determination lessons into the curriculum or classroom ideas for teachers. An example or two from the primary years to secondary and exiting school.

The title: Steps to Successful Transition through self advocacy towards self-determination.

Is it possible for me to add to the paper after you've returned it to me as I wanted to incorporate other information into a power point project that can assist teachers with utilizing the information. I wanted to personalize the curriculum standards and benchmarks and tie them to lessons students can more readily relate to...making lessons more meaningful...

The research shows that teachers believe it is important to teach self advocacy and self determination skills yet don’t seem to know where to incorporate that information into their classroom curriculum.

A paradym shift may need to occur for some educators to allow students to advocate for themselves. It means letting go and encouraging students to think and act for themselves, which may not always be in line with what educators desire. Self Advocacy skills will encourage students to ask questions and learn to find answers to those questions.

Teaching self determination skills will encourage students not only to understand their disabilities but to also state what accommodations and modifications they need to learn. Focusing on the needs and desires of the students will empower and engage

I have some scholarly journal articles and have some ideas about the paper...
Using differentiated instruction, universal backward design, and meta cognition techniques tied to standards and benchmarks to write the goals and objectives in the IEP are essential for students to find self determination success. Not just academic success but satisfaction as they transition in the adult world.

Some ideas I have been generating include explaining what the IEP is.
What is the IEP?
What is the purpose of the IEP?
What are the responsibilities of the IEP team members?

As students attend schools, parents and guardians are legally responsible for their children. The IEP is in place to help the student learn to make progress successfully towards the goals identified by the team and to show adequate yearly progress.

Of course, at early primary ages children will be dependent upon their parents or guardians and teachers. At the young age of two toddlers begin to strike out on their journey of independence labeled the “terrible two’s”. Adults attempt to direct and help them learn appropriate behaviors according to the norms, mores, and laws of the societies in which they live. According to Maslow’s Heirarchy of Need students individuals strive to meet certain biological and belonging needs. As they age those needs change. They need to gain more independence as they age. My stance is such that, students including special needs students need help identifying what they stand for at earlier ages. They need to understand who they are, where they come from, and where they want to go. Educators, parents, and those in close proximity to them help guide and foster their growth towards those needs.

Curriculum based measurements through progress monitoring and graphing will encourage students to self monitor through the use of graphing techniques.

I believe that without promoting self advocacy the student is dependent upon the parents, guardians, educators, etc. I believe there is a serious need for the student to begin to learn transition skills at an early age. It is the responsibility of the IEP team to shift more of the responsibility to the student. What is the worst that can happen when adults allow the student to identify their wants and needs. Working together collaboratively in an authoritative manner can allow students to take ownership of their education. When educators personalize the educational experience through differentiated instruction students may better understand how, math or reading, for example relate to their lives.

The title of this paper is Steps to Successful Transition through Self Advocacy towards Self determination.

Writing goals and objectives from the standpoint of self advocacy towards empowerment through self determination will foster successful outcomes based upon student interests and goals.

Yes this will involve a paradgm shift on the part of educators, administrators, parents, and students.

educators and parents Tying self-determination and self advocacy together to personalize the educational experience i

Some of the resources I have written are here. I have more I will send tomorrow.
Sources should be more current than 2002

The Journal of Special Education Volume 32/No. 1/1998 pp 55-61
Transition Services-Systems Change for youth with Disabilities
A Review of State Practices.
Antonis Katsiyannis University of Nebraska
Sharon de Fur Virginia Dept of Ed
Gregory Conderman-University of Wisconson-Eau Clair

Information Brief January 2007 volume 6 Issue 1
Addressing Trends and Developments in Secondary Education and Transition
Models of Collaboration and Cost Sharing in Transition Programming.
By Joe Timmons

Information Brief February 2006 volume 5 Issue 1
Addressing Trends and Developments in Secondary Education and Transition
Choices in Transition: A Model for Career Development
By Fabricio E. Balcazar, R. Noam Ostrander, and Teresa Garate

Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 2000, 35 (4) 351-364
Promoting Transition Goals and Self-Determination Through Sudent’s Self Directed Learning: The Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction.
Martin Agran University of Northern Iowa Utah State University
Michael L. Weheymeyer
Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies

Transition and Self Advocacy
By: Lynda L. West, Stephanie Corbey, Arden Boyer-Stephens, and Bonnie Jones. Et al. (1999)

