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Essay Instructions: Consider the Japanese, Chinese and Russian empires from 1500-1800. What kind of structures and bureaucratic arrangements were used to maintain order and control in each to these? How did each manage its population ? compare and contrast these empires.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Since 1500 A history of World Societies

Total Pages: 3 Words: 870 Sources: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Source needed has been uploaded to the fax board.

Please read the questions and pick one of the multiple choice answers. When sending the document, only include the Question number and the answer, no need to include the entire questions and answers again.

European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about
a. 1450
b. 1650
c. 1750
d. 1850

All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except:
a. industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power.
b. railroads drastically reduced transportation costs.
c. the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade.
d. the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America.

All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except:
a. the machine gun.
b. the telegraph.
c. quinine.
d. the airplane.

Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except:
a. economic competition in foreign markets.
b. aggressiveness of European nationalism.
c. the theory that colonies benefited workers.
d. the belief that the West had much to learn from traditional cultures.

All of the following represented threats to the Ottoman Empire except:
a. Russian invasion and uprisings by Christian subjects in Europe.
b. the beginning of France's long conquest of Algeria in 1830.
c. increased local independence and the sultanate's loss of authority.
d. the Tanzimat reforms and growing westernization of culture.

In the 19th century, West Africa experienced all of the following developments except:
a. the emergence of a fledgling middle class in coastal towns.
b. a renewal of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the 1860's.
c. the rise of an export trade in palm oil used for making soap.
d. an Islamic revival involving intolerance of animism.

The principle formulated at the Berlin Conference (1884-85) by which European powers laid claim to African territory was called:
a. extraterritoriality.
b. annexation.
c. effective occupation.
d. military subjugation.

All of the following statements characterized imperial government in Africa between 1900 and 1930 except:
a. Colonial governments moved decisively against slavery in response to the European movement for abolition.
b. imperial governments operated either through existing local leaders or through appointed officials.
c. expenditures on education and social services represented a small part of the overall budget.
d. a westernized elite emerged, together with successful African business people.

All of the following drove the transformation of European imperialism in Asia during the 1800s except:
a. Christian missionaries and the idea of progress.
b. advances in Western communications and technology.
c. the need for markets for mass-produced goods.
d. old established monarchies with long literary traditions.

All of the following were characteristic of British rule in India except:
a. population increased, travel conditions improved, and disease spread
b. large plantations were established, making possible the export of opium to China and tea to Europe
c. The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class
d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers

The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of
the following ways:
a. an Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. a group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.

Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to
a. learn to speak and read Dutch
b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government
c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church
d. join large state-run farms.

Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. the US Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.

The Taiping rebels in China aimed to
a. establish a utopian society with equal landholdings, equality of men and women, and no prostitution or opium use.
b. expel all Christian influences from China and kill all western missionaries.
c. restore the Ming dynasty to power and get rid of the Manchus.
d. create a socialist society based on the teachings of Marx and Engels.

What were the historical precedents that animated the Chinese reformers of 1898 who briefly advised Emperor Guangxu?
a. Napoleon's Empire.
b. the United States' War of independence and the Mexican-American War of 1848.
c. the French conquest of Vietnam and Ethiopian resistance to Italian imperialism.
d. the partitions of Poland and the Meiji Restoration.

All of the following were actions taken by the Meiji leaders in the 1870s except:
a. conscripting commoners into the army.
b. establishment of universal manhood suffrage.
c. abolition of the legal privileges of the samurai.
d. abolition of the domains.

All of the following were aspects of early Japanese industrialization except:
a. sending students abroad.
b. government assistance in the establishment of railroads, mines, and factories.
c. exporting silk and tea to the West.
d. collectivization of agriculture.

What was the initial Korean response to Western pressure to open up for trade and diplomatic relations?
a. Korea made immediate concessions to U.S. warships.
b. Korea requested Western aid against Chinese occupiers.
c. Korea referred the Westerners to China for negotiation.
d. Korea attacked foreign ships and repelled invasion.

