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Proposal Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Proposal College Essay Examples

Title: Human Resourses

Total Pages: 17 Words: 4716 Bibliography: 10 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Proposal - 15 pages.....Topic of your choice.....must be related to the Human Resources Field.
Power Point - 8 Slides
Essay Questions- 2 for each question.

Research Proposal (15 Pages)
Remember that a research proposal describes a plan of work aimed at learning something new or solving a problem. It must have the following sections:

-Problem Statement
-Related Research/Literature Review
-Research Procedure (Methods)
-Population and Sample
-Research Design
-Instrumentation and Data Collection
-Planned Method of Analysis
-Time Schedule
-Resources Needed
-Needed assurances/clearances
The paper page-length must be at least 15 pages. Use the APA rules for formatting, quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and listing of sources are to be followed. The paper must contain at least five references, and may include Internet sources, books, and professional journals or resources related to the profession.

Essay Questions. Answer min 200 words each APA style, include references. (2 Pages)

1. Critique the research proposal assignment. What concepts did you find easy to understand?

2. Critique the research proposal assignment. What concepts did you find difficult to grasp?

Power Point (8 Slides)
You can assume anything in developing the PowerPoint (person, place, time); however, you must follow the research proposal design. This means that the PowerPoint must discuss essential elements of each section of the proposal, including the budget. It is not sufficient to clip and paste whole sections of the proposal into the PowerPoint, (a funding panel can read your proposal for that). Rather, you must find the key words that succinctly explain your proposed study and why it should be funded.

You are free to design your PowerPoint in any format that you see fit. However, it needs to be professional. Excessive use of clip art is inappropriate in a professional/scientific presentation.

Thank you.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Western Civ

Total Pages: 2 Words: 902 Sources: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Proposal Submission: paper will be on Golda Meir

Professors comments:
Please think how to do Golda Meir not just as a bio but also, in terms of image of women in western civ. She came from the US but then operated in Israel which is not western civ. or is it? This is what you would have to discuss...and also maybe place herin the context of images of Jewish women in western civ...

Think carefully and make sure you have read and understood expectations for the in-depth research project thoroughly. You may also wish to view images of women files to help you generate ideas for the project. Then, write a 1-2 page(s) proposal responding to the following questions. The instructor will approve the proposal, if you have demonstrated sufficient information and thought to take on the project.

* What is your research topic (or questions)?
* Why are you interested in such topic? Do you have prior knowledge about the topic?
* What is contextual information (e.g. time, people, place, culture, etc.) pertinent to your topic?
* How might your research topic help you gain an in-depth and interdisciplinary understanding of some aspect of Western civilization through women’s creative works and lives?
* What is/are method/s of research that you intend to use? Visit a museum or a site to see women's creative work in person? Interview women or relevant people who create or know the work?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Envionmental issue Energy

Total Pages: 7 Words: 2195 References: 5 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: *Proposal for Research Project

In putting together this proposal, construct a question about your research topic that you can explore in detail in a research paper of approximately 2000 words. Envision how you can work with the material you find. This proposal should convince your instructor that you can succeed in researching this topic carefully and writing an informative and persuasive essay based on this research. Submit it as a memo to your instructor. (Draft for peer review due Tuesday, February 16. Revised proposal, February 18.)

*How to construct this piece

In the first segment (of 350-450 words), discuss how you first came to be interested in this topic. What do you know about it? Why do you think it is intriguing or worth researching? (Use “I’ in writing if you are working alone, “we” if you are working with other students.) If you have some background knowledge, this is the place to discuss it in some detail. You can also focus on what you are now learning through your reading.

In the next segment, ask the central question on which you will focus in conducting your research. Exactly what do you hope to examine or learn about? Pose this question (most likely in two or three parts) in an open-ended form, i.e., one that can not be answered with yes or no. For examples of questions, see Easy Writer and the power point on ANGEL titled re-based essay tips.

Below this central, overarching question, pose at least three subsidiary questions that you can use to address this topic in more detail. What are some causes underlying this issue or topic? What particular aspect(s) of it do you intend to investigate? (Include more than three of these questions if it helps you to thinking through what you intend to do.)

