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Respiratory System Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Respiratory System College Essay Examples

Title: comparison of the respiratory system of fishes and frogs

Total Pages: 6 Words: 1955 References: 10 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: please at the time your are going to compare please do not forget to compare too in base of evolution !!!!.
5 pages (not including the bibliography)

? Times New Roman 12pt font

? double spaced

? 1 inch margins

? in-text citations required

? bibliography/reference page with at least 10 references, 5 of which must be journal articles

? no web pages as citations !!!!

this is an example of how it should be organized :remember this paper is a comparison of the respiratory system of fishes and frogs

2-background of fishes
3-background of frogs
4-anatomy of ..
5- anatomy of
6-anatomy of .....
annotated bibliography ( An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.)

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Asthma

Total Pages: 9 Words: 2737 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: 2,000-2,500 words
required to discuss the underlying altered physiology and pathology of asthma.must first explain the normal function of the lungs and the respiratory system works.
Discuss the basis of specific contemporary treatments and management of asthma.
must be mostly english based.
will e-mail the notes from the lecture on asthma and notes on what must be included
I am a second year nursing student in UK

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Pilates

Total Pages: 11 Words: 4691 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: OUTLINE
A. Some type of opening about pilates exercise, how it can be use in physical therapy for rehabitation.
II. History of pilates: Who is Joesph Pilates? How was pilates exercise born? What is Pilates? Joesph Pilates theories: example contrology?
III Study of the human body the area in which pilates benefits the core. Explain what is the core and the muscles that it strengthens. The body systems it affects; for example the respiratory system, nervous system etc.
IV Main benefits of pilates (there are ten at site: www.
Strengthens deep core muscles of the body is one of the ten listed, etc.
V Who can benefit from Pilates? Is pilates safe for someone with lower back problem? Look at the area of neurology problems example stroke patients , parkinsons disease etc. What age groups? What about pregnancy?
Can pilates be in corporated in aquatic therapy?
VI Modifications of pilates for the types of people that are elderly with little strength for example.
Vll Contraindictions: What are they?
VIII Insurance coverage when use in physical therapy?
How to become certified?
my opinion I believe strongly in this type of exercise
and there should be a way to use this method in any age group
and should be use in PT a missing link
Conclusion: Please write something to connect the entire piece togather. I'm Not a writer!!!!!

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Nursing Assessment Taking the history of a