The primary goal of the Creole leaders of the Latin American independence movement was to:
a. establish a unified Latin American state.
b. seize political power and keep it.
c. redistribute property and restructure society.
d. eliminate the racial categorization of people.

The consequences of the wars of independence in Latin America included all of the following except:
a. establishment of democratic governments.
b. emergence of military dictators.
c. greater economic and social mobility for nonwhites.
d. population dislocation.

Neocolonialism in Latin America resulted in all of the following except:
a. foreign domination of the economy.
b. dependence on one or two cash crops.
c. frequent U.S. military interventions.
d. economic self-sufficiency.

Immigration to Latin America
a. was almost nonexistent after the abolition of the slave trade.
b. was limited to Africans and Europeans.
c. included peoples from all over Europe and Asia.
d. had little impact on social and economic development.

In general, U.S. federal policy toward Native Americans in the first half of the 19th century:
a. permitted Native Americans temporary stewardship over land.
b. focused on western resettlement and reservations.
c. granted ancestral lands in perpetuity by means of treaties.
d. involved elaborate attempts at integration and re-education.

The Emancipation Proclamation:
a. outlawed slavery throughout the United States.
b. freed slaves in the rebellious states.
c. had little impact on public opinion in the North or in Europe.
d. disappointed European and English liberals.

The era of Reconstruction witnessed all of the following except:
a. political and social integration of blacks.
b. expansion of the sharecropping system of farming.
c. reunion of previously separated black families.
d. emergence of churches as leaders in the black community.

The industrialization of the U.S. economy in the late 19th century featured all of the following except:
a. exploitation of cheap, immigrant labor.
b. repeated cycles of boom and bust.
c. adoption of a series of industrial safety laws.
d. emergence of huge industrial conglomerations.

The Canadian constitution:
a. established a unicameral parliamentary system.
b. was closely modeled on the U.S. Constitution.
c. created a powerful central government.
d. invested vast powers in provincial governments.

According to your text, the colony in Australia originally was founded to:
a. prevent the French from seizing it.
b. exploit the mineral resources of the continent.
c. protect the sea routes to India.
d. provide a solution to overcrowded English prisons.

Which of the following best explains the fact that the German revolution of 1918 did not succeed in taking power, unlike the Russian Revolution?
a. the German socialists did not constitute a unified party.
b. socialist leaders never proclaimed a German Republic.
c. radical socialist leaders never tried to seize power.
d. socialist leaders never agreed to the Allied terms of surrender.

According to various historians, possible reasons for German aggression in World War I include all of the following except:
a. the decline of Germany as a world power.
b. the threat of socialism to a still monarchical and military government.
c. the rise of nationalism and weakening of groups with international communities.
d. nationalist opposition to Austro-Hungary in the Balkans.

According to your textbook, President Wilson believed that future wars could best be averted by:
a. rebuilding Germany.
b. continuation of the wartime alliance.
c. the creation of the League of Nations.
d. a restored balance of power.

Germany's total war effort included all of the following except:
a. total mobilization of human resources.
b. rationing of food and a planned economy.
c. an aggressive recycling campaign.
d. heavy taxation of private firms' war profits.

The Bolsheviks won the civil war for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a. the establishment of a Constituent Assembly
b. Trotsky's creation of an effective army.
c. White opponents disunity and lack of a strong program.
d. the use of terror by a secret police to crush opponents.

Vera Brittain's powerful autobiography represented:
a. a commitment to fascism.
b. an embracing of German culture.
c. a commitment to British neutrality.
d. a strong anti-war leaning.

All of the following were consequences of the Great War except:
a. an administrative revolution born of the total war effort.
b. the realization of the dream of national unity for almost all Europeans.
c. the return of Britain to its status as the leading industrial state.
d. the radical Bolshevik revolution in Russia.

The Versailles settlement included all of the following except:
a. the imposition of huge war reparations on Germany.
b. generalized arms control in Europe.
c. the creation of the League of Nations.
d. a clause placing blame for the war on Germany.

