Essay Instructions: Although a long topic, this is a fairly easy research paper to write. The Topic of this research paper is: Analyze Barrak Obama's Presidential election and how it affects racism in America today- using views by the classical sociological theorist Karl Marx and views by Nancy Fraser on Race (including views on class and status and relating that to race as well).
Using the classical sociologist theorist, Karl Marx, use Karl Marx's views on race to illuminate your argument and also use Nancy Fraser, a more modern sociologist's views on Race and injustice particularly from her book, "Justice Interruptus". There is no specific amount of references necessary for this paper. You may cite as many and as little as necessary. The paper should not be all quotes although quotes are okay to add- it's more of an analysis research paper. The If never read "Justice Interruptus" by Nancy Fraser here are some notes below and other than that that's it! Other information about Karl Marx and Nancy Fraser can be found online or in libraries.
From Redistribution to Recognition?
Dilemma’s of Justice in a “Postsocialist Age
The 2 understandings of INJUSTICE:
1. Socioeconomic injustice
a. Exploitation (having the fruits of one’s labor appropriated for the benefit of others)
b. Economic marginalization (being confined to undesirable or porely paid work of being denied access to income generating labor altogether)
c. Deprivation (being denied an adequate material standard of living)
2. Cultural Injustice (Symbolic injustice):
a. Cultural domination (being subjected to patterns of interpretations and communications that are associated with another culture and are alien and/or hostile to one’s own)
b. Nonrecognition (being rendered invisible by means of authoritative representational communicative and interpretative practices of one’s own culture)
c. Disrespect (being routinely maligned or disparaged in stereotypic public cultural representations and/or in everyday life interactions)
The remedy for Social Injustice is “redistribution” (political economic reatructuring; redistributing income; reorganizing the division of labor; subjecting investment to democratic decision making or transforming other basic economic structures; presupposes recognition)
The remedy for Cultural Injustice is “recognition” (cultural of symbolic change; positively valorizing cultural diversity; presupposes redistribution)
When people are subject to both Economic Injustice and Cultural Injustice they need both redistribution and recognition which may be at odds with each other. This Fraser calls the Redistribution-Recognition Dilemma.
While economically exploited classes require redistribution and the culturally rejected [like the despised sexualities of gays and lesbians] require recognition.
Bivalent Collectives (gender; race) suffer both socioeconomic discrimination and cultural discrimination and therefore require both Redistribution and Recognition.
For example, gender is both a political economic differentiation (women are paid less for the same work) but also gender is a cultural valuation differentiation (privilege of masculinity)
The redistribution-recognition dilemma for gender is to put it out of business on the economic front (so there is economic equality between the sexes) yet at the same time give it more value on the cultural front. This appears to be conflicting. Race, like gender with a bivalent need for redistribution to remedy the economic injustice and recognition to remedy the cultural injustice.
Some terms: Eurocentrism: the authorative construction of norms that privilege traits associated with whiteness. Feminist: Fight for gender equality. Antiracist: Fight for racial equality.
a. Redistribution Remedies for economic injustice eliminates differences in social groups.
b. Recognition Remedies for cultural injustices increases the differences between social groups.
Affirmation Remedies: correct injustice without changing underlying framework. (promotes existing group differentiation; liberal welfare state.