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1536 Sources: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: art & science clinical skills: 28 A guide to taking a patient's history
Lloyd H, Craig S (2007) A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard. 22,13, 42-48. Date of acceptance: August 24 2007
This article outlines the process of taking a history from a patient, including preparing the environment, communication skills and the importance of order. The rationale for taking a comprehensive history is also explained.
Hilary Lloyd is principal lecturer in nursing practice, development and research. City Hospitals Sunderland NHS Foundation Trust, Sunderland, and Stephen Craig is senior lecturer in nursing, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Assessment; Communication; History taking
These keywords are based on the subject headings from the British Nursing Index. This article has been subject to double-blind review. For author and research article guidelines visit the Nursing Standard home page at For related articles visit our online archive and search using the keywords.
TAKING A PATIENT history is arguably the most important aspect of patient assessment, and is increasingly being undertaken by nurses (Crumbie 2006). The procedure allows patients to present their account ofthe problem and provides essential information for the practitioner.
Nurses are continually expanding their roles, and with this their assessment skills. It is likely that history taking will be performed by a nurse practitioner or specialist nurse, although it can be adapted to most nursing assessments. The history is only one part of patient assessment and is likely to be undertaken in conjunction with other information gathering techniques, such as the single assessment process, and nursing assessment.
History taking for assessment of healthcare needs is not new. Many nursing theorists have examined health deficits (Henderson 1966, Roper etal 1990, Orem 1995), all of which rely on careful assessment of patients' needs. Other nursing theorists identified interaction theories (Peplau 1952, Orlando 1961, King 1981), which sought to develop the relationship between the patient and the nurse through systematic assessment of health.
This article provides the reader with a framework in which to take a full and comprehensive history from a patient.
Preparing the environment
The first part of any history-taking process and, indeed, most interactions with patients is preparation ofthe environment. Nurses can encounter patients in a variety of environments: accident and emergency; general wards; department areas; primary care centres; health centre clinics and the patient's home. It is important that the environment in practical terms is accessible, appropriately equipped, free from distractions and safe for the patient and the nurse (Crouch and Meurier 2005).
Respect for the patient as an individual is an important feature of assessment, and this includes consideration of beliefs and values and the ability to remain non-judgemental and professional (Rogers 1951). Respect also involves maintenance of privacy and dignity; the environment should be private, quiet and ideally, there should be no interruptions. When this is not possible the nurse should do everything possible to ensure that patient confidentiality is maintained (Crouch and Meurier 2005).
It is essential to allow sufficient time to complete the history. Not allowing enough time can result in incomplete information, which may adversely affect the patient's care.
The importance of taking a comprehensive history cannot be overestimated (Crumbie 2006). The nurse should be able to gather information in a systematic, sensitive and professional manner. Good communication skills are essential.
Introducing yourself to the patient is the first part of this process. It is important to let patients tell their story in their own words while using active listening skills. It is also important not to appear rushed, as this may interfere with the patient's desire to disclose information (Hurley 2005). Developing a rapport with the patient includes being professionally friendly, showing interest and actively using both non-verbal and verbal communication skills (Mehrabian 1981) (Box 1).
Practitioners should avoid the use of technical terms or jargon and, whenever possible, use the patient's own words.
42 december 5 :: vol 22 no 13 :; 2007
Examples of non-verbal and verbal communication skills
Crumbie 2006). Many books and articles also suggest that the history should be taken in a set order (Douglas eta/2005. Shah 2005), however, it is not necessary to adhere to these rigidly. Open questions It is important to use appropriate questioning techniques to ensure that nothing is missed when taking a history from a patient. Always start with open-ended questions and take time to listen to the patient's story. This can provide a great deal of information, although not necessarily in a systematic order. Examples of open questioning include: 'Tell me about your health problems.'' and 'How does this affect you?'
Closed questions Once the patient has completed his or her 'story' move on to clarify and focus with specific questions. Closed questions provide extra detail and sharpen the patient's story. Examples of closed questioning include:'When did it begin?' and 'How long have you had it for?' Clarification Clarification involves recalling back to the patient your understanding of the history, symptoms and remarks. Summarising the history back to the patient is necessary to check that you have got it right and to clarify any discrepancies. Finally, asking the patient, 'Is there anything else?' gives him or her a final opportunity to add any further information.