According to the textbook, the key issue in the United States' rejection of the Treaty of Versailles was:
a. American indignation at the amount of German reparations.
b. fear of the Bolshevik revolution.
c. the Senate's fear of losing control of the right to declare war.
d. Wilson's conflict with Clemenceau over Germany's borders.

According to the text, Austria-Hungary "deliberately started" World War I in the Balkans
a. to sustain her challenge to British industrial supremacy.
b. to dismember the Russian Empire.
c. to suppress the nationalisms that threatened the empire.
d. in hopes of reducing German power in Central Europe.

Trotsky's role in the early years of the Bolshevik regime included all of the following except:
a. the creation of the Red Army.
b. chief economic policy adviser to Lenin.
c. war commissar.
d. controlling the Petrograd Soviet prior to the seizure of power.

Lenin's contribution to Marxist theory included all the following except the:
a. importance of violent revolution.
b. possibility of social revolution in a backward country.
c. necessity of a disciplined worker's party.
d. historically determined nature of revolution.

The reasons for the groundswell of Asian nationalism from 1914 to 1939 included all of the following except:
a. its appearance as the most effective means of resisting Western imperialism.
b. its challenge to tradition, which made it an effective weapon for modernizers.
c. that it offered a vision of a shining future to both leaders and followers.
d. that it increased support for Confucian ethics in China.

For Asians, the most important aspect of President Wilson's Fourteen Points was the:
a. concept of national self-determination.
b. League of Nations.
c. mandate system.
d. promise of open diplomacy.

The establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine was called for in the:
a. Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson.
b. Versailles peace settlement.
c. Balfour Declaration.
d. Lucknow Agreement.

Generally, Mustaf Kemal's program to restore Turkey was based on the principles of:
a. Marxism-Leninism.
b. Islamic fundamentalism.
c. Ottoman religious and administrative practices.
d. modernization and secularization.

The reforms of Reza Shah Pahlavi in Iran were less successful than those of Kemal because:
a. his country lacked the resources to finance his efforts.
b. the educated class in Iran was too small to support such reforms.
c. the religious leadership rejected his Marxist-Leninist approach.
d. the ethnic minorities proved ungovernable.

The alliance between Indian Muslims and Hindus in 1916 was the:
a. Lucknow Pact.
b. Balfour Declaration.
c. Government of India Act.
d. Indian National Congress-Muslim League Entente.

Gandhi's accomplishments include all of the following except:
a. he effected the reconciliation of Hindus and Muslims.
b. he led a campaign of mass resistance to restrictions on Indians in South Africa.
c. his philosophy of nonviolent social action influenced Martin Luther King.
d. he transformed Indian nationalism into a mass movement.

The New Culture Movement in China:
a. critiqued Confucianism and advocated virtues such as individualism.
b. rejected Marxian socialism as too all-encompassing.
c. sought a return to traditional Chinese values.
d. rejected nationalism.

Nonscientists were disturbed by the early 20th -century revolution in physics because: a. science seemed to have achieved an unerring and almost completed picture of reality.
b. the new universe seemed to lack any absolute objective reality.
c. the new science permitted useful solutions to more and more problems.
d. the new science was based on hard facts and experimentation.

Freudian psychology shocked many people because it assumes that:
a. the first requirement for mental health is an uninhibited sex life.
b. human behavior is the result of rational calculation.
c. unconscious drives can overwhelm rational control mechanisms.
d. ingrained moral values always will influence what a person will do.

Friedrich Nietzsche's significance can best be summarized in which of the following ways:
a. he led a great revival of fundamental Christian belief.
b. he was a Catholic thinker who supported ties with non-Catholics.
c. he stressed that philosophy can only be the study of language.
d. the son of a minister, he attacked conventional notions of morality.

One of the most important reasons that British leaders favored a less harsh peace with Germany after World War I was that:
a. the British felt empathy for their "fellow Aryans".
b. prior to the war Germany had been Britain's second largest export market.
c. they hoped to gain control of the Ruhr.
d. they feared a French challenge to British naval supremacy.