Article Transition Planning It’s the Law! By Celeste Johnson
Summer 2001

A Conceptual Framework of Self Advocacy for Students with Disabilities
Journal article by David W. Test, Catherine H. Fowler, Wendy M. Wood, Denise M. Brewer, Steven Eddy, Remedial and Special Education, Vol. 26, 2005. Journal article excerpt

Self Determination Lesson Plan starters

Some of the articles from your site looked like they could be compatible and are listed here...Paper # 52257

Self-Advocacy, 2004.
This paper discusses self-advocacy as a survival tool for ?normal? children and, especially, ?special needs? children.
7,690 words (approx. 30.8 pages), 20 sources, APA, $ 167.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

This paper explains that self-advocacy is the state of knowing what one wants, what one is entitled to, and how one can effectively craft a path that will lead one to accomplish one?s own goals within the limitations of those entitlements. The author points out that the key to determining how well a student is serving as an advocate for himself or herself is first to understand the key dimensions that make up a person?s ability to speak up for himself or herself and then to determine how to measure progress along each one of these vectors. The paper recommends that students who are learning to be an active part of the educational process and to serve as their own advocates should be able to demonstrate an increasing level of skill in areas such as communicating with others, identifying needed accommodations and supports, and expressing hopes and wants. Long quotes.

Table of Contents
Literature Review
Importance and Limitations of IEPs
Parents as Advocates
Unity in the Face of a Common Enemy
Operationalizing Self-Advocacy
And a Child Shall Lead

From the Paper
"This is one of the key issues that must be addressed: How does one serve as the most effective advocate for oneself without infringing the rights of others? This is one of the most difficult tasks that those working with special needs children ? and especially teachers ? face. School districts are designed (both in terms of culture as well as in terms of their ability to serve children with a range of abilities on a limited budget) to force parents to become aggressive to secure rights for their children. And once they become so aggressive, they are unable to find their footing on the very narrow line between advocacy and belligerence."

Paper # 54757

Special Education, 2004.
A look at special education programs in the United States and how they have evolved.
3,956 words (approx. 15.8 pages), 15 sources, MLA, $ 107.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

This paper first gives a thorough definition of special education and what type of student requires special education and then takes a look at how special education has changed in the United States, what has affected its evolution, and federal and state legislation that has passed concerning special education. The paper also discusses the legal frameworks that have been enacted by the United States Congress and state legislatures with regards to special education as well as some of the acts enacted, which were intended to provide additional support to children with learning disabilities.

Legal Definition of Special Education
Impact of Changing Demographics on Educational Service Delivery in the
United States
Creating Classroom Environments that Address the Linguistic and
Cultural Backgrounds of Students with Disabilities
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education
Comparison of the California State and Federal Methods of Student
Legal Basis for Educational Services for Special Education Students

From the Paper
"According to the Federal Laws of the United States of America, ?Special Education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability [IDEA 97 300.26(a)].? The revised statutes of Arizona defines a child with disability as ?a child who is at least three but less than twenty-two years of age, who has been evaluated and found to have a disability and who, because of the disability, needs special education and related services [ARS 15-761(2)].? Under federal law, a student can qualify for special education services under the disability categories of mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities [IDEA 97 602(3)(a)]. (Special Education ? Definition), (Learning Disability Resources) & (Legal Definition of Special Education) "

Paper # 57986

Special Education, 2004.
A review of the "Journal of Special Education" article, "Special Thinking in Special Settings: A Qualitative Study of Expert Special Educators," written by L.M. Stough and D.J. Palmer.
720 words (approx. 2.9 pages), 2 sources, MLA, $ 25.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

This paper discusses the "Journal of Special Education" article, "Special Thinking in Special Settings: A Qualitative Study of Expert Special Educators," written by Stough and Palmer. The paper illustrates that the identified expert teachers were fundamentally concerned about their students' performance in school, and this concern permeated how teachers perceived and responded to their students. The paper contends that concerns with student performance motivated the teachers to closely monitor student behavior and attention and to develop a hypothesis about students' states of mind. The paper explains that strategic actions the teachers took in the classroom were the product of the teachers' hypotheses, combined with frequent reflection upon their extensive knowledge of student characteristics and educational practice.

From the Paper
"Special Education is a type of education that gives hope to people with disabilities, most especially the children. There are lots of children all over the world, most especially in developing countries who are in need of Special Education. Yet, Detterman and Thompson (1997) states that effective special educational methods have yet to be developed. Further, they stressed that effective special educational methods will not be developed until; individual differences in student characteristics beyond IQ scores are recognized and understood; and educators focus on specific and realistic goals for outcome. Regarding Detterman and Thompson's opinion on how educators should be, the journal article by Laura M. Stough and Douglas J. Palmer entitled "Special Thinking in Special Settings: A Qualitative Study of Expert Special Educators," could provide an insightful discussion on the topic."