In general, interviewing skills develop through practice. Some helpful points of guidance to consider include (Morton 1993):
? Encouraging participation and agreement. ? Offering prompts and general leads. ? Focusingthediscussion. ? Placingsymptomsorproblemsinsequence. ? Using pauses effectively.
? Makingobservationsthatencouragethe patient to discuss symptoms.
? Reflecting.
History-taking sequence
? The presenting complaint.
Eye contact Interested posture Nodding of head Hand gestures Clothing Facial gestures
(Mehrabian 1981)
Appropriate language Avoid jargon and technical terms Pitch Rate and intonation Volume
Before any healthcare intervention, including history taking, informed consent should be gained from the patient. It can be obtained using various methods. However, both the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC.2004) Code of Professional Conduct and the Department of Health's (DH 2001) Good Practice in Consent Implementation Guide state that patients can only provide consent if they are able to act under their own free will, have an understandingof what they have agreed to and have enough information on which to base a decision.
The ability of the patient to give consent to history taking is important. Consent is governed by two acts of parliament: the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in England and Wales and the Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 in Scotland. There is currently no equivalent law on mental capacity in Northern Ireland. In addition, each health trust will ha ve a local policy that the nurse should follow. The NMC (2007a) and DH (2007a) websites provide further information on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent.
The history-taking process
There are some general principles to follow when gathering information from patients. Introductions As stated earlier, always begin with preparing the environment, introducing yourself, stating your purpose and gaining consent. Once this has been completed, it is best to begin by establishing the identity of the patient and how he or she would like to be addressed (Hurley 2005). The first information to be gathered as with any history is basic demographic details, such as name, age and occupation.
Order and structure The general structure of history taking follows the process outlined in Box 2. There is a consensus in medical and nursing texts that it is important to have a logical and systematic approach (Douglas etal2005,
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Past medical history. Mentai health. Medication history. Famiiy history. Sociai history. Sexuai history. Occupationai history. Systemic enquiry. Further information from a third party. Summary.
december 5 :: vol 22 no 13 :: 2007 43
(Adapted from Douglas et al 2005)
art & science clinical skills: 28
Taking the history
Ifthe structure advised by Douglas etal (2005) is used, history taking should start with asking the patient about the presenting complaint. The presenting complaint To elicit information about the presenting complaint start by using an open question, for example: 'What is the problem?' or 'Tell me about the problem?'. This should provide a breadth of valuable information from the patient, but not necessarily in the order that you would like. The patient should then be asked more specific details about his or her symptoms, starting with the most important first. It is important to concentrate on symptoms and not on diagnosis to ensure that no information is missed. Most textbooks provide a list of cardinal symptoms - those symptoms that are most important to that body system - a n d should be asked about to ensure that a full history is obtained from the patient. Box 4 provides a list of examples ofthe cardinal symptoms for each body system.
When a patient reports symptoms from a specific body system, all ofthe cardinal symptoms in the system should be explored. For example, ifa patient complains of palpitations, then specific questions should be asked about chest pain, breathlessness, ankle swelling and pain in the lower legs when walking to ensure that all cardinal questions relating to the cardiovascular system have been covered.
Each symptom should be explored in more detail for clarification because this helps to construct a more accurate description of the patient's problems. Direct questions can be used to ask about:
? Onset - was it sudden, or has it developed gradually?
? Duration - how long does it last, such as minutes, days or weeks?
? Site and radiation - where does it occur? Does it occur anywhere else?
? Aggravating and relieving features - is there anything that makes it better or worse?
? Associated symptoms - when this happens, does anything else happen with it, such as nausea, vomiting or headache?
? Fluctuating-is it always the same?
* Frequency - have you had it before ?
Direct questioning can be used to ask about the sequence of events, how things are currently and any other symptoms that might be associated with possible differential diagnoses and risk factors. Negative responses are also important, and it is vital to understand how the symptoms affect the patient's day-to-day activities.
? Clarifying points by restating points raised.
? Sumniarising.
There are also some techniques that should be avoided. These are outlined by Crumbie (2006) (Box 3).
Calgary Cambridge framework