The American stock market crash of October 1929 resulted primarily from:
a. nationalist economic policies in Europe.
b. too much overseas investment.
c. an imbalance between real investment and speculation.
d. the government's Keynesian economic politics.

President Franklin Roosevelt's Works Progress Administration was an attempt to:
a. plan and control the U.S. economy.
b. resolve the problem of unemployment.
c. establish a social welfare system.
d. nationalize banks, railroads, and heavy industry.

The primary commitment of the New Deal was:
a. to abolish the capitalist system.
b. to concentrate political power in the federal government.
c. to quickly resuscitate free-trade economics and balanced budgets.
d. for government to provide for the welfare of all Americans.

Britain responded to the Great Depression by:
a. increasing exports.
b. large-scale deficit spending policies.
c. concentrating on its domestic market.
d. increasing investment in its colonies.

The hyper-inflation of 1923 in Germany had a great impact on the:
a. aristocracy.
b. working class.
c. middle class.
d. big industrialists.

According to the text fascist movements throughout Europe shared all of the following components except:
a. extreme nationalism.
b. hostility to labor unions.
c. hostility to big business.
d. glorification of war and the military.

Lenin's New Economic Policy entailed all of the following except:
a. limited economic freedom for peasantry.
b. reappearance of private trade, small manufacture, and free markets for peasant surplus.
c. selling of national banks and railroads to private owners.
d. recovery in industry and agriculture.

Collectivization under Stalin's first Five-Year Plan resulted in all of the following except:
a. increased agricultural productivity.
b. liquidation of the kulaks.
c. rapid industrial growth.
d. assault on Ukrainians.

Examples of the resistance of Russian peasants to collectivization include all of the following except:
a. slaughter of animals and burning of crops.
b. demanding the right to limit a family's labor on state-run farms.
c. the cultivation of tiny family plots for agricultural produce
d. general assault on Ukrainians as enemies of socialism.

Mussolini's government policies included all of the following except:
a. creation of a one-party dictatorship.
b. recognition of Vatican as independent state.
c. abolition of freedom of the press.
d. creation of a parliamentary government.

Reasons for Hitler's spectacular political success in the early 1930s include all of the following except:
a. economic crisis and Hitler's advocacy of government recovery programs.
b. Hitler's style of advocacy, including repetitive slogans and harangues.
c. the breakdown of democratic government.
d. formation of a united front by Communists and Social Democrats.

In the early years of World War II, Hitler carried out all of the following programs except: a. the arrest and deportation, as well as extermination of Jews.
b. the occupation of France, forcing it to accept a puppet government.
c. heavy indiscriminate bombing of Britain to break British morale.
d. occupation of Moscow and successful conquest of the Soviet Union.

According to the textbook, the effectiveness of the Grand Alliance can be attributed to all of the following except:
a. the agreement between the United States and England to defeat Hitler before discussing postwar programs.
b. the agreement of the United States to attack Japan in the Pacific before defeating Germany.
c. Allied insistence on the unconditional surrender of Japan and Germany.
d. the strong economies of the U.S., Great British and the Soviet Union that mobilized for war.

Which of the following best summarizes the origins of the Cold War?
a. Stalin's desire for military security from Germany and American fear of Communism led to hostility.
b. free elections in Soviet-occupied eastern Europe resulted in multi-party governments sympathetic to the Soviets, leading to hostility.
c. American plan to invade China after it became communist resulted in hostility between America and the Soviet Union.
d. attempt to contain Communism in the Western zone of Berlin failed, resulting in hostility.

Events that marked the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1989 include all of the following except:
a. election of the archbishop of Cracow as Pope.
b. organization of a trade union called Solidarity by Lech Walesa.
c. Gorbachev's policies of economic restructuring and glasnost.
d. the Brezhnev doctrine permitting Soviet intervention in any socialist country.

Examples of repressive dictatorships in Latin America include all of the following except:
a. industrialization and urbanization under right-wing military rule in Brazil.
b. nationalization and socialization of industry in Chile.
c. Anastasio Somoza's government in Nicaragua.
d. the military response to a feared Peronist revival in Argentina.