In the third segment, cite at least six sources you are likely to be able to use in MLA style (at least four must come from library databases). Below the listing for each, include a brief evaluation of it (in 3-5 sentences). Explain why it is valuable or worthwhile for your purposes. (Consider the ethos of the author or the sponsoring organization, and how you might be able to employ this material to the best effect in your essay, making use of ethos, pathos and logos.)

If you are working with another student, submit one proposal written jointly. List your sources in proportion to the number of researchers, at least twelve sources for two students working together, eighteen sources for three, twenty-four for four.

*Central question must be approved

In order for you to receive credit for this project, your central question must be approved by the instructor. If you decide to change your topic, you must submit a revised proposal.


Begin your proposal in memo form (single-space this heading).

To: Professor Sherby
From: Jill Erickson
Subject: Proposal for research project
Date: February 16, 2010

Double-space the rest of this proposal and the Works Cited entries (in MLA Style).

**when you search materials, please use this homepage.( If you need any information, please contact me.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Use of Abortion as Birth Control Policy Proposal to stop it

Total Pages: 7 Words: 2128 Works Cited: 7 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Proposal arguments occur frequently. You may very well be asked to propose a solution to a social problem in a sociology class, or you might be asked to propose that the solution to a problem of public policy such as public transportation or the way tribal elections occur. The possibilities are endless. This is also a type of argument with which you should already have some familiarity because it is so prominient in ur daily lives. You will find these arguments in the news, in debates, and even in personal discussion. On a very personal level, you make a proposal argument when you decide on a budget, make parenting decisions, make home decorating decisions, and even offer suggestions for change in the workplace.

The kind of topic you choose for this essay should be on a local level because it is possible for a person to write several books about how to change the welfare system or revise immigration policies. I hope you see that these topics are much too broad to fit the scope of the assignment. Instead, you need to choose something that you can thoroughly cover in roughly 6 to 8 typed pages. For example, you could say that OSU should offer more classes via the internet. This is a proposal argument. Your job would be to convince a specific audience that has the power to act that OSU should offer more classes via the Internet. You would need to support the warrant that these classes are valuable. You would need to support the idea that they would be beneficial to sudents. You would also need to acknowledge that in some cases, Internet classes arent a good idea but for the most part, especially for core courses your porposal would work. In these few sentences, I have adressed the claim, one reason, warrant, grounds, backing, conditions of rebuttal and qualifier of a logical argument. Thats all there is to putting this type of essay together.

Proposal claims ask the audience to act in a certain way--to do something based on information you provide and the argument you make, and the claims are often stated as should or should not statements. You can however use a more sophisticated verb construction that will carry more weight than should and should not. For example offering more courses via the internet offers innumerable benefits for students.

The claim of a proposal argument urges an action to occur, usually in response to a problem. The reasons in the argument justify why the action is to be taken. In most cases, getting people to act on your claims means that the argument must have "presence" as well as intellectual force. An argument is said to have presence when the reader or listener senses the immediacy of the speaker/writers words. To achieve your writers presence in your argument you can appeal to your readers emotions through the use of compelling details, examples, and brief scenes that illustrate the seriousness of the problem or the consequences of not acting on your proposal. However, dont underestimate the power of a straight forward concisely written argument. Many people are put off by writer manipulation. Should you choose to use an appeal to emotion, consider limiting it to your introduction & conclusion.

As a proponent of change you face the challenge of the burden of proof. You need to prove that something needs to be fixed or changes, that is can in fact be fixed and that the cost of fixing it will be outweighed by the benefits.

You will need to show that
--the current system isnt working
--even thought it appears as though the current system is working, it itsnt or there is a better way.

You will need to try to predict future consequences as reasonably as possible. Your audience will see this as gross exaggeration. Also do not get so caught up in tugging at your readers heart strings that you forget to adress the deeper issues at hand ie the central claim of the argument.

Developing a proposal argument:

Convince your reader that a problem exists. This can occur in one of 2 places: either in the introduction before the claim is given or in the body of the paper as the first reason why the proposal for change is necessary.