Paper # 59537 Remove from Cart

Special Education High Schools, 2002.
Does high school prepare special education students for life after graduation?
9,058 words (approx. 36.2 pages), 17 sources, APA, $ 188.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

This paper shows that current methods of preparing teachers for the classroom do not adequately address the needs of students with learning disabilities and those with special needs. Children with learning disabilities present unique challenges to educators at all levels. The trend in the United States in the recent past has been to integrate children with learning disabilities into the "mainstream" of the educational system; teaching them, in other words, along with non-disabled children in a standard learning environment to the maximum extent possible. Thus, this approach to educating children with learning disabilities has been termed "mainstreaming," and it involves the use of both special and general education techniques to provide the maximum learning opportunities for learning disabled children. The research question addressed in this project is, "Does high school prepare special education students for life after graduation?" A careful review of possible research methodologies shows that the most appropriate methodology for this research is a causal-comparative analysis of existing studies by educators and other researchers into the efficacy of a high school education for special needs students in preparing them for life in the real world after graduation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature, an analysis of secondary sources, followed by findings and a summary of the research in the conclusion.

Literature Review
Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education
What Is Mainstreaming?
Benefits of Mainstreaming
Collaborative Education Techniques for Children With Learning Disabilities
Benefits of Inclusive Educational Settings
Challenges and Drawbacks Associated with Mainstreaming
Summary and Conclusion

From the Paper
"Approximately 5 percent of all public school students are identified as having a learning disability. This broad category includes disabilities in reading, language, and mathematics. One in every 10 students in public schools today receives special education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). According to Horn and Tynan's assessment, "Revamping special education," prior to the 1950s, the federal government was not routinely involved in the education of children with special needs. "A few federal laws had been passed to provide direct educational benefits to persons with disabilities, mostly in the form of grants to states for residential asylums for the 'deaf and dumb, and to promote education of the blind.' These laws, however, were in the tradition of providing residential arrangements for persons with serious disabilities, services that had existed since colonial times" (Horn & Tynan, 2001, p. 36). These researchers point out that absent federal law, how -- and even whether -- children with disabilities were to be educated within the public schools was left to the discretion of the states and their local school districts. "Although some public schools undoubtedly provided exceptional services to children with disabilities, others did not. Indeed, as recently as 1973, perhaps as many as one million students were denied enrollment in public schools solely on the basis of their disability" (Horn & Tynan, 2001, p. 36). This state of affairs changed dramatically in 1975 with the passage of the Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142). Renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990, this landmark legislation mandated that children with disabilities receive a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment."

Metacognition, 2005.
A paper on metacognition and the role it plays in a person's beliefs and attitude about learning and behavior.
5,015 words (approx. 20.1 pages), 40 sources, APA, $ 126.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

This paper explains that metacognition is defined, essentially, as what we think about thinking and that this process impacts our beliefs and attitudes about learning, which in turn, affect our behavior. The paper explains the differences between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences and emphasizes that knowledge of the metacognitive process is a valuable tool for designing curricula and establishing effective learning environments.

Metacognition Defined and Illustrated
Metacognitive Knowledge
Metacognitive Experiences, Strategies, and Processes
Development of Metacognition and Its Traits
Metacognition and Learning
Beliefs and Its Impact on Learning
Learners' Beliefs and Language Learning
Identifying Learners' Beliefs about Language
Metacognition Training in Formal Education
Metacognitive Research and Teacher Practices

From the Paper
"The common and therefore more simplified definition of metacognition is thinking about thinking. Metacognition falls under the umbrella of cognition, which consists of all the mental activities connected with thinking, knowing, and remembering. The two concepts differ in that cognitive skills are those required to complete certain tasks while metacognitive skills are those that determine how the tasks were executed. Researchers assert that 'metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning' (Livingston, 1). In other words, it's an individual's awareness and manipulation of his or her thinking and learning processes."

Paper # 30152 Add to Cart (You can always remove it later)

Special Education, 2002.
Looks at the growth in special education students in the American system.
10,577 words (approx. 42.3 pages), 17 sources, APA, $ 211.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

Since the introduction of PL-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act) in America, the Special Education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers decrease. This paper discusses the increase in the American special education population. It discusses the factors that have contributed to the increase, including the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population, early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms and pressure from parents. Other areas investigated are the disproportionate amount of minorities that are placed in special education programs and the disproportionate amount of males that are placed in special education. The paper includes a table.