The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s made deliberate use of all of the following strategies except:
a. legal action to challenge separate educational facilities.
b. boycotts, sit-ins and nonviolent demonstration.
c. voting power of African-Americans in the North.
d. political terror and violence.

At the Helsinki Conference of 1975 participants agreed:
a. to refrain from use of force to change boundaries and to guarantee human rights and political freedoms.
b. to limit the release of greenhouse gasses.
c. to redraw the map of Europe along ethnic lines.
d. to guarantee certain minimum welfare benefits to their populations.

The consolidation of Chinese Communist rule is based on all of the following except: a. radical land redistribution.
b. re-education through relentless propaganda.
c. struggle against Japanese aggression and American imperialism.
d. the foundation of Taiwan by the Nationalists.

Deng Xiaoping's agricultural policies included:
a. accelerating the pace of collectivization.
b. allowing peasants to farm land in family units.
c. importing massive amounts of Western technology.
d. abolishing small-scale family farms.

The Japanese economic "miracle" resulted from all of the following factors except:
a. U.S. economic aid.
b. cheap labor and more open international trade.
c. traditional Japanese social and cultural values.
d. destruction of the zaibatsu industrial giants.

During World War II Gandhi and other Indian leaders:
a. collaborated with the Japanese.
b. insisted that India should be neutral in the war.
c. insisted that Britain grant India autonomy in exchange for support for the war.
d. wholeheartedly supported the war effort against the Axis.

In November 1947 the UN proposed a solution to the conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Jews. What was the proposed solution?
a. a multi-ethnic state with religious tolerance.
b. a British mandate of the area.
c. a U.S. takeover of the area.
d. a division of Palestine into an Israeli and an Arab state.

The legacy of imperialism in Africa included all of the following except:
a. the creation of national states with some modern infrastructure.
b. weak export economies concentrated in foreign hands.
c. an authoritarian tradition used to resolve ethnic conflict.
d. the absence of spokesmen for African national self-government

The civil war in Nigeria resulted from:
a. economic depression.
b. foreign invasion.
c. intertribal and ethnic violence.
d. British refusal to grant independence.

The modernization programs of the Third World nations:
a. focused on big, highly visible industrial projects.
b. attempted to foster even growth and development in all sectors of the economy.
c. concentrated on transforming agriculture.
d. solved the problems of rural poverty.

Modernization theory and Marxism shared the belief that:
a. class conflict is the motor of history.
b. the industrial proletariat is the ruling class of the future.
c. agricultural societies should urbanize and industrialize like "developed" countries.
d. the construction of steel and weapons factories is key for industrial development.

The appeal of cities to villagers in the developing world resulted from all of the following except:
a. the quality of sanitary and plumbing systems.
b. transportation systems, banks, and hospitals.
c. tighter social networks.
d. jobs in areas such as manufacturing.

Migration from the countryside to the city in the Third World:
a. has created many new medium-sized cities.
b. has been relatively modest.
c. has caused gigantic megalopolises to arise.
d. has greatly lessened rural poverty.

Frantz Fanon's view, expressed in Wretched of the Earth, is best expressed in which of the following ways:
a. the newly freed colonies should retain close ties with former colonial powers.
b. real independence requires a total break with former colonial powers.
c. colonial domination is only one insignificant chapter in the life of a people.
d. it might be possible to compromise with Western values while also rejecting colonialism.

The interviews with women presented in "Listening to the Past" suggest that most of them believe the lives of their children would be improved by:
a. general modernization and education.
b. larger families and greater appreciation for family values.
c. a return to ancient traditions and religious values.
d. a return to the land and improved agriculture.

Originally, the primary purpose of the United Nations Security Council was to:
a. facilitate economic interdependence.
b. reintegrate Germany and Japan into the international world order.
c. maintain international peace and security.
d. restrain Soviet expansion.