Before you begin, you need to be sure that the problem really is a problem. You will also need to establish your writers presence also known as pathos from the rhetorical triangle. Know what your underlying assumptions are so that you may effectively address them in your essay. If your reader sees the problem as "just the way things are" rather than issues that need to be changed, you will need to be able to challenge the underlying assumptins.

Show the specifics of your proposal. Give your reader the thesis. your primary purpose at this point is to stress the feasibility of your claim, including the cost if necessary. Discussing the step by step implementation will help win the support of your audience.

You need to make sure that your solution is both practical, that it will work, and that there isnt a simpler solution. you need to show how your proposal will solve either part of or all of your problem without causing bigger problems. you will also need to convince your reader that the problem can be solved.

Convince your reader that your proposal should be enacted. The amount of time spent on this party will vary according to argument and proposal. If your readers already agree that the problem is serious then you will only have to show that your proposal is feasible and wont be too much of a financial burden. if your reader doesnt share the assumption that the problem is serious, then you will have to explore in detail your reasons for believing that x should be done.

touch the right pressure points: your proposal argument needs to be addressed to the people with the power to act on your proposal. make your argument tie into the interests of those who have the power to make your proposal happen.

special problems of proposal arguments:

--establish your authority though ethos, pathos and logos. dont neglect any one of these for an imbalance in the 3 can undermine your proposal.
--overcome the cautios of skeptical nature of your audience. youll have to address the attitued of, "if it isnt broken, dont fix it" you can motivate your reader to endorse change if you make it personal for them. make the reader see how the problem will impact his/her world or the worlds of those that he/she cares about.
--predict future consequences. many ideas that seem great at the time often come back to haunt us. the same is true in proposal arguments where you seek to change an existing system of operation. You cant know with any degree of cetainty what will happen in the future but you can look at historical precedent and make an analogous argument, assuming the analogy works for certain consequences or rewards of enacting your proposal. however be very careful. if the odds are too great, your audience will tend to resist change.
--evaluate the consequences. as you learned with the causal analysis essay, nothing happens in a vacuum. one event will in some way impact another and so on. the same is true for proposal arguments. when you propose change, you will be setting in motion a series of events to reach a desired end. there will be caualties along the way and you need to be prepared to address them. sometimes the consequences are a matter of money. sometimes its time and efficiency. sometimes it lives. you should be prepared toevaluate the risks and benefits of your proposal and justify the same to your readers.

organizing a proposal argument:
you may use the following options to help organize your outline and paper:

Section 1: Desscribe the problem

provide a history for the problem & argue that the problem can and must be solved (thesis)

section 2: explain the specifics of the proposal
this will likely be the longest part of the essay

section 3: convince the reader that the proposal should be adopted. youll want to list as many reasons as you can think of why your proposal should be enacted.

section 4: adress the opposition: this section can summarize opposing solutions and discuss why they are/arent valid. refute or concede their points.

section 5: reaffirm that something must be done, and your solution is the smartest, most cost effective and whatever else you can think of to do.

the proposal argument:

write an essay in which you propose a solution to an existing problem. you will need to address your warrants and provide backing for support. for ex if you say that OKC should clean up its public transit system bc the exhaust systems inefficiancy pollutes the air, your warrant is that anything (or any amount) that pollutes our citys air is detrimental. in providing that this is true (with backing) you build more credibility for yourself as a writer. you will also need to prove that the sytem is inefficient (grounds). you should also address your conditions of rebuttal because some people dont think its that big of a problem. in order to do all of this you will need evidence that you will find from the library and other sources. do not rely solely on the internet for sources. for this essay you must follow mla citation format as it is described in your book. you must take great care to do these citations correctly. you will need to submit a works cited page with your essay.

Reminder: Students must pass this unit to pass the course. English 1213 is a researched based course, and the research project is designed to demonstrate to the instructor that student writers understand the process involved in supporting their arguable opinions and supporting ideas with synthesized research material. Students should also demonstrate in this project that they understand the principles of research, correctly incorporating source material, and correctly documenting material borrowed from other sources. Instructors for other courses who assign research projects assume students who have passed English 1213 are able to demonstrate these proficiencies. Therefore, students who cannot pass this unit must drop the course.