Kurtz etal (2003) refined the Calgary Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG) model of consultation to include structuring the consultation. The CCOG is useful as it facilitates continued learning and refining of consultation skills for the teacher and practitioner and is an ideal model for both 'novice' and 'experienced' nurses. Kurtz etal {2003) suggested five stages to summarise history taking including:
Explanation and planning Giving patients information, checking that it is correct and that you both agree with the history that has been taken. Aiding accurate recall and understanding Making information easier for the patient using reflection.
Achieving a shared understanding
Incorporating the patient's perspective to encourage an interaction rather than a one-way transmission. Planning through shared decision making Working with patients to assist understanding and involving patients in the decision-making process. Closing the consultation Explaining, checking and offering a plan acceptable to the patient's needs and expectations.
Examples of unhelpful interview techniques
? ? ? * ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asking 'why' or 'how' questions.
Using probing persistent questions.
Using inappropriate or technical language.
Giving advice.
Giving false reassurance.
Changing the subject or interrupting.
Using stereotype responses.
Giving excessive approval or agreement.
Jumping to conclusions.
Using defensive responses.
Asking leading questions that suggest right answers.
Social chat: the person is expecting professional expertise.
{Crumbie 2006)
44 december 5 :: vol 22 no 13 :: 2007
Past medical history When a full account of the presenting complaint has been ascertained, information about the patient's past medical history should be gathered. This may provide essential background information - for example, on diabetes and hypertension, or a past history of cancer. It is important to capture the following information when taking a past medical history:
? Diagnosis. ? Dates. ? Sequence. ? Management.
Begin by using questions such as, 'What illnesses have you had?' Ensure that you have obtained a full list ofthe patient's past medical history and explore each of these in detail as with the presenting complaint. It is useful to prompt the patient by using direct questioning to ask about common major medical illnesses, such
as whether he or she has ever had tuberculosis; rheumatic fever; heart disease; hypertension; stroke; diabetes; asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; or epilepsy.
Mental health According to the NHS Confederation (2007), one in four people will experience mental health problems at one time during their life. This figure demonstrates that nurses are likely to encounter mental health issues frequently. By using skills previously highlighted, and with a supportive and professional approach, the nurse can enquire with confidence about the patient's current coping strategies, such as anxieties over health problems (suspicion of malignancy, impending surgery or test results) or more developed mental health issues, such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.
Further clues can be gained from the patient's prescribed medication history or previous hospital admissions. The nurse may feel anxious about enquiring about mental health issues, but it is an important part of wellbeing and should be assessed.
Medication history This is crucially important and should consider not only what medication the patient is currently taking but also what he or she might have been taking until recently. Because of the availability of so many medications without prescription, known as over-the-counter drugs, remember to ask specifically about any medications that have been bought at the pharmacy or supermarket, including homeopathic and herbal remedies. For each medication ask about: the generic name, if possible; dose; route of administration; and any recent changes, such as increase or decrease in dose or change in the amount of times the patient takes the medication.
Cardinal symptoms General health
? Change in bowel habit ? Colour of stools
Genitourinary system ? Pain on urinating
december 5 :: vol 22 no 13 :; 2007 45
? ? ? ? ?
Wellbeing Energy Appetite Sleep Weight change Mood/anxiety/stress
? ?
Blood in urine
Risk assessment for sexually transmitted infections
Cardiovascular system
? ? ? ? ?
Chest pain Breathlessness Palpitations Ankle swelling Pain in lower leg when walking
Central nervous system
Urethral discharge Erectile dysfunction
? ? ? ? ? > Weakness ? Twitches > Tinnitus
? ? ? ?
Excessive thirst Tiredness Heat intolerance Hair distribution Change in appearance of eyes
? ? ? ? ?
Cough Wheeze Sputum Blood in sputum Pain when breathing
Headaches Dizziness Vertigo Sensations Fits/faints
Musculoskeletal ? Joint pain ? Joint stiffness ? Mobility
> Gait ? Falls
? Visual disturbance
? Memory and concentration changes
Time of day pain
Gastrointestinal system ? Dental/gum problems
? Onset of menstruation
? Last menstrual period
> Timing and regularity of periods
? ? ? ? ? ? > Colic ? Abdominal pain
Tongue Difficulty in swallowing Painful swallowing Nausea Vomiting Heartburn
? ? ? ? ?
Length of periods Type of flow Vaginal discharge Incontinence
Pain during sexual intercourse
(Adapted from Douglas et ai 2005)
? ? ? ? ? ? > Change in libido
Hesitancy passing urine Frequency of micturition Poor urine flow Incontinence
Respiratory system ? Shortness of breath
art & science clinical skills: 28