The term "the other energy crisis" refers to the:
a. Western dependence on imported fossil fuels.
b. shrinking ozone layer.
c. shortage of firewood for cooking and heat in the developing world.
d. loss of arable farmland.

According to your textbook, the international debt crisis of the 1980's resulted in:
a. causing wealthy nations to curtail foreign loans.
b. the OPEC oil embargo.
c. the bankruptcy of the Mexican government.
d. forcing international negotiations to reduce debt and encourage economic liberalization.

The impact of multinational corporations on the Third World economy includes all of the following except the:
a. marketing of ill-suited, often dangerous products.
b. creation of a Westernized consumer economy among the elites.
c. elimination of widespread unemployment and poverty.
d. coopting of the best native businesses and businesspeople.

The tactics used by Third World countries to deal with multinationals have included all of the following except:
a. nationalizing assets of the giant corporations.
b. prohibiting the giant corporations from establishing themselves.
c. imposing government planning on multinational corporations.
d. playing multinational corporations off against each other.

Examples of the critique of unrestrained "modernization" include all of the following except:
a. E.F. Schumacher's Small is Beautiful.
b. the work of the Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe.
c. new interest in so-called "appropriate technologies."
d. the search for cheap, high-quality factory labor.

The revival of Islamic fundamentalism involved all of the following except:

a. the idea of adapting the Qur'an to modern life.
b. the fear of rapid change on the part of a deeply religious population.
c. an Islamic Republic in Iran in which state and church were bound together.
d. a belief in the social inferiority of women and insistence on the veil.
There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: The Battle of Tannenberg

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1187 References: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: I need a four page research paper on the battle of tannenberg Which took place during World War I. The format required is Turabian with footnotes. Wikipedia cannot be used as a source. I would like to cover from beginning to end. The background, the prelude, the plans, opening moves, the battle, and the aftermath.

The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914, was a decisive engagement between the Russian Empire and the German Empire in the first days of The Great War, fought by the Russian First and Second Armies and the German Eighth Army between August 17 and September 2, 1914.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Critical Thinking on included Editorial

Total Pages: 10 Words: 3082 Works Cited: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Analyze the provided OpEd from the perspective of a key player in the national decision making process. As part of this analysis, address the following:

[1] Take the role of a KEY PLAYER in the national decision making process (from the list below), and analyze the author's premise in the Opinion Editorial (OpEd) from this perspective. While essay assignments are typically written in third-person, in this case, your analysis should be delivered in first-person, and all elements below should be addressed from the perspective of your chosen key player.

[2] Agree or disagree with the author's premise.

[3] Assess the most important Instrument of National Power (IOP) in the context of this OpEd and provide courses of action to take along the lines of this IOP.

[4] Analyze how your courses of actions will support the specific US National Interests (listed below) as they apply to the country(ies) identified in the OpEd.

[5] Include an analysis of the entire region of the identified country(ies) and any neighboring relations in the context of the OpEd's issues. (How would your courses of action affect other countries in the region? What about neighboring countries?)

Key players National Security Advisor, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, Director of National Intelligence, Congress, think tank, interest group, lobby, or the President.

Instruments of National Power (IOPs) Diplomatic, Informational, Military, or Economic

National Interests (2010 NSS, Section III) Security, Values, Prosperity, and International Order.

Your essay should be a focused analysis using relevant concepts and specific examples from the course materials to support your thesis. Additionally, you will be graded on insightful thought, critical analysis, and an overall mastery of the course material. Specific attention will be given to your unique contributions. (Grade breakout: 45% for content/support + 45% for critical analysis + 10% for grammar/structure = 100%).

Why Are We Baiting The Bear--OpEd
By Patrick J Buchanan
August 23, 2011

Is the Senate trying to reignite the Cold War?
If so, it is going about it the right way.
Before departing for a five-week vacation, the Senate voted to declare Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be provinces of Georgia illegally occupied by Russian troops who must get out and return to Russia.

The Senate voice vote was unanimous.