Purpose. To employ and expand upon the techniques for writing short essays to create a longer more scholarly paper based on library and other research.

Objectives. After completing this unit, students will be competent in cognitive objectives 1-5. They will also have continued to grow in Abjective Objectives 7-9.

Methods and Materials:

a. Read assigned sections in the research textbook.
b. Analyze student research papers in this text.

c. Complete research activities; for example:
1) Complete note by using paraphrase, summary, quotations, and the precis.
2) Complete various exercises such as bibliography cards and works cited pages.

3) Prepare a full-sentence outline.

4) Prepare a rough draft and revise several times.
5) Prepare and submit the final transcript.
Essay II. At the end of this unit, students will submit a 1,750 to 2,000-word typed research paper. The paper must not be merely a summary of historical or scientific factual data. Rather, it must present and defend the writer's opinions about his/her topic, opinions with which readers could reasonably disagree. In evaluating the paper, instructors will consider not only the quality of the organization, content, and expression, but also the accuracy of the citation and documentation of sources. The organizational structure of the research paper should take the form of a proposal argument where students propose a solution to a problem. Of all the different writing assignments students will face during their academic careers, the proposal argument is among the most common. Therefore, it is important that students learn this organizational strategy.

Approach. During the research process, writers will take all of the steps listed below, but they will not necessarily take them in precisely the order presented in this document. Still, this sequence does provide an orderly approach to the research process and will assure that all major steps are taken.

Select a Topic
Compile a Working Bibliography
Take Notes
Prepare a Preliminary Thesis Sentence
Develop a Sentence Outline
Write the First Draft
Revise, revise, and revise again
Prepare a List of Works Cited
Prepare the Final Draft
Edit the Final Copy

a. Select a Topic:
1) Instructors must approve topics.
2) Almost any topic is appropriate if it lends itself to the purpose and intent of the project and is realistic in terms of the time and length limits. However, students must select topics that allow them to express their own reasonable opinions which they can support with other sources.

3) Begin with generalized reading on a broad topic, perhaps in an encyclopedia. Check the subtopics listed therein. Card and computerized catalogs will also reveal subtopic areas under broader topics. Also, newspaper or magazine articles may suggest narrower topics to pursue.

b.Compile a Working Bibliography:
1) Early in the research process, begin to develop a working bibliography, a list of sources to investigate for information about the topic. For each new source, record the bibliographical data in ink on individual 3x5 index cards. Though the bibliography cards themselves will not be graded, students still must prepare and submit them for their instructor to review. Students who choose not to use index cards should submit a working bibliography in list format for instructor review.

2) Collect as many sources as possible, but in the finished paper use a minimum of six (6) to support the thesis. Sources must include at least one of each of the 3 different categories: books (which include the Bible, dictionaries, and encyclopedias), periodicals (which include magazines and newspapers), and other sources (which include personal interviews, videos, and recordings).

c. Take Notes:
1) Take notes on the reading using 4x6 index cards. Use a separate card for each notation.
2) Create tentative headings for each note card to help group materials that belong together in the paper.

3) Check the reliability of each source. Determine if the writer is a respected authority and if the information is up-to-date.

4) Document each note carefully to help avoid plagiarizing when the information is transcribed into the paper and to help prepare an accurate works cited page.

5) Prepare as many cards as are needed from all sources collectively. Like the bibliography cards, the note cards will not be graded, but students must prepare and submit them for their instructor to review.