Concordance with medication is an important part of taking a medication history. Finding out the level of concordance and any reasons for non- concordance can be of significance in the future treatment ofthe patient. Finally, ask about any allergies and sensitivities, especially drug allergies, such as allergy or sensitivity to penicillin. It is important to find out what the patient experienced, how it presented in terms of symptoms, when it occurred and whether it was diagnosed. Family history Some disorders are considered familial; a family history can reveal a strong history of, for example, cerebrovascuiar disease or a history of dementia, that might help to guide the management of the patient. Open questioning followed by closed questioning can be used to gather information about any significance in the patient's family history. For example, start with an open question such as: 'Are there any illnesses in the family?' Then ask specifically about immediate family - namely parents and siblings. For each individual ask about diagnosis and age of onset and, if appropriate, age and cause of death. Sociai iiistory A patient's ability to cope with a change in health depends on his or her social wellbeing. A level of daily function should be established throughout the history taking. The nurse should be mindful ofthis level of function and any transient or permanent change in function as a result of past or current illness.
Questions about function should include the ability to work or engage in leisure activities if retired; perform household chores, such as housework and shopping; perform personal requirements, such as dressing, bathing and cooking. In particular, with deteriorating health a patient may have needed to give up club or society memberships, which may lead to a sense of isolation or loss.
Nurses should consider the whole of the family when exploring a social history. Relationships to the patient should be explored, for example, is the patient married, is his or her spouse healthy, do they have children and, if so, what age are they? The health and residence to the patient should be known to understand actual and potential support networks. Other support structures include asking about friends and social networks, including any involvement of social services or support from charities, such as MIND (National Association for Mental Health) or the Stroke Association.
The social history should also include enquiry into the type of housing in which the patient lives. This should include ifthe accommodation is
owned, rented or leased, what condition it is in and whether there have been any adaptations. Alcohol In relation to the social history ask specifically about alcohol intake. The nurse should ask about past and present patterns of drinking alcohol. Ewing (1984) suggested use of the CAGE system, in which four questions may elicit a view of alcohol intake (Box 5). Hearneet al (2002) considered it to be an efficient screening tool.
The nurse should be wary of patients who are evasive or indignant when asked questions about alcohol consumption. A mental note should be taken to ask again at a later stage and to consider physical evidence of alcohol intake during the physical examination. Many patients do not recognise units of alcohol and will talk in measures and volume for which the nurse will have to have a mental ready reckoner to calculate the weekly alcohol consumption. The DH website provides useful guidance on this (Box 6).
Tiie CAGE system
46 december5::vol22no13::2007
? ?
? ?
Have you ever felt the need to Cut down?
Have people Annoyed you by criticising your drinking?
Have you ever felt Guilty about your drinking?
Have you ever had a drink to steady your nerves in the morning (Eye opener)?
(Ewing 1984)
Equivaient units of aicoiioi
? ?
A pint of ordinary strength lager, for example, Carling Black Label, Foster's = 2 units.
A pint of strong lager, for example, Stella Artois, Kronenbourg 1664 = 3 units.
A pint of ordinary bitter, for example, John Smith's, Boddingtons = 2 units.
A pint of best bitter, for example. Fuller's ESB, Young's Special = 3 units.
A pint of ordinary strength cider, for example. Woodpecker = 2 units.
A pint of strong cider, for example. Dry Blackthorn, Strongbow = 3 units.
A 175ml glass of red or white wine is around 2 units.
A pub measure of spirits = 1 unit.
An aicopop, for exampie, Smirnoff Ice, Bacardi Breezer, WKD, Reef is around 1.5 units.
(DH 2007b)
Nurses should be mindful that increased alcohol consumption might be a reaction to the health stressors affecting the patient during adjustment to recent changes in health. It could also be that the patient is drinking excessively to act as both a physical and emotional analgesic. Careful, but purposeful, questioning using a mixture ofthe skills outlined should encourage the nurse to have confidence to broach the topic of alcohol dependence. Specific questioning should include the quantity and type of alcohol consumed and where the majority ofthe drinking takes place, whether in isolation or company. Smoking It is documented that smoking causes early death in the population and no safe maximum or minimum limit, unlike alcohol, has been identified. Nurses should ask questions that identify the history ofthe patient's smoking. Traditionally questions surrounding smoking include: 'What age did you start smoking?', 'What kind of cigarettes do you smoke?', 'How many cigarettes a day do you smoke?', 'Do you use roll ups or filtered?'and 'Arethey lowor high tarcontent?'.
Patients will often be unclear about the amount they smoke, but with persistence, 'pack years' - now the standard measure of tobacco consumption -can be calculated (Prignot 1987). Pack years is a calculation to measure the amount a person has smoked over a long period. The pack year number is calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked. For example, one pack year is equal to smoking one pack per day for one year, or two packs per day for half a year, and so on.