Table of Contents:

Increases in the Special Education Population
The Effect of PL-142 on Increases in the Special Education Population
Early Identification of Special Needs
Conditions that Qualify Students for Special Education
Placement of Low Achieving Students in Special Education Programs
Education Reforms
Pressure from Parents
Disproportionate Amount of Minorities in Special Education Programs
Disproportionate Amount of Males in the Special Education Population

From the Paper
"Horn and Tynan (2001) believe that the best way to educate this group is through direct instruction, individualized attention and feedback. They contend that these students learn best when they have access to classrooms that provide consistent instruction at a slow pace. The authors also assert that if teachers would teach these children effectively there would be a marked improvement in their performance. Horn and Tynan suggest that teachers should focus on figuring out the specific reading problem that a child may have so that they can aid the child in overcoming the problem. In addition, the authors suggest that children with attention deficit disorder should be taught not to rely on medication alone."
Paper # 106467 Add to Cart (You can always remove it later)

Metacognitive Techniques in Education, 2008.
A comprehensive study proposal that aims to explore strategies for the implementation of metacognition in standardized testing.
6,258 words (approx. 25.0 pages), 84 sources, APA, $ 146.95
» Click here to show/hide summary

The paper discusses how metacognitive techniques are being proven to show academic improvements. The paper presents a study that aims to show academic improvements quantitatively through the examination of standardized test scores to be taken after students were exposed to metacognitive techniques. The paper presents the methods of implementing this study.

Chapter 1: Using Metacognitive Techniques to Improve Standardized Testing
Chapter 2: What is Metacognition?
Chapter 3: Methods of Implementation

From the Paper
"It was not until researcher John Flavell burst on the scene in the late 1960's that the term metacognition was actually coined and began to receive proper attention. Flavell believed that metacognition was the process of monitoring one's conscious thoughts and actively taking steps in order to maximize the learning experience (Flavell, 1979). This new emergent theory aimed to explain how children take conscious control of their own learning, and how that control can be manipulated in order to gain sufficient material needed to solve problems and master academic tasks (Flavell, 1976)."

The project needs to include a Literature review.

The title: Steps to Successful Transition through self advocacy towards self-determination.

Is it possible for me to add to the paper after you've returned it to me as I wanted to incorporate other information into a power point project that can assist teachers with utilizing the information. I wanted to personalize the curriculum standards and benchmarks and tie them to lessons students can more readily relate to...making lessons more meaningful...

The research shows that teachers believe it is important to teach self advocacy and self determination skills yet don’t seem to know where to incorporate that information into their classroom curriculum.

A paradym shift may need to occur for some educators to allow students to advocate for themselves. It means letting go and encouraging students to think and act for themselves, which may not always be in line with what educators desire. Self Advocacy skills will encourage students to ask questions and learn to find answers to those questions.

Teaching self determination skills will encourage students not only to understand their disabilities but to also state what accommodations and modifications they need to learn. Focusing on the needs and desires of the students will empower and engage

I have some scholarly journal articles and have some ideas about the paper...

Some Conclusions that I began to think/write about include and I will need to add to them

In conclusion, the research proves that students taught to advocate for themselves are more likely to feel fulfilled and be successful as an adult.


Self advocacy and self determination skills assist students identification of who they are, what they are interested in academically, socially, and which direction do they intend or hope their lives will go in regards to education, work and or career, volunteering, social activities and outlets,.

Teachers need to reassess their role as educators. Being able to shift the power in the teacher student relationship is a huge paradym shift.
Empowering students to take ownership of their education will empower them to accept accountability for their actions, goals and objectives.

Creating and incorporating personal self-advocacy and self determination lessons into the curriculum and IEP will guide students towards unique appropriate chosen goals and objectives.

Collaboration and commitment amongst agencies. In order to assist students in transition adult education and social agencies need to collaborate in order to prevent the support from falling away leaving the student vulnerable and exposed to the unexpected elements.

Teaching self-determination and self advocacy skills again will teach skills that will foster independence and solutions oriented options.

it is advisable recommended that educators consider the ramifications of not teaching self determination skills.

Reflective statement

As a Special Education instructor it is especially rewarding to observe positive empowering changes in our students. Watching a student with Developmental Cognitive Delays stop, think, and decide which choice is the best or how to fix a problem they may have created.

Meta-cognition strategies are essential as students learn to self monitor and assess

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

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