Note: Students who do not use note cards should be prepared to submit their notes, either in written or typed form, and their research material at the instructor’s request.
d. Create a Preliminary Thesis Sentence. After accumulating a substantial number of promising sources and taking sufficient notes, scan the material to limit the subject to a specific focus, and then develop a preliminary thesis sentence. Remember that the thesis sentence must express your opinion about your topic, an opinion with which your readers could reasonably disagree. Framing an opinion early in a preliminary thesis helps the writer better focus his/her research efforts to find supporting evidence which proves the validity of the opinion. Remember, a preliminary thesis is temporary; it should be modified, refined, improved as the research progresses.
e. Develop a Sentence Outline. The outline submitted with the research paper must use sentences. However, in its early forms the outline will most likely be "scratch," i.e., it will use single words, phrases, and clauses which reflect the writer's dynamic creative endeavors. As the paper develops, the outline will gradually mature from its "scratch" format into its final "full sentence" form. In its final form, the outline must incorporate all main and significant supporting ideas. Follow the "Outline Format" and use the "Checklist for Success" in this text to confirm the completeness, quality, and propriety of the sentences. Include a minimum of three major sections (those with Roman numerals).
f. Write the First Draft:
1) When the outline is as complete as possible and there are several note cards for every major section of the paper, begin to write the first draft.
2) Using insights gained during the research process and outline preparation, begin to revise the thesis sentence toward its final form. Remember that it gives the central focus of the entire paper.

3) Arrange notes under appropriate sections of the outline. Apply the composition principles and organizational approaches used to develop a shorter essay. Write in your own style, in your own words. Once the actual writing has started, stick with it to the end, working at a comfortable speed and allowing few interruptions. Concentrate on presenting information clearly and accurately, but do not at this time worry about grammatical niceties or spelling. To keep your mind on track, write with the outline always in front of you; still, if appropriate, expand spontaneously on the outlined ideas.

4) Incorporate note card information as quotations, paraphrases, or summaries. This evidence will help present a convincing defense of the thesis opinion. Use this evidence as the foundation for your own comments. Incorporate borrowed ideas correctly: enclose all quoted material within quotation marks; identify/introduce the beginning of a paraphrase or summary to indicate clearly where your ideas end and those of your source begin. After each quotation, paraphrase and summary, be sure to include a parenthetical reference in the MLA format to tie the borrowed material to its source listed on the works cited page. If quotations, paraphrases, and summaries are not properly documented with parenthetical references to a works cited page or if the parenthetical references are not in the MLA format or the student makes no attempt to correctly use MLA documentation style, the paper will receive an "F." This is non-negotiable.

g. Prepare the List of Works Cited. Follow the MLA format to prepare a works cited page listing all sources referenced parenthetically within the paper. (You may also prepare a works consulted page to list sources you researched but did not cite in the paper.) If a works cited page is not included, or if the works cited page is not in MLA format, the paper will receive an "F."
Students should also use for help in citing electronic sources that their book doesn't cover. Students might also find the Order of Appearance page helpful for determining where extra information might go. For example, if your book doesn't tell you where to place the edition of the book you want to cite, you can go to the Order page and see where in the citation for books to place the information.

h. Write the Final Draft:
1) Check the rough draft for content. Does it say what you wanted to say? Are there gaps in the flow of thought that need filling? Do all details relate logically to the larger idea they help to develop? Make whatever changes are needed.
2) In the rough draft, look for and correct errors in grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. If uncertain about spelling, look up the word. Also, between the lines or in the margins, rewrite weak, awkward, or grammatically incorrect sentences. Use the Revision Tips Guide for suggestions for changes.

3) Type the final copy; type the sentence outline.

things that must be covered in essay
1. the problem to be addressed
2. describe the history of the problem, longevity of the problem, severity of the problem and anything else you can think of that would help the reader become sympathetic to your cause
3. for whom is the problem a problem? how will these people suffer if the problem is not solved (details)
4.who has the power to solve the problem
5. why hasnt the problem been solved up to this point?
6. how can the problem be solved?
7. what are the possible benefits of acting on your proposal? help your reader visualize the possibilities. you want to make the reader feel it is in his/her interest or in the interest of others to act.
8. what costs are associated with your proposal?
9. who will bear these costs?
10. why should this proposal be implemented. why is it better than alternative proposals?

problem: minors are using abortion as a form of birth control. they arent mature enough to make these types of deicisions and they have no guidance of adults since they have the right to privacy.

proposal: there needs to be a new system implemented, perhaps mandatory counseling, or notification of parents or an allowance on number of abortions a yr etc. you can elaborate on this as i came up with it frm no research and 5 minutes.

**please include copies of sources and a works cited page**

Excerpt From Essay:

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