If an individual smokes three packs per day for 20 years then this would amount to 3 packs per day X 20 years = 60 pack years.
Roll-up cigarettes are more difficult to calculate as these are made by the patient and are not a standard size. Tobacco is usually sold in grams but verbalised in ounces. Approximate tobacco amounts can be calculated (Box 7). Illicit/recreational drugs In the British Crime Survey, Roe and Man (2006) identified that just under half (45.1 %) of all 16-24-year-olds have used one or more illicit drugs in their lifetime, 25.2% have used one or more illicit drugs in the lastyearand 15.1% in the last month.
Approximate calculation of tobacco
1 ounce = 28.34 grams
2 ounces = 56.69 grams
3 ounces = 85.04 grams
A 'standard' pouch of tobacco is equivalent to 50 grams
Recreational drugs are those that are used regularly and which are a focus of a leisure activity without interrupting the user's abilities and lifestyle (Vose 2000). Drug dependence
is when recreational use reaches a level of 'tolerance'. This is the point where or when the use of the drug requires larger more regular usage to acquire the same initial effect.
Professional and appropriate behaviour by the nurse, using careful and tactful questioning, is needed to enable the patient to feel comfortable in disclosing drug use. The nurse may uncover unpleasant or illegal actions by the patient in their pursuit of obtaining drugs or being under the influence of drugs. Sexual history This can be a difficult subject to broach and it is not always appropriate to take a full sexual history (Douglas ef a/2005). Where relevant ask questions in an objective manner, but acknowledge the sensitivity ofthe subject by starting with: 'I hope you don't mind but 1 need to ask some questions about...'
In men, questions regarding sexual history can be asked as part of the genitourinary system history and should include any previous urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and treatments provided. In women date of menarche, regularity and character of periods, pregnancies, live deliveries and terminations or other losses should be recorded. Women should also be sensitively asked about any infections and treatments. High-risk sexual activity, such as unprotected sexual intercourse should be addressed in both genders. In men and women
an enquiry should be made regarding libido, increased or diminished, to reflect both psychological and endocrine systems. Occupational history Taking a history should include information on previous and current employment. This is important as aspects of employment other than the job itself can influence social wellbeing if illness precludes a return to work. For example, employment in heavy industry may lead to respiratory problems or joint problems. Although occupations may date back several years, exposure to some products may have a long incubation period, such as resultant mesothelioma after asbestos exposure.
Past and current employment will also provide details of financial stability ofthe home. Retired patients may have financial limitations, as will patients who are currently unemployed. Increased anxiety can be present in patients who find themselves unable to work because of sudden illness or having to care for a relative or partner. Questions about a patient's financial condition should be unhurried and handled sensitively by the nurse. This might include discussion about social support and benefits
december 5 :: vol 22 no 13 :: 2007 47
art & science clinical skills: 28
because hospitalisation can alter the patient's eligibility for benefits. Systemic enquiry The final part of history taking involves performing a systemic enquiry. This involves asking questions about the other body systems not discussed in the presenting complaint. The purpose of this is to check that no information has been omitted. It involves systematic questioning of symptoms relating to cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, Iocomotor and dermatological aspects and might yield important clues about the cause ofthe presenting problems. The cardinal symptoms for each system are outlined in Box 4 and questioning should focus on the presence or absence of these symptoms. It is expected at this stage to receive a negative answer to symptoms not already discussed. However, a positive response to any of the questioning should be investigated using the same method as in the presenting complaint.
It is important not to overlook the value of obtaining a collateral history from a friend or relative. If necessary, and with the patient's permission, use the telephone to obtain this
information. It might be essential in a patient presendng with an unexplained loss of consciousness or cognitive symptoms. Information from the history is essential in guiding
'the treatment and management of a patient. Alternatively, the prescribed medication history may be checked with the GP practice ifthe patient is not able to give a full history.
This article has presented a practical guide to history taking using a systems approach. It considered the key points required in taking a comprehensive history from a patient, including preparing the environment, communication skills and the importance of order. While this article provides the knowledge for taking a history, the best method of achieving skills in history taking is through a validated training course with competency-based assessments.