Transformation Remedies: correct inequalities by changing (restructuring) the generating framework [destruction of the old]
Economic Injustices-[Redistribution Remedies]
Affirmation Redistribution Remedies: liberal welfare state (increase the consumption of the disadvantaged groups ie. give them money; income transfers; social insurance; public assistance; unemployment compensation. Presupposes recognition, the equal moral worth of all persons, called the “official recognition commitment” (also in transformation redistribution)
Transformation Redistribution Remedies: Socialism; alter distribution of consumption shares; deep restructuring of relations of production; blurs group differentiation; can help some forms of misrecognition; also presupposes the equal moral worth of all persons of ‘the official recognition commitment” (also in affirmation redistribution)
Cultural Injustices-[Recognition Remedies]
Affirmative Recognition Remedies: “mainstream multiculturalism”; revalue unjustly devalued groups; revalue gay and lesbian identity [separate, also needs additional recognition]
Enhances sexual differentiation]
Transformative Recognition Remedies: raise self-esteem of members of disrespected group and change everyone’s sense of self; deconstruct homo-hetero [sustain field of multiple differences; ] Destabilizes group differences
Finessing the Dilemma; Revisiting Gender and Race
See Chart on Page 27
Affirmative Redistribution [liberal welfare state] and Affirmative Recognition [mainstream multiculturalism] These do not work well for gender and race.
Transformative Redistribution [socialism] and Transformative Recognition [politics of deconstruction] These Transformative actions work best for and are superior remedies for economic and cultural injustices for gender and race which and other bivalent collectives for the following reasons:
1. There is a large collective of bivalent groups in addition to gender and race and because the Transformative approach best solves the duality of economic and culture injustices, the critical mass of bivalent groups will combine to use the Transformative approach to remedy their situation.
2. The Transformative solution of a combination of socialism and deconstruction will be attractive because of the increasing groups of intersecting collectives (or groups) such as black/female and gay/working class which suffer injustices even more resistant to resolution, and as their cause intensifies the Transformative remedy will be targeted.
3. Coalition building is the wave of the future and the many combinations of increasingly multiple social antagonist organizations and the “official recognition commitment” (equal moral worth of all persons), which implies justice for all, and the elimination of all injustice, will increase pressure and use of Transformative remedies to solve bivalent economic and cultural injustices.
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Total Pages: 5 Words: 1678 Works Cited: 4 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I would like to request the writer either "hophead", "prowriter" or "arslanj"
Write a comprehensive essay on all three questions. Organize your essay.
1. How is difference socially constructed? Use essay (p.15-20) and film "Crash" to illustrate. How do we reinforce structural inequality? What are the different levels of oppression?
2.How is our identity constructed? How do we learn prejudice, use "The Emporer's New Clothes" essay (p.116-121) and Baby Racist (uploaded files)? What destructive influences does prejudice have? Why do people resort to stereotyping and essentializing?
3. Describe the nature and history of racism in America. How do we enforce racism though the possessive investment in whiteness. What is dysconscious racism? Use the previous sources to answer this questions.
Baby Racist (.pdf files)
Crash movie review and summary:
I will upload all files. Please use only the sources I provided to you. Do NOT use any other sources.
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Essay Instructions: This capstone paper is for the class of Sociology: Race and Ethnicity. The paper should be polished, proofread piece of writing with a well-defined Area of analysis, a clear structure (i.e. introduction, body, and conclusion), and a set of references on a separate page. The length of the paper should be 8-10 pages; that is, no less than eight, no more than ten. A works cited page should be either the latest edition of the MLA or APA, and you should have at least 5 scholarly resources, but other 3 can be not considered as academic. Make sure there is a clear, strong introduction that maps out the problem/issues you are looking at, and be sure to be moving toward having a strong conclusion, perhaps discussion options for further research. Please review your conclusion paragraph carefully. A good conclusion will restate the thesis, while summarizing your main points. The paper should be double-spaced, with one-inch margins and 12 point font and Times New Roman.
The Topic for the paper is Anti-racism in American Society. This topic is approved by my instructor. I also wrote in the outline that I will examine the history of anti-racism to current situation in American Society, what kind of racism movements have occurred, what influence those movements had, and struggles and controversy towards anti-racism. I would like you to include those contents. The thesis statement that I wrote is "Is America ever going to achieve Egalitarian Society?". However, the teacher said this thesis will dissapoint me, which means it is hard for America to achieve Egalitalian Society. Please remember this is a sociology class, so the discussing points or arguments should be from sociology aspects.
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