What is wrong with Senate Resolution 175?
Just this. Neither Abkhazia nor South Ossetia has been under Georgian control for 20 years. When Georgia seceded from Russia, these ethnic enclaves rebelled and seceded from Georgia.
Abkhazians and Ossetians both view the Tblisi regime of Mikhail Saakashvili, though a favorite of Washington, with contempt, and both have lately declared formal independence.

Who are we to demand that they return to the rule of Tblisi?
In co-sponsoring S.R. 175, Sen. Lindsey Graham contended that "Russia's invasion of Georgian land in 2008 was an act of aggression, not only to Georgia but to all new democracies."
This is neocon propaganda. Russian troops are in those enclaves because in August 2008 Georgia invaded South Ossetia to re-annex it, and killed and wounded scores of Russian peacekeepers. Tblisi's invasion brought the Russian army on the run, which threw the Georgians out and occupied slices of Georgia itself.
While the Russian troops withdrew from Georgian territory, they remained in Abkhazia and South Ossetia as a deterrent to Saakashvili, whose agents have been working Capitol Hill to push the United States into a confrontation with Russia on Georgia's side.
S.R. 175, the work of Graham and Sen. Jeanne Shaheen, declares it to be U.S. policy "to recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia as regions of Georgia occupied by the Russian Federation." But the Russians are far more welcome there than are the Georgians.
Twice the Georgians have been expelled by force. Both times, Ossetians and Abkhazians helped throw them out. Why are we demanding that the Georgians be permitted to march back in and reimpose an alien rule that clearly is detested by these people? Is this the American spirit of '76?
When the Senate says "regions of Georgia" are "occupied," it implies that Russia seized the territories. But as a European Union investigation has confirmed, the 2008 war began with the Georgian invasion of South Ossetia.

And what business is all of this of the United States'?
Why are we provoking a Russia for whom the Caucasus--ablaze as it is with secessionism, Islamism and terrorism--is a vital national interest?
Going on across this inflamed region are ethno-national struggles for self-determination, the resolution of which, 6,000 miles from the United States, is none of our concern. How would Abraham Lincoln have reacted had Czar Alexander II declared the Russian Empire was recognizing the independence of Virginia and demanding that the breakaway enclave of West Virginia be returned to Richmond?
Can we not see how hypocritical we appear?
When Kosovo, birthplace of Serbia, was being torn away by Albanian Muslims -- and Serbs were fighting to hold on -- Bill Clinton ordered Serbia bombed for 78 days and sent U.S. troops to occupy the breakaway province and plant a U.S. base there, Camp Bondsteel.
When we recognized Kosovo as independent, Russia recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Is there not a certain symmetry here? And do we not have enough on our plate in Libya, Iraq, Yemen, Somalia, Afghanistan and Pakistan not to be telling Russians how they should behave in lands closer to them than Grenada or Cuba is to us?
The Russian city of Sochi on the Black Sea, which is to host the 2014 Winter Olympics, is as close to Abkhazia as Dulles Airport is to Washington, D.C.
East of Sochi lie Ingushetia and Dagestan, targets of terrorist attacks by Islamists seeking to create a caliphate. Moscow's subways and Domodedovo Airport have been hit by terrorist bombs out of the Caucasus. In the airport attack, 35 were killed and 100 injured.
President Dmitry Medvedev, who has been friendly to the United States and gave the order to Russia's army to reverse the Georgia invasion, describes the Caucasus as the greatest threat Russia faces.
Why are we siding with Georgia, a nation of 5 million, against a Russia that seems to be on the side of self-determination? And when we recall how JFK and Ronald Reagan reacted when Russians were meddling in Cuba and Central America, can we not understand their resentment?
Medvedev believes that Saakashvili launched his 2008 attack after a visit by Condoleezza Rice, during which he may have been flashed a green light. Russia's foreign minister believes that the Senate resolution backing Georgia has created a "revanchist mood" in Tblisi.
If there is another invasion of Georgia and a new war, the U.S. Senate will not be without major moral responsibility. Is there to be no end to this country's meddling in other nations' quarrels and wars?

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