The history-taking interview should be of a high quality and must be accurately recorded (Crumbie 2006). Nurses should be familiar with the NMC Code of Professional Conduct regarding competence, consent and confidentiality (NMC 2004). The novice history taker's records should adhere to the NMC's (2007b) guidance on record keeping NS
References Crouch A, Meurier C (Eds) (2005)
Vital Notes for Nurses: Health Assessment Blackwell Publishing, Oxford,
Crumbie A (2006) Taking a history. In Walsh M (Ed) Nurse Practitioners: Clinical Skiiis and Professional Issues. Second edition. Butterworth Heinemann, Edinburgh, 14-26,
Department of Health (2001) Good Practice in Consent Implementation Guide: Consent to Examinatian or Treatment The Stationery Office, London,
Department of Health (2007a) Consent www.dh,gov.ui Department of Heaith (2007b) Aicohol and Health. www,dh, ce/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/AIco holMisuse/AlcoholMisuseGeneralInf ormatior/DH_4062199 (Last accessed: November 2 2007)
Dougias G, Nicoi F, Robertson C
( 2 0 0 5 ) Madead's Ciinicoi Examination. Eleventh edition, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh,
Ewing JA (1984) Detecting alcoholism: the CAGE questionnaire, Journai of the American Medical Association. 252,14,1905-1907
Hearne R, Connoliy A, Sheehan J
(2002) Alcohol abuse: prevalence and detection in a general hospital, Journai of the Royai Society of Medicine. 95, 2, 84-87
Henderson V (1966) The Nature of Nursing: A Definition and its Impiications for Practice, Research and Education. Macmillan, New York NY,
HurieyKJ (2005) OSCfonrf Ciinicai Sidiis Handbook. Saunders Elsevier, Ontario,
King IiM (1981)/I Theory for Nursing: Systems, Concepts, Process. John Wiley & Sons, New York NY
Kurtz S, Silverman J, Benson J, Draper J (2003) Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary-Cambridge guides. Academic Medicine. 78, 8, 802-809,
Mehrabian A (1981) Siient Messages: Impiicit Communication of Emotions ond Attitudes. Second edition, Wadsworth, Belmont CA,
Morton PG (1993) Heaith Assessment in Nursing. Second edition, FA Davis, Philadelphia PA,
NHS Confederation (2007) About' Mentai Heaith Trusts, www.nhscon- fed,org/mental-health/mental- health-1759,cfm (Last accessed: November 2 2007)
Nursing and Midwifery Council
(2004) The NMC Cade of Professionai Conduct: Standards for Conduct, Performance and Ethics. NMC, London,
Nursing and Midwifery Councii
(2007a) Mentai Capacity. www,nmc-uk,org/aArticle,a$px? ArticleID=2530 (Last accessed: November 8 2007)
Nursing and Midwifery Councii
(2007b) A-Z Advice Sheet Record Keeping Guidance. NMC, London.
Orem DE (1995) Nursing: Concepts of Practice. Fifth edition, Mosby, St Louis MO,
Oriando IJ (1961) The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship: Function, Process and Principies. GP Putnam's Sons, New York NY
Pepiau HE (1952) Interpersonal Relations in Nursing. GP Putnam's Sons, New York NY
Prignot J (1987) Quantification and chemical markers of tobacco- exposure, European Journal of Respiratory Disease. 7 0 , 1 , 1 - 7
Roe S, Man L (2006) Drug Misuse Dedared: Findings from the 2005/06 British Crime Survey in Engiand and Waies. The Stationery Office, London,
Rogers CR (1951) Ciient Centred
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Therapy: Its Impiications Mifflin, Boston MA,
Current Practice, and Theory. Houghton
Roper N, Logan WW, Tierney AJ
(1990) Tiie Elements of Nursing: A Modei for Nursing Based on a Madei af Living. Second edition, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh,
Shah N (2005) Taking a history: introduction and the presenting complaint. Student BMJ. 13, September, 309-352,
Vose CP (2000) Drug abuse and mental illness: psychiatry's next challenge! In Thompson T, Mathias P (Eds) Lyttie's Mentai Heaith and Disorder. Tliird edition, Bailliere Tindall and Royal College of Nursing, London, 423-434,

The Introduction is the first part of the body of the paper. It should be one paragraph that include:
Author(s) full name,
Article title
Journal name
Date of publication
The Summary is the second part of the body of the paper. It should include:
Focus of the article
Health assessment procedure and rationales discussed
Health assessment tools and/or strategies discussed
Population discussed (e.g., women, children, older adults)
Evaluate the article. Include a full one- to-two page critique that answers all of the following questions:
What was done well and what could have been improved in the article?
Did this article interest you? If so, explain why. If not, explain this reaction.
Was the health assessment strategy beneficial? Could you adopt it in your practice?
Was the health assessment strategy explained clearly?
Should more research articles be written about this area of health assessment?
What population or individuals would benefit the most from information reported in this article?
dentify the main ideas and major support points from the body of your report. Omit mi details. Summarize the benefits of proper assessment for the patient.
Follow APA formatting according to the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Include a Title page and References page. Follow the APA rules for margins, font type, font size, etc. Create an in-text for all information mentioned that appears in another source, even if you summarize the information. The References list should include all sources mentioned in in-text citations. Likewise, your References should only list sources that are cited in the body of the paper.

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